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Keramic Studio 




Volume Nine 



(All Ttjghts %eserved) 



MAY 1907 

Charcoal Studies (landscapes and fig- 
ures) Marshal Fry, Jr 

JUNE 1907 

Roses A. F. Dalrymple 

Dorothy Perkins Roses Ida M. Ferris 

Wild Roses and June Roses Maud E. Hulbert 

Rose Hips do 

Peonies (photograph) Helen Pattee 

JULY 1907 

Country Road Sketch Marie Crilley Wilson.. 

Huckleberry and Chestnut Sketches do 

AUGUST 1907 

Thistle (photograph) Helen Pattee 

Sweet Peas Maud E. Hulbert 

Dolichos Austin Rosser 

Oxalis Ida M. Ferris 

Trumpet Flower Mariam L. Candler 


..3, 11, 15, 17 


Wax Berries Jeanne M. Stewart... 

Crab Apple Blossoms '. Teana McLennan Hinman.. 






Pale Pink Rose 



Wild Roses 

American Beauty Roses... 


Pond Lily 


Yellow Roses 



Red Roses 

Snow Ball 


Pink Roses 


Small Roses 

Fleur de Lis.-. 


.... 100 


.... 103 
.... 104 


.... 106 

.... 107 


.... 110 

.... 112 

.... 115 
... [116 
.... ' 117 


Locust Flower (photograph) Helen Pattee 125 

Figures from paintings by Alma Tadema 127 

Iris and Seed Pods Fred A. Rhead * 129 

Eupatorium Ageratoides Edith Alma Ross 136-137 

Wild Hawthorn Berries (sketches) do 137 

Katydid (sketches) Hannah Overbeck 139 

Passion Flower Plate and Sketches Alice B. Sharrard 139 

Barberry Henrietta Barclay Paist 141 

Plate, Cherries do 

Goldenrod and Dragon Fly do 

Water Pitcher, Sea Gulls do 

Butterfilies do 

Plate, Bittersweet do 

Stein, Corn Flowers do 

Vase, Single Daffodils do 

Plate, Scotch Heather do 

Vase, Marine do 

Vase, Hops do 

Plate, Shells and Sea Weed do 

Jar, Woodbine and Landscape do 

Chop Plate, Sweet Corn do 

November Birthday Cup and Saucer 

Chrysanthemums do 

Vase, Grapes do 

Nut Plate, Acorns do 

Water Pitcher, Roses do 

Chocolate Pot, Larch Cones do 

Plate, Crab Apples do 

Vase, Milkweed do 

Vase, Pond Lilies do 

Plate, Wild Roses do 


Rose Study and Lettering Maud.E. Hulbert... 

Primroses do 

Lady's Slipper (also photograph by H. 

Pattee) do 

Facts from Wild Rose C. H. Shattuck 

Pears Mary Burnett 


. 153 

. 155 


.... 163 
... 164 
.... 165 
.... 166 
.... 167 
.... 168 

.... 200 
.... 205 

.... 208 
.... 217 



Study of Snow Fred. A. Rhead 

Crab Apples Amy F. Dalrymple 

Dandelion (photograph) Helen Pattee 

MARCH 1908 

Wild Pink and Wild Grape, blue prints. .Mary J. Coulter 249 

Grapes Henrietta Barclay Paist 251 

Ten Weeks Stock Ida M. Ferris 257 

Hawthorn and Rose Haws, (sketches). Edith Alma Ross 260 

Wild Roses Blanche Van Court Schneider 262 

Small Violets Anne Seymour Mundy 264 

APRIL 1908 

Sagittaria (Arrowhead) photograph Helen Pattee 277 

Thorn Apple Maud E. Hulbert 285 

Tulip Nancy Beyer 2SG 

Wild Rose Sketches Sara Wood Safford 288 289 

Cowslips Maud E. Hulbert 291 


MAY 1907 

Bowl Designs Marshal Fry's Bridgeport Class.. 

Luncheon Service do 

Plate Borders do 

Indian Motifs for Bowls, Plates, etc do 

Cup and Saucer (M. E. Beach) fdo 

Bowls [do 

Cactus Vase Marshal Fry, Jr 

JUNE 1907 



Roses, decorative panel Russell Goodwin 

Roses Margaret and Hannah Overbeck 

and Phil Wight 28-29 

Bowls, Rose Motif Hannah and Mary Overbeck.. 31 

Plate, Rose Motif Alice B. Sharrard 35 

Plate, Wild Rose Motif Elizabeth De Long 36 

Vase, La France Rose Motif.. Hannah Overbeck 42 

JULY 1907 
Crab Design for Fish or Oyster Plate.. .Marie Crilley Wilson 

Bird Design for Game Plate do 

Borders, Feather and Pine Cone do 

Wild Strawberry Blossoms for Tea Pot 

Stand and Bowl do 

Conventional Landscapes do 

Violet designs for Plate, Creamer and 

Sugar do 

Cup and Saucer, Rose Motif do 

Bowls, Wild Azalea, Trumpet Flower 

and Black Eye Susan do 

Tile, Caravel Design do 

Sunflower Panel do 

Wistaria Panel do 

Plate for Lustre and Gold do 

Pond Lily for Tea Pot and Bonbon Box do 

Jar, Bee Motif ,and Hot Water Pot, 

Grape Motif do 

Jar, Butterfly Motif do 








AUGUvST 1907 

Mallow Adelaide Alsop-Robineau... 

Sweet Peas, Plate and Border Emma A. Ervin 

Tile, Strawberry Motif Nancy Beyer 

Conventional Design for Vase Oreon P. Wilson 

Sweet Pea Border for Stein Albert Pons 

Buttercup Panel Adelaide Alsop-Robineau ... 


.. 79-83 

Vases in Underglaze Painting Fred. A. Rhead 

Tea Pattern for Cup and Saucer do 

Japanese Orange, Decorative Study Edith Alma Ross... 

Violet Bowl C. H. Shattuck 

Tiles in monochrome Ruth E. Kentner... 

. 202 
. 203 
. 209 
. 212 



Design for Vase Fred A. Rhead 130 

Plate, Rose Leaf Motif Mary Overbeck 131 

Studies of Insects, used decoratively Reproduced from Art et Decora- 
tion 132-133 

Seed Heads in November, Panel Hannah Overbeck 135 

Designs, Passion Flower Motif Alice B. Sharrard 139 

Highbush Cranberry Plate Jessie I. Williams 140 

Borders, Acorn and Swans, and Trees,. Hannah Overbeck and A. Soder- 

berg 140 


Panel, Anemone Motif and Sketches Adelaide A. Robineau 173-174 

Panels, Wistaria Clusters and Seed 

Pods do 175 

Suggestions for Designs, Anemone and 

Wistaria do 176 

Fans, Wistaria, Wild Carrot and Sun- 


Purple Clematis do 

Panels, Phlox do 

Suggestions for Designs, Phlox Motif... do 

Bowl, Freezia Motif do 

Panels and Suggestions, Freezia and 

Foam Flower do 

Panel and Border, Daisy do 

Decorative Study of Moths do 

All over Conventional Patterns do 


Plaque, Peacock Motif Albert Pons... 

.. 177 
.. 181 
.. 184 
.. 185 



.... 191 

.... 192 

Steins, Pears and Landscape Katherine W. Lindsey 213 

Plate Georgia Parr Babbitt 214 

Turtle Designs for Terrapin Set S. Evannah Price 215 

Plate and Bowl Charles Babcock 216 

Cider Pitcher Ophelia Foley 217 


Vase, Snow Motif Fred. A. Rhead 225 

Valentine Plate Nellie V. Hamilton 228 

Copy of Persian Vase Dorothea Warren 233 

Dandelion Designs for Vase, Bowl, etc... Henrietta Barclay Paist 234-237 

Teasle Design for Stein Albert Pons 238 

Chrysanthemum Design for Vase Georgia Parr Babbitt 238 

MARCH 1908 

Bowls Lucia Jordan and Nancy Beyer.. 252 

Plate Mabel C. Dibble 253 

Cup and Saucer Ida C. Failing 256 

Plate, Border and Bowl, Fly Motif Rosedale 258 

Tree Design for Plate or Tray L. B. Cheney 259 

Vase or Stein Design Oreon P. Wilson 261 

Bowl, Abstract Design B. H. P 263 

Salad Bowl and Plate, Rose Motif Ophelia Foley 264-265 

Wild Carrot Border for Bowl Alice Witte Sloan 265 

Plate, Shooting Star Motif Elizabeth De Long 271 

APRIL 1908 

Tulip Plaque B. H. P 279 

Cherry Bowl Alice B. Sharrard 280 

Sagittaria designs for Plate and Stein.. Henrietta Barclay Paist 280-281 

Plate Charles Babcock 284 

Bowl Design L. B. Cheney 287 

Calla Lily for Vase Ophelia Foley 289 

Berry Plate Dorothea Warren 290 


JUNE 1907 Design for the Decoration of China (1st 
Exhibition of the New York Society of Keramic Arts 37-42 paper) Caroline Hofman 210-212 

JULY 1907 ' FEBRUARY 1908 

Class Room (Flower Painting) 52-55 Underglaze Decoration (3d paper) Fred. A. Rhead 222-224 

The Mission of the Crafts Prof. Chas. F. Binns 64-66 Design for the Decoration of China (2d 

paper) Caroline Hofman 226-227 

AUGUST 1907 

Class Room (Flower Painting) 76-80 

Exhibition of the Chicago Ceramic Art Association 88-89 


Class Room (Figure Painting) 124-128 

Underglaze Decoration (1st paper) Fred. A. Rhead 128-131 

Azorean Pottery Agnes Austin Aubin 134 


Porcelains Adelaide Alsop-Robineau 178-180 


The Ceramic Crafts at the Exhibition of the National Society of Crafts- 
men ...230-232 

MARCH 1908 

Metallic Deposits on Glazes (1st paper). Louis Franchet 248-252 

Design for the Decoration of China (3d 

paper) Caroline Hofman 254—255 

. APRIL 1908 

Metallic Deposits on Glazes (2d paper) Louis Franchet 274-278 

Design for the decoration of China (4th 

paper) ...Caroline Hofman 282-284 

Underglaze Decoration (2d paper) Fred. A. Rhead 202-206 Happy Study Hours The Happy Worker 288-28 



MAY 1907 

Textiles, wood block prints Marshal Fry's Bridgeport Class.. 18-19 

The Batik (1st paper) Theo. Neuhuys 20-24 

Garden Pottery From Liberty & Co., London 22-23 

JUNE 1907 

The Batik (2d paper) Theo. Neuhuys 43-45 

Art in Pewter (5th paper) Jules Brateau 45-48 

JULY 1907 

Distinctive Work in Darning Mabel Tuke Priestman 71-73 

AUGUST 1907 

Art in Pewter (6th paper) Jules Brateau 92-94 

Practical Bookbinding (1st paper) Mertice MacCrea Buck 95-96 


Practical Bookbinding (2d paper) Mertice MacCrea Buck 119-122 


Practical Bookbinding (3d paper) Mertice MacCrea Buck 142-144 

The Crafts Exhibition of the New York Y. W. C. A 145-146 

Indian Basketry Mertice MacCrea Buck 169-171 


CRAFTS— Continued 


Old Finger Rings Emily F. Peacock 193-194 

Art in Pewter (7th paper) Jules Brateau 194-197 

Metal Work by Students of Pratt Institute 198_ 

Metal Work with the most Rudimen- 
tary Tools F. C. Featherstone 218-220 

The Needlework Decorations of Home- 
spuns Sarah Francis Dorrance 239-241 

The Crafts at the New York Exhibition of the National Society of 

Craftsmen .' 241 

MARCH 1908 

Modern Basketry (Waste Paper Bas- 
kets) Madge E. Weinland 266-268 

Art in Pewter (8th paper), Jules Brateau 268-270 

APRIL 1908 

The Making of a Metal Box (1st paper) .Edmund B. Rolfe 292-29b 

Art in Pewter (9th paper) Jules Brateau 293-296 


Cactus Vase Marshal Fry, Jr May 1907 

Apple Blossoms F. B. Aulich June 1907 

Violets Marie Crilley Wilson July 1907 

Fleur de Lis Rhoda Holmes Nicholls.. August 1907 

Sweet Peas Teana McLennan Hinman Sept. 1907 

Asters Teana McLennan Hinman. ...Oct. 1907 

Purple and Green Grapes Jeanne M. Stewart. ...November 1907 

Anemone Adelaide A. Robineau December 1907 

Cosmos Ida M. Ferris January 1908 

Mirror, arabesque design Helen S. P. Williams.. ..February 1908 

Arbutus Maud E. Hulbert March, 1908 

Calla Lily Ophelia Foley April 1908 


The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted 'without special permission. 





Studio and Exhibition Notes 


Willow and Canton Plates 


Italian Picture Plates 


Charcoal Landscape 

Marshal Fry 


Designs for bowls 

Marshal Fry's Bridgeport 



Iyuncheon Service 

Marshal Fry's Bridgeport 



The Art League of Bridgeport 

Martha B. Beach 


Table ware 

Marshal Fry 


Use of terms 


Plate Borders 

8 and 9 

Pvhodian Ware 


Charcoal Study 


Treatment for Tableware 


Arrangement of Indian Motifs for Adaptation to Bowls, 

Plates, etc. 



Gup and Saucer 

Martha E. Beach 


From Bowl Designs in full color 


Charcoal Study- 

Marshal Fry 


Cactus Vase (Supplement) 

Marshal Fry 


Charcoal Study 



Textiles printed from wood blocks 

Marshal Fry's Bridgeport 


18-19 and 24 

Small Plate or Bowl 

Mrs. A. A. Libby 


The Crafts— 

The Batik 

Theo. Neuhuys 


Garden Pottery 


Answers to Correspondents 

*♦♦*♦♦♦♦♦♦*»♦*♦♦*♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦* ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


Roman Gold 



Gold for China Painting 

♦ Other Golds have come and gone, but Marsch- ♦ 

ing's Gold still holds its place as the 

best Gold on the market. 


If you want your Gold work to last, use Marsch- 
ing's. Have no other. 




1 Ok \j\J% 108 Lake Street. 

I artist's materials of every description 


Superior Working Gold 



Sample Sent Postpaid on Receipt of 25 cents 
Ask Your Dealer for It — Take No Other 

Ceramic Gold Co. 

Box 129, Station W, Brooklyn, N. V. 

Vol. IX, No. \ 


May, 1907 

HE present issue marks the eighth 
anniversary of Keramic Studio. 
Eight years of endea\ r or to elevate 
the character of china decoration 
throughout the United States; 
eight years of struggle against 
pride and prejudice; eight years 
of gradual approach to the desired 
result. And if at times we have 
not always been able to stick rig- 
idly to our colors, it has not been 
from backsliding, nor from lack of realization of the 
true and the best, but from a fear of retarding our 
progress and that of ceramic decoration by a forcing 
of strong meat upon babes, with a consequently severe 
attack of indigestion. Complaints there have been, here 
and there, of too much favoritism of the conventional 
as opposed to the naturalistic with various more or less 
clever criticisms of occasional designs. However, it has 
been but too evident that the severest criticism came from 
the most ignorant, caustic remarks and very bad spelling 
and grammar usually going hand in hand. The more intelli- 
gent realize that it is "only once in a blue moon" that a 
really perfect design is evolved, the rest we must take for 
the good that is in them and if in reproducing these de- 
signs on porcelain we can improve upon them and elimi- 
nate the poorer parts, well and good. The desired re- 
sult has been obtained, the decorator's mind has been 
stimulated to a little thought. Who knows where that 
may lead ? 

When first the Keramic Studio entered the field, 
the question would come "What shape shall I buy for 
such and such a use, what color shall I use to decorate it, 
what design? How shall I put it on?" And if a design 
were not given the exact size and fitted to the exact shape 
desired and the wished for color scheme not suggested, 
the enquirer was helpless. Now we rarely have such en- 
quiries, there is hardly a decorator but is able to decide 
these points for herself and not only enlarge or make smal- 
ler a design to suit the shape selected, but even to take a 
design drawn for plate and fit it to a pitcher, or to adapt a 
vase design to a bowl, and what is more to the purpose, 
not a few have found, by thus being forced to think out 
these points, that they have in themselves a latent ability 
to design. A few carping critics have thought it wise to 
ridicule many designs appearing from time to time in Ker- 
amic Studio, under the general characterization of "childish" 
"Noah's Ark" "Amateurish." We are sure that some day 
the lesson will sink deep into their soul and they will real- 
ize that the publishing of those same simple attempts at 
design has produced a threefold benefit; first, to the de- 
signer who is stimulated to follow up the road he has en- 
tered; second, to the decorator whose mind is aroused to 
the thought "I can do as well as that" and to the attempt 
to realize the thought; and, "thirdly and lastly, " as the old 
sermonists had it, and "bestly" we would add, whether 
stimulated to design or not, the several thousands of cera- 
mic decorators who turn over the pages of Keramic Studio, 
consciously or unconsciously imbibe the underlying truths 
in these designs. And so the standard of taste is raised; 

the average work is better, the workers and their public 
are better satisfied with each other and the good work 
goes on. 

The present issue of the work of Marshal Fry and 
members of his Bridgeport class well illustrates the point 
we have made. It may be that this class has an average 
intelligence higher than ordinary, but we doubt not that 
many such classes could be formed all over the United 
States which, starting under the right direction, on the 
common ground of a desire to know and do the best in them, 
could in a comparatively short time develop astonishing 
indivuality and taste with accompanying ability to express 
their aroused ideas and latent talent. 

The American mind is appreciative and quick to grasp 
an idea when properly presented, and once started on the 
path of search does not need Diogene's lantern to cast light 
upon the truth, but develops quickly a selective quality, 
casts aside the unnecessary and untrue and in time will 
evolve a pure and American school of design and decoration. 


Owing to the delay in Mr. Fry's return from Europe, 
his New York studio will remain closed. Upon Mr. Fry's 
arrival he will go directly to Southampton, Long Island, 
for the summer. He will instruct a class at Southampton 
during six weeks, July 2nd to August 13th. His plans for 
the autumn and winter, not having been formulated, will 
be made known later. 

Mr. F. B. Aulich sailed for Europe on the nth of 
April for rest and recreation. Will return in July for the 

summer classes. 

Mr. C. F. Hamann, instructor at Pratt Institute, 
Brooklyn, and Miss Emily F. Peacock will have a special 
five weeks course in the making of jewelry and carving in 
shell and horn at Miss Peacock's studio, 232 E. 27th St. 
New York City, commencing July 1st, providing that a 
sufficient number of applications are sent in before June 
15th. Classes will be held five mornings of each week from 
8 130 till 12 :3c Terms on application. 


The Exhibition of the New York Society of Keramic 
Arts was opened at the galleries of the National Arts Club, 
Gramercy Park, New York, Thursday evening, April 4th. 
A detailed and illustrated account will be given in the June 
issue of Keramic Studio. 


The next subject for the Class Room will be "Flower 
Painting," under which heading will be included the sub- 
divisions: Roses, white, pink, and crimson; Violets; Daffo- 
dils; Nasturtiums; Geraniums; Pansies; Forget-me-nots. 
Other flowers, white, pink, crimson, violet, purple, blue, 
yellow, orange and red. Miniature flowers. See particu- 
lars on editorial page of April issue. 

Extra prize, $10.00; First prize, $5.00; Second prize, 
$4.00; Third prize, $3.00; Fourth prize, $2.00; Fifth prize, 
$1.00; Extracts only, 50 cents 



THE comparison between the standards of ta-day and 
those which prevailed in our ceramic world even five 
years ago, is gratifying to those interested in the growth 
and evolution of ceramic art in this country. Heretofore 
china decoration was usually undertaken with little or no 
previous training in art, and being thus without a foun- 
dation which would develop creative and original work, 
most ceramics were dependent upon copying and imitat- 
ing the work of the well known teachers. We knew noth- 
ing of the principles which govern all art, and a great 
gulf separated us from other craftsmen and the influence 
and inspiration which we might have derived from them. 
We were satisfied to continue thus year after year, and 
that which should have been a recognized handicraft be- 
came merely a commercial enterprise. It is not surprising 
that we were completely ignored by the art world. 

A few began to study design sincerely and to apply 
its principles to their ceramic work, in spite of a storm of 
disapproval. It required moral courage to stand by one's 
convictions during the first year or two, but everything 

tended to favor the new movement. The revival of interest 
in "Arts and Crafts" has done much for us, and art jour- 
nals have educated and encouraged, the Keramic Studio 
having always been one of the chief champions of 

At the present time only work which conforms to the 
principles of good craftsmanship is admitted at the ex- 
hibitions of Arts and Crafts Societies, or other exhibitions 
of standing. This fact has spoken volumes in behalf of 
better things. 

The public really wants the best, but does not always 
know what is best, and it is our mission to help them to 
know; and we can only do this by serious study of the 
principles of true handicraft, and so develop our own 
appreciation and understanding, and thus be able to lead 
the way. 

Marshal Fry. 

An article on "Picture Plates" by Mr. Fry was to accompany the illus- 
trations on this page, but through a misunderstanding, it was not sent in 
time to be published in this number 





Designs reading from top to bottom are, ist and 2nd, Louise Hanford; 3d and 4th, Harriet Allis, Bridgeport Class. 


THE color schemes and notes found on another page, 
under heading "Treatment for Tableware," may be 
used in these bowl designs. 

The shape of bowl to be decorated often determines 
whether the border shall be applied outside or inside. 
Often it is desirable to have pattern both within and with- 
out, in which case one should be subordinate to the other, 

a very narrow or simple pattern, or else merely a plain 

Ordinarily it is better to have inside of bowl lighter 
than the outside, either white or very delicately toned. 
For instance if the scheme were to be a grey one, the pat- 
tern outside could be grey on a light grey ground, while 
the narrow border inside could be in pale grey on white 
ground. Marshal Fry 



AS the success of design, color and treatment in table- 
ware can only be determined by the latter being seen in 
its environment of white linen and silver, the service pro- 
duced by members of the Class was thus shown. 

It being impracticable to have a number of tables, 
each set with the service of a single course, the plan was 
adopted of having each cover represent a different course. 
The pieces at the left end (intended for serving grape fruit) 
are first in order, broth bowl next, etc. 



Service plate, Miss Beach 

Grape fruit, compotier and plate, Mrs. Holzer 


Service plate, Mrs. Libby 

Broth bowl and plate, Miss Allis 

Bread and butter plate, Mrs. Noble 

Salt dip, Mrs. Sailer 


Service plate, Mrs. Stoddard 

Ramekin and plate, Miss Beach 

Individual almond dish designed by Miss McCord 

and executed by Mrs. Sailer 


Chop plate, Miss Beach 

Bread and butter plate, Mrs. Toquet 

Individual almond dish designed by Mrs. Holzer 

and executed by Mrs. Sailer 


Plate, game platter, bread and butter plate, Miss Jackson 


Plate, Mrs. Davis 

Set for salad dressing, Mrs. Doremus 

Cheese plate, Miss Hurd 


Plate, Mrs. Stoddard 

Individual almond dish designed by Miss McCord 

and executed by Mrs. Sailer 


Plate, design by Mrs. Billings 

and executed by Mrs. Nickerson 

After dinner coffee cup and saucer, Mrs. Davis 


Compotier designed by 

and executed by 
Compotier designed by 

and executed by 
white and gold 
green and gold, 
gold and white, 
green and white, 
designed by Mrs. 

i pair candlesticks, 
i candlestick, 
Bonbon dish, 
Bonbon dish, 
Olive dish, 

and executed by 

Miss Hurd 
Mrs. Sailer 

Mrs. Billings 
Miss Dorus 
Miss Hurd 

Mrs. Billings 

Miss Allis 

Mrs. Davis 

W. B. Cogswell 

Miss Beach 

MR. Frank Brangwyn's recent illustrations in color 
for the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, recall the 
familiar lines: 

"I think the Vessel, that with fugitive 

Articulations answered, once did live, 

And merry-make; and the cold Lip I kissed 

How many kisses might it take — and give ; 

For in the Market-place, one Dusk of Day, 

I watched the Potter thumping his wet Clay; 

And with its all obliterated Tongue 

It murmur'd — "Gently, Brother, gently, pray"! 

Listen again. One evening at the Close 

Of Ramazan, ere the better Moon arose, 

In that old Potter's Shop I stood alone 

With the Clay Population round in Rows. 

And, strange to tell, among that Earthen Lot, 

Some could articulate, while others not : 

And suddenly one more impatient cried — 

"Who is the Potter, pray, and who the Pot?" 

Then said another — "Surely not in vain 

My substance from the Common Earth was ta'en, 

That He who subtly wrought me into shape 

Should stamp me back to Common Earth again." 

Another said — "Why, ne'er a peevish Boy 

Would break the Bowl from which he drank in Joy; 

Shall he that made the Vessel in pure Love 

And Fancy, in an after Rage destroy?" 






Martha E. Beach. 

MORE than three years ago the Art League of Bridge- 
port, Conn., became imbued with the determination 
to do all in its power to raise Ceramics to the level of the 
other crafts, to apply to china only designs that had been 
carefully thought out according to the principles under- 
lying all art. In order to be well guided in the right di- 
rection, a class was formed in connection with the League, 
under the instruction of Marshal Fry of New York, who 
seeing the possibilities of interesting work with serious 
students entered heartily into the task of training mind 
and hand to create instead of to imitate. The old ways 
were abandoned and the new Art-educational System, 
constructed by Prof. Fenollosa and adapted to practical 
use by Mr. Arthur Dow, was adhered to. Individuals 
and classes all over the country have taken up with enthus- 
iasm the so-called "New Method," but the Bridgeport 
Art League is perhaps the only Club that has persistently 
worked towards the high standards of composition and 
craftsmanship that are now being maintained by the var- 
ious exhibitions that have for their object the elevation 
of Art. That the League has progressed is proven by its 
having been well represented at an Exhibition of the Nation- 
al Arts Club in New York in the Spring of 1905, and also 
at the Arts and Crafts Exhibition of the National Society 
of Craftsmen held in December, 1906. In its own Spring 
Exhibition held each year the aim is more and more for 
quality rather than quantity, the committee believing 
that a small exhibit of comparative excellence is better 
than a larger one of ordinary character. One feature of 
the exhibition of 1906 was a luncheon table set with nine 
covers, each cover representing one course, and including 
all the necessary dishes. This was the work of fourteen 
members, working individually with no restriction other 
than the general color scheme, gold, green and white, and 
yet the effect was so pleasing in its simplicity, restraint 
and quiet elegance that much admiration was elicited from 
the visitors. Another feature that attracted much atten- 
tion was the printing of textiles from wood-blocks, the 

same principles applying to the designs as in the ceramic 
work. These units of motifs were printed on linen, silk 
and even crepe de chine for table spreads, pillow covers and 
for scarfs and dress trimmings. Even the dyeing of the tex- 
tiles had been undertaken to get tints desired and which 
could not be found in stores. 

It is hoped in time other crafts will be taken up and 
courses of lectures will be arranged that will tend to broad- 
en still further the scope of work and develop the feeling 
already existing in a degree, of the supremacy of the hand 
over the machine in crafts making a claim to artistic work. 

IN doing creative work, or in teaching, it is necessary to 
have at one's disposal reproductions of fine things which 
will suggest and stimulate. It is particularly difficult to find 
examples of fine color, as it is seldom possible to own rare 
prints and textiles, and many of us are not within reach of 
the museums. 

Mr. Dow, realizing this need on the part of designers 
and teachers, conceived the idea of producing a series of 
small color prints which might be fine examples of color 
and texture, and yet be inexpensive and so be within the 
reach of all who should need them. Two sets or series of six 
prints each, were issued, the first one being no longer avail- 
able as a complete series. As an extra number was issued of 
two prints of this set, "March Island" and "Lily," they are 
to be had as separate prints, as is also "The Willows," a 
twilight scene, which was published as a single print. These 
prints have proved of great value to me in my teaching, and 
in my creative work. 

Kotayashi, lately of Boston, Mass., the Japanese pub- 
lisher, has recently brought out some small color prints 
which are also of interest and use to designers and teachers. 
Many of them are reproductions from fine and well known 
works by Japanese masters, Hokusai, Hiroshigi and others. 
They are very inexpensive. There are also many little Jap- 
anese books which are suggestive to the ceramic worker, 
books with drawings of flowers, fruits and birds. 

Marshal Fry 





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.■-5h-_ ■•■. §£&9| 









CRAFTSMEN and educators tell us that art only ful- 
fills its mission when it is related to life itself. If 
this is so, the production of tableware is legitimate and 
justified. It is a need of our daily lives. 

As much perhaps may not be said of all our work in 
overglaze ceramics. Many of the vases and jars we pro- 
duce might better be of pottery instead of porcelain, with 
overglaze decoration. The latter are rarely suited to any 
use, although their existence is, of course, often justified 
by their beauty, and they are enjoyed as arrangements of 
line,?mass and color, rather than as articles of service. 

History of handicraft proves that the best things are 
those in which the material, form and ornamentation are 
suited to some special use. Thus, I believe that to study 
out the requirements for satisfactory tableware, and to 
produce something which fulfills them, is perhaps the high- 
est mission of overglaze ceramics. 

In actual sendee, tableware is seen upon white linen 
with an accompaniment of silver and glass, and it is in re- 
lation to this environment that the success of our work 
will ultimately be judged. 

Blue and white china has always been popular with 
people of good taste. Mr. Whistler used it in his house in 
Chelsea (England). Mr. Dow uses much of it in his sum- 
mer house at Ipswich, and cares particularly for the color 
of the old Canton ware, a dark grey blue on a low tone 
greenish white ground. Everyone knows and loves the 
blue plates with the willow pattern. The most delightful 
meal I remember was served on dark flowing blue AVedg- 
wood china. Most of these blues of tradition are under 
the glaze, and it of course is impossible to obtain the same 
quality in overglaze. 

In my own experience with tableware in overglaze, 
schemes of pale greys, grey blues and greens on grey or 
white ground, have given most satisfaction in actual serv- 
ice. Being highly fluxed, such colors become more a part 
of the ware, and so have something of the charm of under- 
glaze. The richness of gold and white is often desirable, 
for some occasions or courses. 

The opinion has prevailed that the production of artis- 
tic tableware is impracticable commercially, but we find 
that, in actual use, the simplest patterns treated in the 
simplest way (usually without outline) and requiring only 
one or two firings, are the best. 

The effect of tableware is spoiled when shown in our 
exhibitions on other than white ground. The Bridgeport 
Art League showed at its last exhibition the table, set with 
china for serving a luncheon, cuts of which appear in the 
accompanying illustrations. It was first decided what 
pieces should comprise a luncheon service. The best forms 
obtainable were then procured, to which border designs, 
made in class, were adapted, and a color scheme for the 
whole decided upon. Proceeding so carefully and thought- 
fully, the result was a success, a demonstration of what 
ceramics may accomplish when working with a definite 
and intelligent aim. 

Marshal Fry 


IN our effort to express a distinction between the kind 
of flower painting which has been popular, and the 
more restrained sort of decoration which is fast coming 
into favor, the terms "naturalistic" and "conventional" 
are almost universally used. Both terms are inaccurate 
and mean quite different things to different people. 

If we study the principles of composition, and if we, 
as ceramists, study the requirements of our material, and 
consider the use for which our ware is intended, our work, 
or at least our aim, will be in the right direction, and the 
results need not be named. 

It would be misleading if it were said that Corot painted 
the "naturalistic" style, and Hiroshigi the "conventional" 
because the work of the latter is less like the popular idea 
of nature than that of Corot. It is not so much that 
Hiroshigi's work is less "naturalistic," but he suited his 
treatment to the requirements of color printing. His 
landscapes were cut on wood blocks and he planned them 
accordingly. Marshal Fry 




Designs reading from top to bottom are, ist, 2d and 3d, by Mary N. McCord; 4th, by Mrs. A. A. Libby, Bridgeport Class. 




Designs reading from top to bottom are, ist, 2d and 3d, by Harriet B. Hurd; 4th, by Harriet P. Allis, Bridgeport Class. 



TF we desire inspiration for intelligent and appropriate 
-■- use of design in overglaze decoration, we should 
study the best traditions of ceramics. 

While in London, I spent much time in the museums, 
studying the pottery and porcelains, searching for examples 
which might be suggestive for overglaze work. 

In the South Kensington Museum (Victoria and Al- 
bert), there of course is much of interest, but the collec- 
tion of Rhodian ware (15th to 16th century) is particularly 
beautiful, and rich in suggestions to those interested in 
the decoration of tableware. The color is perhaps its 
chief charm, although in some instances the design was 
equally fine. 

I was able to get photographs of the three plates, 
cuts of which appear in these pages, but, although they 
are of interest, they are not those which interested me 
most. The finer ones were simpler and more restrained, 

having very narrow geometric borders (often in straight 
line), with plain space between them and the allover pat- 
tern in centers of plates. 

A slight idea of the color schemes may be had from 
the following notes : 

1st — Design in dark blue, cool dark green, small areas 
of blood red. Black outline, grey white ground. 

2d — White design without outline, on pearl grey 
ground, small areas of medium dark blue (this was very 
chaste and well suited to overglaze). 

3d — Designs in medium dark warm grey, dark blue, 
small spaces of turquoise, dark grey outline, grey white 

4th — Dark blue, turquoise, grey green and white. 

5th — Bright green, small areas of bright red and blue, 
dark blue grey outline. 

The above are not names of pigments. 

Marshal Fry. 





GOOD craftsmen always wish their ornamentation to 
be so much a part of the material as to be in the 
latter, rather than on it. That is why we all like under- 
glaze ware, the painted design is in the material itself, 
between the body and the glaze. In overglaze we get 
somewhat the same effect b)" applying a ground or "en- 
velope" of very soft highly fluxed color over the entire 
surface, covering the designs and all. 

In my ceramic class, our aim has been to make our 
ornament a part of the ware. For this reason we do not 
make use of flat enamel, as we find that we are able to 
obtain more of the underglaze quality with ^simple colors, 
pale greys, greens, blues, etc. I believe in bright and 
strong colors also, if it is possible to keep them from appear- 
ing painty and on the surface. 

There is nothing more satisfactory in color for table- 
ware which is intended for constant use, than blue on a 
pale grey ground, provided that a good combination is 
chosen. It is so restful and quiet as to be always acceptable. 
Much of the old Chinese porcelain was painted with blotty 
landscapes and figures in blue. The glaze itself was al- 
ways slightly toned a greenish or bluish grey, making a 
sympathetic ground for the blue. 

The relation between the blue of the design and the 
grey ground is most important. There must be sufficient 
contrast, and yet the blue must not be so dark as to appear 
solid and heavy. 

There are many good combinations, that of the old 
Canton ware being fine, as are also some of the lighter 

Another very satisfactory scheme is a grey design 
on palest grey ground, perhaps with a note of green in 
the pattern. A combination of blue and green on grey 
ground is pleasing, if right colors are chosen. 

One very simple and chaste effect may be obtained 
in one firing, the pattern being in palest grey on a white 

The following treatments may be applied to designs 
for plates, bowls, etc., contributed by the Bridgeport Design 
Class. They are suggestions from which variations and 
original combinations may be made. 


It is better not to rub china with turpentine, as it 
causes a sticky surface, and makes trouble when the dry 
color is dusted on. The graphite impression paper makes 
a delicate but clear grey tracing on the clean china. Do 
not go over the traced lines with ink or water color. The 
design should be painted with Special Tinting Oil, very 
smoothly and evenly, the greatest care being taken to 

work cleanly and crisply up to and not beyond the traced 
lines. A very small amount of Grey for Flesh may be added 
to the oil to tone it slightly. 

As to how long to allow oil to stand before applying 
the powder color, is a matter of experience, depending upon 
the temperature of the room as well as upon how thickly 
or thinly the oil has been applied. Occasionally one-half 
hour is sufficient, but ordinarily it requires several hours. 

The dry color is rubbed in thoroughly with wool. 
The oil should have been painted on with such perfect 
technique that no corrections should be necessary, but if 
the latter are inevitable, make them with a clean brush 
moistened in turpentine, and never with a knife or cotton 
on a pointed stick, both of which leave ragged edges. 
Perfection of workmanship is absolutely essential to the 
successful production of tableware. 

After firing, the ground or "envelope" is applied. 
The Special Tinting Oil, slightly toned with Grey for Flesh 
is painted over entire surface and evenly padded. After 
standing some time to become "tacky", the dry color is 
thoroughly rubbed into it, all loose color being carefully 
brushed off. 

color schemes 

Grey design on grey ground — ist Fire. Design dusted 
with two parts Copenhagen Grey and one part Pearl Grey. 
Second fire — Envelope dusted with same mixture of greys. 

Blue design on grey ground — Design dusted with equal 
parts of Copenhagen Blue and Aztec Blue. Envelope 
dusted with same mixture as for the grey plate. 

Green design on grey ground— Design dusted with equal 
parts of Grey Green and Ivory Glaze. Envelope, two parts 
Copenhagen Grey, one part Pearl Grey. 

Grey design on white ground (one firing) — Allow oil to 
stand longer, that it may not take too much color. Dust 
with equal parts Pearl Grey and Copenhagen Grey. 
Should be extremely pale. 

The richness of gold and white is often desirable; its 
tendency to heaviness is overcome by use of very light and 
"open" designs, those in which the gold masses are broken 
by the white. Miss McCord's plates are excellent examples 
of patterns suited to gold and white treatment. The 
patterns with more solid masses are better suited to other 

In making new mixtures it is to be remembered that 
Pearl Grey gives warmth as well as Grey, and Copenhagen 
Grey is cold. With a hard fire Grey for Flesh greatly 
loses strength and warmth. These three greys may be 
used as a basis for nearly all the colors required for table- 

Marshal Fry. 




Designs reading from top to bottom are, ist, Martha E. Beach; 2d and 3d, Mrs. Libby; 4th, Miss Allis; 5th, Martha E. 

Beach, Bridgeport Class. 

CACTUS VASE — marshal fry 

MAY 1907 










Designs reading from top to bottom are, ist and 2d, Mrs. Holzer; 3d, Miss Beach; 4th, Mrs. Coggswell; 5th, Mrs. Hanford. 




SOME of us have always had the feeling that Henry 
Wadsworth Longfellow rang true — that "he lived up to 
his old blue china", as one New England housewife puts it, 
and so we were glad to see, in the recent celebration held 
in honor of his centenary anniversary, that,- — in spite of 
the blue stockings who have set the fashion of receiving 
any praise awarded him with a deprecating shrug, — sociol- 
ogist and philosopher vied with the Philistine and the 
school girl to do him honor. 

Deep down in our hearts most of us love this true 
hearted poet for one or another of his simple songs. For 
me it was not through the musical cadences of Hiawatha, 
nor. the Tale of Love in Acadia, that I opened my heart 
to Longfellow, but after I had read his "Keramos" for the 
first time. Here was proof positive that the gentle poet 
not only loved his own ancestral willow plate and Wedgwood 
tea cup, but that the whole realm of the potter was dear to 
him; — and for any of us who has fondled a lump of clay 
into even the most misshapen bowl, this is a tie not to be 
lightly broken. He is one with us and he has made us one 
with all the race of potters. 

"Turn, turn, my wheel! The human race 
Of every tongue, of every place, 
Caucasian, Coptic or Malay, 
All that inhabit this great earth, 
Whatever be their rank or worth, 
Are kindred and allied by birth, 
And made of the same clay." 

His sympathy toward our craft is felt from the very 
first line. 

"Thus sang the Potter at his task 
Beneath the blossoming hawthorn tree. 
Like a Magician he appeared, 
A conjurer without book or beard ; 
And while he plied his magic art — 
For it was magical to me — 
I stood in silence and apart, 
And wondered more and more to see 
That shapeless, lifeless mass of clay 
Rise up to meet the master's hand, 
And now contract and now expand, 
And even his slightest touch obey." 

And his appreciation of the elusiveness of the art and 
the hardships and disappointments a potter is heir to ! — 

"Who is it in the suburbs here, 
This potter working with such cheer, 

In this mean house, this mean attire, 
His manly features bronzed with fire, 
Whose, figurines and rustic wares 
Shall find him bread from day to day? 
This madman, as the people say, 
Who breaks his tables and his chairs 
To feed his furnace fires, nor cares 
Who goes unfed, if they are fed, 
Nor who may five if they are dead? 
This alchemist with hollow cheeks 
And sunken, searching eyes, who seeks 
By mingled earths and ores combined, 
With potency of fire, to find 
Some new enamel, hard and bright, 
His dream, his passion, his delight? 
O Palissy! Within thy breast 
Burned the hot fever of unrest; 
Thine was the prophet's vision, thine 
The exultation, the divine 
Insanity of noble minds 
That never falters nor abates, 
But labors and endures and waits 
Till all that it foresees it finds, 
Or what it cannot find, creates!" 

But the best of all is his discrimination. He has 
caught the spirit of each, the jolly bourgeois Dutch tile, 
the enchanting mystery of the Egyptian enamel, the 
colorful porcelain of "the flowery kingdoms of Cathay." 
Reach up to your book shelf while your tint is getting 
dry, and read it — the whole of it — and see if the pulse 
does not beat quicker when you put on that border on 
your next plate. But if your Longfellow is up four long 
flights of stairs and you are waiting for that stubborn cone 
to go down, and dare not leave the kiln, I shall give you 
one more bit here: 

"All the bright flowers that fill the 

Ripple of waves on rock and sand, 
The snow of Fusiyama's cone, 
The midnight heaven so thickly sown 
With constellations of bright stars, 
The leaves that rustle, the reeds that 

A whisper by each stream and lake, 
The saffron dawn, the sunset red, 
Are painted on those lovely jars; 
Again the skylark sings, again 

The stork, the heron and the crane 
Float through the azure overhead, 
The counterfeit and counterpart 
Of Nature reproduced in Art. 
Art is the child of Nature; yes, 
Her darling child in whom we trace 
The features of his mother's face, 
Her aspect and her attitude, 
All her majestic loveliness, 
Chastened and softened and subdued 
Into a more attractive grace, 
And with a human sense imbued." 

F. B. 




(Color Supplement) 

THE reproduction of the cactus study in 
colors was unsuccessful as regards 
the rendering of flat tones and technique of 
broad grey outlines, and through a mis- 
understanding was reduced in size, the orig- 
inal having been purposely made the ex- 
act size of a Belleek cylinder vase. 

In order that the design may be in- 
terpreted correctly a half tone study from 
the original is given, which may, I hope 
give a more truthful idea of my design. 
The color supplement will give an idea of 
the general effect. 

If the directions for treatment in over- 
glaze are closely followed, the colors of the 
original study will be the result. 

Divide small cylinder vase into fifths, 
indicating divisions by accurately drawn 
vertical lines. Tracing of unit is to be made 
from half tone reproduction. Draw vertical 
line through tracing, and when placing 
latter on vase, fit the vertical line on tracing 
directly over lines previously drawn on ware. 
This is to insure each repetition of unit 
being the same distance from the others. 

Both sides of broad outline should be 
traced very accurately in order to keep the 
character of the broad lines. Fill in be- 
tween traced lines with Special Tinting Oil 
(slightly toned with Grey for Flesh) . Allow 
to stand until tacky, and dust with Grey 
for Flesh. 

Second fire — Paint oil over entire sur- 
face and pad thoroughly. Work off a little 
of the oil from the flowers, either with finger 
or a very small pad, that they may be kept 
lighter than the rest. After standing, rub 
Ivory Glaze over the flowers, then dust 
middle of vase with mixture of one part 
Ivory Glaze and two parts Pearl Grey. 
Dust upper and lower parts of vase Grey 
for Flesh. It requires some skill to join 
the tones so that there will be a perfect 
gradation from light to dark. 

After firing, this process is repeated, 
and the vase fired again, and very likely 
another repetition will be necessary to make 
the dark grey dark enough. 

Care should be taken to keep the middle 
part of vase light enough. 

Fifth fire — Paint the cactus leaves with 
oil, keeping within the grey outlines (the 
green is not to go over the grey lines.) Dust 
with Grey Green. Tint the flowers deli- 
cately with Albert Yellow near calyx, and 
with Blood Red over the tips of petals, the 
latter rather strong because of losing strength 
in firing. Paint the neck of vase with Grey 
for Flesh, getting the effect of gradation by 
keeping one corner of brush clean, while 
the other is well charged with color. 


LONDON 1907 






THE four landscapes in black and white are reproduced 
from sketches in charcoal, and are shown as illustra- 
tions of kinds of subjects which might be used in overglaze 
work. These studies are to be thought of as motifs from 
which variations and adaptations may be made for ceramics, 
In order to make them applicable to the latter, it 
would of course be necessary to translate them into terms 
of flat tones, the vibration of tone, which is desirable in 
a charcoal sketch, being undesirable on porcelain. The 

massing of dark and light in the originals might be adhered 
to as far as possible. One of the panels is of such propor- 
tions that it might be applied to a porcelain slab without 
alteration, except flattening the tones. 

The tall upright panel with poplar trees might be 
adapted to a cylinder vase, two repetitions of it, perhaps. 
A moonlight scheme of color might be used. 

The two narrow horizontal panels might be used as 
bands around low broad vases or jars, and variations of 
them could be made for porcelain slabs. Marshal Fry 






Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 232 East 2 jth Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

Dutch batik on linen pillow (the cracking of the wax, letting the color show through 
the cracks, is quite characteristic of batik dyeing.) 


Theo. Neuhuys 

THE art of "batiking", originally and characteristically 
Bast Indian, has now been practiced in Holland for some 
time. The principle of batiking is the application of wax 
to textiles or parchment, so that the parts covered by the 
wax will remain intact when the textile or parchment is 
steeped in the dye, and will show the original color after 
the wax has been removed (by melting, dissolving or 
scratching) . 

It is well known that the decoration of woven materials 
by means of the interweaving of threads of various colors, 
dyed before being used, is a very old process in Western 
countries. The application of a pattern to ready- woven 
materials, however, is of comparatively recent date, and 
it is not before the r; middle of the 17th century that we find 
mention of "print works," that is, the printing of textiles 
in colors by means of stamps covered with dyes. 

After languishing for a long time, this printing industry 
was revived during the 19th century, partly as a result of 
great improvement in the implements, partly because of 
the enormous progress made in chemistry, which allowed 
a number of new dyes to be adapted to practical use. In- 
deed it developed so rapidly and extensively that it went 
far beyond its original purpose, that of beautifying by 
decoration. Beauty was entirely overlooked for the sake 
of over-decoration. Bowers of roses have been printed 
on our curtains, while elephants in a mountain landscape, 
adorning the comforter on our bed, are supposed to watch 
over our night's rest. Quantities of these tasteless and 

senseless factory products are turned out every day, and 
even when the decoration is in better taste, these products 
always bear the indefinable character which is well ex- 
pressed by the contemptuous term "factory-made", 
and makes them so inferior to the products of the early 
periods of Industrial Art. Fortunately there are a few 
people, artists, who, always searching for beautiful, well 
thought out forms, for good proportions and combinations 
of color, bring thought, judgment and taste to whatever 
they produce, and to these people we owe some good 
printed fabrics. 

The difference between printing and batiking is as 
follows: in the former process the surface of the fabric 
only is treated; it is a mechanical process, subject to def- 
inite rules and patterns, while batiking is a perfect com- 
bination of textile and color and is a free, individual art. 

The beautiful batik products, which have come from 
Java to Holland and have met with more and more appreci- 
ation, induced some people to study the technique of the 
craft, and to make it one of our own industrial arts. 

It was from the beginning easy enough to develope a 
wax mixture suitable to batiking, but another important 
part of the work, the most important perhaps, was not 
so easily mastered, viz., the dyeing of fabrics on which the 
wax was applied. This point is of great importance, be- 
cause the batiked products acquire their durability and 
consequently their value, not only from the quality of the 
material used, but also from the quality of the dyes. The 
first batikers found a few recipes which gave good results 
on parchment, although the proportions in which the 
various ingredients had to be mixed, were at first guessed 
at and learned by constant experimenting, with a conse- 
quent great loss of time and material. With woven tex- 
tiles, which are much more difficult to dye than the animal 
product, parchment, experiments were much less success- 
ful. Many simply tried the aniline dyes for their batiks, 
but it was soon found out that the colors faded, and this 
dyeing process had to be abandoned, as batiked textiles, 
being very expensive, must answer the high requirement 
of being perfectly proof against the influence of both light 
and air. Artists as a rule are not very familiar with prob- 

Dutch batik on silk curtain. 


lems of chemistry, and the lack of proper dyes was at first 
a great obstacle to the spreading of the batik industry in 
the Netherlands. 

The first practical assistance came from the Manager 
of the Division of Chemistry of the Colonial Museum of 
Harlem, who realized that this institution, with a labora- 
tory of its own, was in a position to solve, scientifically 
and practically, the problem of developing non-fading 
dyes suitable to use in our country, as • the East Indian 
dyes could not very well be used in Holland. 

At that time the publication of a richly illustrated 
monograph on the Art of Batiking in the East Indies had 
aroused much interest in the technique of the craft. An 
extensive investigation into the process was then begun 
in the laboratory of the Harlem Museum. Much time 
and care were spent in the research for dye recipes answer- 
ing the following requirements : 

i . They should be easily applicable. 

2. It should be possible to apply them cold, the wax 
melting at a temperature of 6o° C. 

3. The colors obtained should be sufficiently fast to 
be proof against injury caused by the removal of the wax 
by boiling out or by petroleum-ether. 

4. The colors should be non-fading. 

The investigation was also extended to the prepara- 
tion of a wax mixture (usually wax with resin, sometimes 
wax with mastic, also paraffine with lard) which would be 
best suited to batiking, would not scale off, nor get too 
hard, so as to prevent frequent cracking, and would be 
proof against the influence of the chemicals which fix the 
dyes in the textile. 

This was the origin of the Harlem Batiking technique, 
first worked out in the laboratory, and since then so widely 
known that a great many people, abroad as well as at home, 
are using it in their work. 

Speaking of batik, Walter Crane wrote : "It was very 
interesting to note the revival and modern application of 
the old Javanese method of dyeing patterns upon textiles, 
in which use is made of wax to stop out the plain parts. 
This method has been revived by the Dutch and applied 
to hangings of various materials, often with remarkable 

The use of aniline dyes has been abandoned for the 
present at Harlem, not only for the reasons stated above, 
but because these dyes often give an unpleasantly bright 
color. Such is not the case with vegetable dyes, which, 
formerly used in European dyeing establishments, and 
applied with fine effect by the Eastern people, are the 
natural dyes for batiking. 

Batiking itself, the designing in wax, is almost ex- 
clusively done with the Javanese tjantings, small wax 
vessels with spouts. 


Tjanting Pengarda (two-thirds actual size) 

Before describing the experiments made in the Harlem 
laboratory, I will give a short account of my own exper- 
ience in batiking, and, for the sake of thoroughness, I 

Dutch batik on a silkpillow. 

wish to state that I was among those who started by ex- 
perimenting, without any help, with the dyeing of parch- 
ment. It so happened that it took me a year to experi- 
ment with a blue dye alone. I indeed knew that indigo 
was used for this purpose, but the difficulty lay in the fact 
that the color was to be prepared so as to be non-fading 
and fast, and, so to speak, to become one with the parch- 
ment. Considering that parchment is a rather expensive 
material, the reader will realize that these experiments 
were costly, but at last I found a very simple indigo bath, 
answering all requirements, and composed as follows : 

Blue dye — Rub the indigo to a very fine powder and 
mix it with green vitriol, until it becomes a thick paste. 
Let it stand at least two days, then mix it with one part 
green vitriol and five parts water. With this color the 
parchment is dyed as many times as is needed to give it 
the desired intensity of color. 

Red dye — One gramme of carmine and fifteen grammes 
of spirits of ammonia. Bet the dye stand one day before 

Yellow and brown dye — Make a saturated solution of 
bichromate of potash in water, and steep the parchment 
in it. The latter is then exposed to the air for a day. A 
beautiful brown is the result. Heat the water to 6o° C. 

Dark brown and black dye — Make a saturated solution 
of sulphate of iron in water, heated to 6o° C, and steep in 
this bath the spots that have first been dyed red. This 
will give an especially fine, deep brown, sometimes almost 

These colors on parchment are astonishingly rich and 
of unsurpassed brilliancy. In my opinion, there is no 
material, which, when dyed, produces such a magnificent 
effect as parchment, and for this reason I spared no trouble 
in perfecting my experiments. The genuine animal parch- 
ment cannot be decorated, logically and well, in any other 
way. Printed colors can be scratched off, and gold wears 
off, but these mordant dyes permeate the parchment and 
become one with it. 

The parchment is stretched on a sheet of glass, as 
designers stretch their paper on a drawing board, by gum- 
ming the edges. Just like the paper, the parchment is 
first moistened, then the design is pasted to the back. The 
sheet of glass is then placed at an angle of 45 against a 


KERAMIC studio 











window receiving a good Northern light, the part of the 
window above the glass being covered up, so that the light 
falls through the sheet of glass and it is very easy to trace 
the design on the parchment with the melted wax. When 
this is done, a little ridge of clay is built around the design, 
in such a way that the pasted strips are covered, then the 
dye is poured into the basin thus formed. After a quarter 
of an hour the dye is poured out and the dyed parchment 
rinsed off with a syringe, then dried. Subsequently the 
wax is scratched off and washed off with turpentine, the 
second covering of wax is applied for the second dyeing, and 
so on. 

My experiments with the dyeing of textiles led to the 
following results, after ample knowledge had been obtained 
in the laboratory : 

Blue dye — The indigo bath is made in a leaden basin 
with a wood mantle, the bottom of which is rectangular. 
The height of the basin is such as to allow the textile to rest 
in the bath full length. It maybe closed by means of a cover. 
Even textiles of rather large size may be dyed in this bath. 

The indigo required for this bath must be reduced 
beforehand. This is done in a smaller knip, or vat. The 
Java indigo, rubbed fine, is first mixed with water in a 
crucible, then a tepid milk of lime is added, and, at the 
same time, with continual shaking, in small quantities 
at a time, a solution of sulphate of iron. This concen- 
trated bath is left undisturbed for a couple of days in a 
moderate temperature, after which it is diluted in the vat 
of water, the water having first been freed of the absorbed 
oxygen by adding lime and green vitriol. 

The indigo bath remains fit for use for about six months ; 
it is true that it loses in strength, but a dark tint may be 
obtained to the last by repeated dyeing. Before the tex- 
tile is dyed in the bath, it is steeped for a quarter of an 
hour in water freed of the absorbed oxygen. 

If now any textile is steeped for a sufficient length of 
time in the perfectly clear, yellow liquid, and subsequently 
exposed to the air, the indigo-white unites again with the 
oxygen and forms in the fibre of the textile the famous 
indigo-blue, which is perfectly fast and non-fading. An 
extremely weak solution of sulphuric acid, in which the 
dyed textile is subsequently steeped, causes the disappear- 
ance of the traces of lime and iron which may have adhered 
to it, and allows the blue to appear in all its beauty. It is 
obvious that, after the bath, the textile must be thoroughly 
rinsed, in order to remove all the sulphuric acid, even to 
the smallest traces, from it. 

There is nothing new in indigo-batiking in itself, but 
it is well worth noticing that, before the experiments in 
the Harlem laboratory, no fast indigo batiking was done 
in this country, neither on textiles nor on parchment. 
The indigo bath described above can be used in every 
studio, and even large sized cloths may be batiked there 
in all shades of the purest and most beautiful blue. 
(To be continued.) 

Tea-cosy in Dutch batik. 


Miss E. H. Tally — Materials for curtains can be bought from Joseph P. 
McHugh & Co., 9 42d St., New York City. Leather for tooling and coloring 
at A. Gongalery, 21 Spruce St., New York City. 

Dyes for leather from Mrs. B. Van Court Schneider, 102 Auditorium 
Bldg., Chicago, 111. We regret that we are not able to comply with your 
request for stencil designs full size. 

O. H. M. — A very good jeweler's cement can be made by dissolving in 
alcohol enough to produce 3 ounces. Add to this 15 grains of liquid gum 
ammoniac and 9 large drops of gum mastic, which have been dissolved in a 
little alcohol. Keep in an air tight bottle. 

Metal — A good resist for silver or copper during the etching process is 
made as follows: 2 ounces white wax, 2 ounces of asphaltum in powder. 
Melt the wax in a clean vessel, add the powdered asphaltum and boil to a 
proper consistency. For etching on gold use one-third part muriatic acid, to 
two-third nitric acid. 


A stenographer who receives $18.00 a week, who is in New York and 
working in Wall street, but who has a taste for china decoration, asks if it 
would pay her to give up her work and devote herself to the study of ceramics. 
Unless she has great talent and an irresistible desire for the work so that she is 
willing to take all chances, she had better stick to stenography and indulge 
in china decoration only as a recreation. A stenographer, if proficient, always 
has a chance for increase of salary or a good permanent income as private 
secretary, especially in New York and on Wall street. A china decorator's 
existence, unless she has a large circle of paying acquaintances or great talent, 
so that she may be in the lead, is a very meager one, if not eked out by other 
sources of income. 

R. O. B. — Mat colors are grounded in the same manner as ordinary 
powder colors. The grounding oil is applied and padded until tacky, the 
powder poured on and brushed over the surface with a piece of surgeon's wool, 
keeping always the powder between wool and oil, or it will stick and draw 
threads. When the oil will absorb no more powder, the balance is brushed 
off and may be used for another piece. Mat colors are used only for grounds, 
they are not suitable for painting. 

A. L. — It would be difficult to exactly match any red except iron reds 
on china. You had better take some broken bits of china and make trials. 
Try for first fire — Pompadour Red and for second fire Ruby over it in varying 
depths of color — for grey try Grey for Flesh or Warm Grey or Pearl Grey one- 
half with Copenhagen one-half. You will find numberless good and simple 
conventional designs in back numbers of Keramic Studio in which you 
could use the gray and red with or without gold outlines. 

•f ** 


As we all know, there is a most welcome and general 
revival in the art of gardening. Landscape gardening has 
had its day for a while and the picture garden with its old 
world flowers, lawns, trees and shrubs is again appreciated 
and loved. For this form of gardening, garden pottery is an 
invaluable aid, not only because it fulfills the practical de- 
mands of utility but by its added charm of form and color. 
Until within the last few years, in England at least, the gar- 
den pot has not been treated as an object of decorative 
skill. Ornamentation made use of in horticultural decor- 
ation has been in the direction of architectural enrichments 
verv seldom practical from the plant grower's point of view, 
and either florid in design, or purely utilitarian. 

As in other branches of applied art, Messrs. Liberty & 
Co., London, Eng. have gone into untrodden paths, and 
in this instance, assisted and advised by Mrs. G. F. Watts, 
have shown in these illustrations of their new Celtic garden 
pottery, what good results can be achieved with good form 
and simple design. Dame nature is so beautiful and so full 
of charm that it is only the simple and right things that can 
assist her. The body of this garden pottery is a porous red 
clay, so that, unlike the Portland cement vases of our ances- 
tors, these pots are drained and ventilated, naturally aiding 
the healthy growth of plants. It is also claimed for this 
pottery that it will stand sudden changes of temperature, 
that frost does not affect it. This is an important point 



to consider in buying any pottery which will be exposed 
to changes of temperature. However it seems difficult to 
reconcile this claim of a frost proof pottery with the 
fact that the body of the ware is porous. There is only 
one kind of ware which will not be affected by changes 
of temperature, it is the vitrified clay, either porce- 
lain or stoneware, which is not porous. The porce- 
lains of the old Chinese, either their transluent porce- 
lain or opaque stoneware, are to-day the same as they 
were when made, centuries ago, and will remain unaltered 
forever. In our damp climates any porous ware is bound 
to disintegrate with age. This is a point which should not 
be forgotten by purchasers of garden pottery, whatever 
the claims of manufacturers may be. Porosity has the 
great advantage of helping plant growth but can a por- 
ous ware be frost-proof? We doubt it. 



Latest complete illustrated Catalogue 30c. New Flower, Fruit, Figure, Land- 
scape and Animal Studies— suitable for Oils, Water Colors, China etc Dis- 
g'ven in Catalogue, M. G. PRICE, 357 W. 118lh St., New York. 


A knowledge of the art will prove very remunerative to every one interested in Art 
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Send to us to-day for complete particulars and Free Sample of Pen Lettering. 

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The most popular illustrated monthly magazine for the promotion of art education 
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Editor, Henry Turner Bailey; contributors, Dr. James P. Haney, D. R. Augsburg, 
James Hall, Wm. C A. Hammel, Fred. H. Daniels, and other leaders in art education. 
A copy will be sent to readers of "Keramic Studo" upon request and mentioning this 

THE DAVIS PRESS, Publishers 
Thirty-eight Front Street, - "Worcester, Mass. 


ING by D. M. Campana. Better than 
six months lessons. Mistakes in firing, glaz- 
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which has largely taken the place of the No. 4. It has 
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This is oar No. 4 Kiln 

This was the first kiln we manufactured, and represents 
the infancy of our experiments. We have discarded it as 
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The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted without special permission. 



Apple Blossoms (Supplement) Treatment by Mrs. Safford 

Club and Studio Notes 

The Class Room — Flower Painting 



Dorothy Perkins Roses 



Wild Roses and June Roses 

Salad Bowl 


Rose Hips 

Peonies With treatment by Mrs. Paist 


Plate in pink and gold 

Plate in gold and white 

Exhibition of the New York Society of Keramic Arts 

Ta France Rose — Vase 

The Crafts— 

The Batik (concluded) 

Art in Pewter 
Answers to Correspondents 

F. B. Aulich 

Maxie Thomas Sisk 

Russell Goodwin 

Amy F. Dalrymple 

I. M. Ferris 

Margaret and Hannah Overbeck 

Phil Wight 

M. K. Hulbert 

Hannah Overbeck 

Mary Overbeck 

M. E. Hulbert 

Helen Pattee 

Mariam Candler 

Alice Sharrard 

Elizabeth DeLong 

Hannah Overbeck 

Theo Neuhuys 
Jules Brateau 








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Vol. IX, No. 2 


June, 1907 

UNE being the month of Roses, 
we again present our subscribers 
with roses naturalistic, and roses 
conventional. We have not been 
able to procure always just the 
sort of rose study we would like 
but trust that in such a varied 
collection something will be found 
that will appeal to each and 
every one. 

The July issue of Keramic Studio will be devoted to 
the work of Mrs. Marie Crilley Wilson, one of our cleverest 
designers. September Keramic Studio will be edited by 
Mrs. Teana McLennon Hinman. November Keramic 
Studio by Miss Jeanne Stewart. 
In the Class Room competition the special prize, $10.00, 
was awarded to Mrs. Maxie Thomas Sisk. The first prize, 
$5.00, was awarded to Mrs. Anne Seymour Mundy. 

The next subject for the Class Room will be "Figure 
Painting." Articles must be sent in by July 5th. The 
special prize of $10.00 will be awarded to any especially 
good article, otherwise the prizes will be as usual, $5.00, 
$4.00, $3.00, $2.00 and $1.00. 

•f & 
APPLE BLOSSOMS (Supplement by F. B. Aulich) 

' Sara Wood Safford* 

FLOWERS— Violet, Yellow and Pearl Grey mixed in 
the brush for the soft grey shadows. Rose with a 
touch of Yellow on the lighter pink petals, shaded with 
Rose and American Beauty at the tips. Use a touch of 
Ruby with Rose in the buds. 

Use Violet with all the greens in the first painting, 
Yellow Green, Apple Green, Shading Green and Dark 
Green. Use a touch of Blood Red with Dark Green in 
painting the stems. In the very darkest tones use Black 
with Dark Green. 

For second fire wash with pure color: Rose over 
delicate pink parts; American Beauty over deeper tones, 
and Yellow in the hearts of the blossoms, shadowed with 
Yellow Brown and a touch of Brown Green. The foliage 
and background should have soft clear washes of greens, 
using Yellow Green in warm parts and Shading and Dark 
Green when tones are darker and cooler. 

For third firing the sharp details should be added, 
the deeper touch of Ruby in flower or bud, the vein in the 
leaf, the depth to the stem, and a wash of Pearl Grey over 
parts of design and background to pull all together. 

* Mr. Aulich being in Europe, it was impossible to have a treatment 
from him for the apple blossom study and Mrs. Safford has kindly written 
for us the above treatment. (Pub.) 


The Arts and Crafts Department of the School 
of Decorative, Industrial and Fine Arts of Washington, 
D. C. will next year include pottery making in its curric- 
ulum. Mrs. Belle Barnett Vesey, of Chicago, will have 

full charge of the Department of Ceramics, and will instruct 
in form building and designing for pottery, and ceramics 
in general, as well as actual making of pottery, under and 
overglaze and majolica decorating on pottery and over- 
glaze decorating on porcelain. 

Classes in ceramics are already forming and indica- 
tions are very favorable for this department. Mrs. Vesey 
will take charge October 1st and we are very fortunate 
indeed to secure her as a member of our Faculty. For the 
last three years Mrs. Vesey has been the President of the 
Mineral League of National Painters. She is not only a 
good ceramist but an able artist and noted educator as 
well, and from the Nation's Capitol her influence will be 
felt throughout the country. 

Anna B. Sloane. 


Mrs. Vance Phillips will, on July 8th, open for the 
twelfth season, her popular ceramic school at Chautauqua, 
N. Y. Mrs. M. E. Perley, who, before the earthquake, had 
the finest studio in San Francisco, will assist her and her 
presence in Chautauqua this year is expected to bring an 
unusually large attendance, as she is considered an excep- 
tional teacher. 

We have received the following letter which will be of 
interest to our readers : 

Dear Friends — It is now a little over a year since our city was 
destroyed, every member of our Club meeting with severe losses. 

We felt that there was no future for china painters for many years, but 
the Club is again as active as before the disaster, and feel that much of their 
present success is due to our Eastern friends, who so generously came to our 
assistance. The replacement of all the "Keramic Studios", is a lasting benefit 
and one we shall never forget. 

We would like to again thank all those who helped to place us once more 
upon our feet. The Chicago workers reached out a helping hand immediately 
and sent colors, brushes and china donated by different Chicago firms and 
many studies, both water colors and prints. 

The "Atlan Club" sent many tracings of beautiful designs representing 
hours of labor and which we greatly appreciated, and a large number of 
studies were also received from individual members. One of the most touch- 
ing donations was that from Mr. F. B. Aulich, who painted six beautiful rose 
plates, and a large vase, after he, himself.had lost the entire exhibit that he 
had here at the time. 

These studies have been very helpful to everyone and have been kept in 
the club rooms accessible to all. Another donation that was greatly appre- 
ciated by all, was one hundred boxes of gold from Mr. Hasburg of Chicago, 
it came at a time when gold could not be bought here, and was more than 

Besides all this assistance, donations of fifty dollars each were received 
from the National League of Mineral Painters, The Mineral Art League of 
Boston, and the New York Society of Keramic Art. This made it possible 
for our Club to maintain a studio club room and also to remit one half the 
yearly dues and have a balance still in the treasury. 

It is with great pleasure that we assure all our kind friends of our appre- 
ciation, and wish they could all see how firmly we are again established, and 
receiving generous patronage from lovers of our work. 

It would be a favor if you would publish this, so we might in this way 
have our sincere thanks extended to all who so generously aided us. 
Yours sincerely. 

California Keramic Club 
Per S. V. Culp. 





Maxie Thomas Sisk. 

I WILL assume that this article will be used by a person 
who has not the advantage of personal instructions, 
and I will endeavor to put things as briefly and concisely 
as these conditions will admit of, not confusing the mind 
with too much detail. I do not think it facilitates matters 
to draw the study on the piece before beginning to paint, 
other than just to indicate the principal masses and get 
the general direction or movement of the study. In fact, 
it is often hampering, I think, to have the drawing all put 
on in detail before beginning to paint, you are very liable 
to sacrifice spontaneity and movement which is worth 
more than slavish correctness of detail. Have everything 
in beautiful readiness to go right ahead, from flowers, 
foliage, background and stems. I always put my stems 
in last, that is where I let the stems show. Some I make 
by wiping out the background, others by painting on right 
over the background color either before the first fire or 
afterwards. And again I wipe out a stem and paint it 
in again while the background color is still open; that is, 
where I want a real warm color for a stem, and the back- 
ground of that part of the study is cold or vice versa. 

Try to carry as much of the study along together as 
possible, by that I mean not to paint all the flowers first, 
then all the leaves, etc., but begin with the principal mass 
or bunch and paint flowers and foliage. Try to keep a 
separate set of brushes for the flowers and in any event 
rinse your brushes thoroughly when you go from one color 
to the other. Have a large-mouthed bottle into which 
you can occasionally empty your cup and renew your tur- 

pentine, thus insuring clean brushes. The turpentine 
that you thus pour up will be settled by the next day and 
you can pour it off into your cup using it over again. Rosa 
is an especially easily affected color, and unless it is 
put on with immaculate brushes, it will not come out the 
shell -like transparent color that it should. 

After having gotten in the principal flowers and leaves, 
put in your background, having a separate brush for each 
color used in it. 

Do not bring the colors always right up to one another 
but let the dauber do that, otherwise you will get a flat 
lifeless background with no vibration to it. Often in put- 
ting in a background one uses gold and iron colors in jux- 
taposition. If you paint these colors right up touching one 
another, then you will find it difficult when you come to 
pad them not to get muddy, dingy tones, but don't quite 
join them in painting them on, then with a little careful 
manipulation of the padder or dauber, having separate 
dauber for each color, you can weave them into one another 
without actually mixing them. 

Don't try to do too much for first firing, only try for 
the general character of the study, but being careful to 
preserve your high-lights, for once they are lost they are 
gone for good. Do not forget or overlook the value of 
keeping the direction of the light, not only the high-lights 
on the individual flowers, but the general direction of the 
light as it seems to fall upon the whole mass. For the 
second firing work up the flowers and leaves, by studying 
and developing their form. Every flower has its charac- 
teristic marks or we may say, its peculiarities, study these 
and in a very few of the most prominent ones bring this out. 

Add shadow flowers and leaves by greying and paint- 
ing very thin with the flower color or the leaf colors. A 
very nice way to make flowers take a more subordinate 

ROSES— A. F. DALRYMPLE (Treatment page 49) 




(Treatment page 42) 




place in the study and to give distance or atmosphere to 
others is to powder dry color over that part of the study, 
thus throwing a veil over it and blending it into the back- 
ground ; this is done in this way : After the piece has dried 
until in passing a wisp of absorbant cotton across the 
surface no lint adheres to the paint, take whatever colors 
you wish to powder on, out on a piece of paper; do not put 
on slab, because it is apt to have some oiliness about it 
and the colors must be bone dry. Now take a small ball 
of cotton, gather the color into it and very lightly draw 
it over the surface you wish to powder, renewing the 
powder until the desired surface is covered, being careful 
not to get it on any other part. Now with a quick breath 
blow the surplus powder off, then gently wipe with clean 
cotton. I sometimes powder with the prevailing color 
of the background, again with one of the foliage colors 
or with any harmonious or complimentary color. The 
advantage to be gained is to subdue certain colors, to 
subordinate certain parts, to soften sharp edges, or to 
pull a study together and effects can be gotten in this way 
that subsequent painting will not always give. For the 
third firing, put in accents in flowers and foliage and 
strengthen the background where needed. 

Pink Roses 

For pink roses, such as La France, I get beautiful 
results by using Rosa put on very, very thin, in fact you 
cannot get it too thin; this is for the general color of the 
rose. Paint the centers with Ruby and Rosa mixed, one- 
fourth Ruby to three-fourths Rosa, this you can put on 
a little more generously than you did the pure Rosa. For 
shadows use Grey for Flowers with a tiny touch of Albert 
Yellow for reflected light. For second firing go over roses 
again. This is the only way to get the full strength of the 
Rosa and retain or secure the charming quality of its 
pink, by repeated firings, for if put on any thing like so 
thick as the iron or cobalt colors, it comes out a very dis- 
agreeable bluish color, and I think roses painted with re- 
peated firings of Rosa are much superior to those painted 
first with Pompadour or some of the iron pinks and then 
with Rosa; the color is more transparent. 

Third painting, strengthen drawing wherever needed, 
put in final accents. The centers nearly always need the 
third painting. Where the petals of a pink rose turn over 

against a warm colored bunch of leaves, use a touch of 
Deep Red Brown with perhaps the merest bit of Yellow 
Brown on the tip edge of those petals. Brown Green may 
be used for shadows in the petals where thev cup instead 
of Grey for Flowers, but must be very thin. Foliage of 
pink roses is prettiest if kept cool in color, using Deep 
Blue Green, Apple Green, Chinese Yellow, Brown Green, 
Dark Green No. 7, with Violet of Iron and Deep Red Brown 
for shoots or sprouts. 

A very pleasing background for pink roses is Chinese 
Yellow with the least trifle of Albert Yellow near the central 
bunch, Apple Green, Peach Blossom and Deep Blue Green. 
By pushing your brush first into the Peach Blossom, then 
into the Apple Green, you get a delightfully vibrating or 
atmospheric grey. Then do the same thing with the three 
colors, Deep Blue Green, Peach Blossom, and Apple Green. 
With a little practice you will be able to get a beautiful 
atmospheric tint or flush running from a pinkish grey 
green, grey blue to lavender, with here and there the 
clear Chinese Yellow for sunshine effect. Keep a separate 
brush for putting on the Yellow, and rinse your other brush 
often, otherwise you will have muddy color. In using 
the above mentioned colors in the same brush at the same 
time, take care not to stir your colors together or mix them 
on the palette, but try to get them pure into the brush, 
and do the blending of them as you paint them on the china. 
When the piece is dry enough, so that in passing cotton 
across its surface the lint does not pull off and stick to the 
paint, you can soften edges and give distance or subordinate 
those leaves and roses that you do not wish so conspicuous, 
by dusting powder color over those portions, as previously 
described in General Remarks. 

White Roses 
Use Lemon Yellow, Yellow Brown and Deep Red 
Brown mixed for centers. A touch of Lemon Yellow 
where petals join rose and perhaps a little Apple Green. 
For shadows and modeling of roses, Grey for Flowers with 
touch of Black and trifle of Lemon Yellow, using, of course, 
the white china for high -lights. Keep background rathe r 
light, running from Chinese Yellow for lighter warm color 
to yellowish green grey, using Rosa and Blue Green for 
pinkish, lavender and bluish tints. 




(Treatment page 48) 




(Treatment p. 49) WILD ROSES— M. E. HULBERT 

Yellow Roses. 
Marshal-Niel, Albert Yellow; centers, equal parts 
Deep Red Brown, Yellow Brown. Grey for Flowers with 
Yellow Brown added for modeling and big shadows. Apple 
Green and Yellow Brown for petals where they join the 
rose. Leaves, Deep Blue Green, Moss Green, Dark Green 
No. 7, Yellow Brown, Deep Red Brown and Violet of Iron 
for shoots or sprouts. For reddish foliage use Yellow 
Brown and Violet of Iron, Deep Red Brown and Auburn 
Brown, Brown Green and Auburn Brown. 

Red Roses. 

Paint in with liberal strength of Ruby, painting high- 
lights with Rosa. For centers, Ruby and Purple-Black 
about half and half, also shadows in petals, Purple Black. 
For certain half-lights or glance-lights it is rather well to 
dust on Dark Blue, being careful not to get it on your Rosa 
or high-lights. Use same colors for touching up and 
strengthening for second firing. It often happens, to get 
the rich dark red of crimson roses, that they must be painted 
and re-fired several times over, but try to retain the crisp- 
ness of drawing, going over exactly the same places as in 
the previous painting. To powder with the Ruby each 
time doubles the strength of the color. You must not 
paint too thickly with Ruby, else it will blister, which 
disaster cannot be effaced or remedied. Some red roses, 
such as the Jacqueminot, are well painted in Blood Red 
with centers of Ruby and Black, and then the whole rose 
dusted with Ruby, or reverse it and paint first with Ruby 
and dust with Blood Red. Leaves and stems want a 
vigorous handling, warmer, stronger colors being used 
than for the more delicate roses: Russian Green, Moss 
Green, Brown Green, Dark Green No. 7, Yellow Brown, 
Auburn Brown, Violet of Iron and Finishing Brown. 

Manipulation of Brush. Use as large square shader 
as you can manage, dip brush into turpentine, drain on 

rag; dip the tip of it into the medium then take up the color 
with a wriggling movement of the brush that gets it evenly 
distributed into the brush, and make a trial stroke or drag 
the brush away from the color on the palette in such a 
way as to prove that you will make a wash-like stroke. 
Then try to paint your petal with as few strokes as possible, 
and making them always in the direction that the petal 
lies, following the cup of the petal. 


Chinese Yellow, Albert Yellow, Yellow Brown, Deep 
Red Brown, Brown Green, Moss Green, Dark Green No. 7, 
Bischoff 's Violet, Aztec Blue, Copenhagen Blue, Deep Blue 
Green and Peach Blossom. Paint in the most conspicuous 
flowers, those on which the light falls full and strong with 
Deep Blue Green in lightest part with shadings of Bischoff 's 
Violet, and markings of Bischoff's Violet and Aztec Blue. 
Paint those adjacent with Aztec Blue and Violet, putting 
deep intense shadows behind them of Violet and Black 
and Aztec Blue. Paint shadow flowers with Copenhagen 
Blue. Paint leaves with Moss Green, Brown Green and 
Dark Green No. 7, Auburn and Yellow Brown. Do not 
paint the petals to join in the center; if you do, then wipe 
out the very heart and put a touch of Albert Yellow with 
a dot of Deep Red Brown and Yellow Brown mixed, equal 
parts, just under where the top petal overhangs the little 
cup or well of the flower, and on either side petal near the 
well, leave a little light spot for the white fuzz or whisker 
of the flower. These details are only to be carried out in 
a few of the most conspicuous ones. Note that the violet 
is a first cousin to the pansy, having five petals, one of 
which is generally larger and longer than the others, this 
one being the lower one and which one is often quite strong- 
ly marked. Notice the characteristic set of the flower on 
its stem. 

Background. Put in with Albert Yellow on one side 
as though issuing from behind or underneath principal 

(Treatment p. 42) JUNE ROSES— M. E. HULBERT 




Light olive ground, darker olive leaves and stems, dull red roses. 


Ground, light olive; stems and calyx, dark olive; roses, deep crimson, violet blue, or purple. 
Or: Ground, cafe au lait; stems and calyx, olive green; roses, a dark 
greenish blue, reddish brown, or purple. 



bunch, blending into Chinese Yellow, putting in the rest 
with Peach Blossom, Deep Blue Green and Copenhagen 
Blue. Down toward the stem end of the principal bunch 
flush very rich and dark with Aztec Blue, Violet and 
Copenhagen Blue. Pad, but take care to have a separate 
dauber for your Yellow, in fact it is best not to use the same 
dauber for two colors until you have your flush pretty well 
toned down to the depth you wish it. Then if you feel 
that to blend the blues into the purples and perhaps quiet 
the Yellow where it approaches the Peach Blossom would 
be better, then work with one dauber from one color into 
the other. Wipe out stems where they catch the light 
also any that would be too blackish when painted over 
the purples and blues. Paint in stems while color is open, 
for stems and leaves use Moss Green, Brown Green, Auburn 
Brown and Dark Green No. 7. When in proper condition 
powder over Albert Yellow in background with Yellow 
Brown, carrying it over a few flowers that you wish to 
distance, also powder with Brown Green over part of leaves 
and background. Powder other parts of background if 
you feel they need strengthening. For second firing, 
strengthen with same colors used in first painting, put 
markings in flowers and prominent leaves, paint shadow 
side of stems. Third firing, put in any accents to draw- 
ing that it may need. 

In painting white flowers, unless you are pretty sure 
you can shape your flowers with crispness and precision 
out of the wet tint, it is best to previously draw the principal 
ones on you piece. Pet us take a plate and decorate it 
semi-con ventionally with white violets. First, ring your 
plate on the banding wheel; say you have a nine and 
a half inch plate ; put a band with India ink three and a 
half inches from the edge, then another one one-third inch 
from the first toward the center, now draw on your design. 
Pet a leaf cut the upper band and come down to the second , 
drop a violet midway over the second, put in a couple of 
shadow buds or half open ones drooping in a graceful way 
quite over toward the center of the plate. Draw the rest 
of the bunch above the lines, but lay them on the curved 
lines; that is, make the bunch take the curve. Draw a 
secondary spray but keep it quite subordinate to the principal 
bunch, off to the left and about the middle of the space 
between the upper band and the rim of the plate; say a 
leaf, one well-drawn and a few indistinct violets, with 
graceful stem lines connecting or seeming to connect the 
two bunches. Pet the stems from the smaller bunch 
sweep down toward the larger one and disappear in the 
tint. Pet a bud or half-blown flower from the larger bunch 
lean or reach out toward the smaller spray. In the second 
painting you will add a shadowy little spray just at the 
edge further around. Now to begin again; after putting 
in the center lines and the design with India ink, tint the 
entire plate with Pearl Grey and Deep Blue Green, one- 
sixth of the Blue Green to five-sixths of the Pearl Grey. 
Now wipe out the high-lights in the most conspicuous ones, 
and wipe out leaves. Paint your leaves with Moss Green, 
Brown Green, Dark Green No. 7 and Yellow Brown. After 
the plate is thoroughly dry, put the shadows in the centers 
and the parts of the petals that turn over from the light in 
those that are less conspicuous. To do this without dis- 
turbing the tint underneath you must not make more 
than one stroke of the brush in one place. Put in a touch 
of Deep Red Brown just in the heart of the flower. Put 
a small brush stroke of Albert Yellow below it. Fire. 

You have lost your bands and will wonder perhaps why it 
was necessary to put them in for the first fire, but you had 
them to show you in what position to lay your bunch. 
Put them in again. Now tint plate down to the top band 
with same mixture of Pearl Grey and Deep Blue Green. 
Wipe out high-lights in both the most conspicuous and 
the secondary flowers. Paint leaves and stems, put in 
shadowy flowers that you feel it needs. Go over the 
two bands in the center of the plate with a fine line of 
Grass Green. Put the shadow buds or blooms which are 
drooping over into the banded space with Pearl Grey and 
Blue.- Third fire; go over green bands. Touch up leaves 
with Moss and Dark Green No. 7 and touches at the lower 
edges of Auburn Brown. For second and third fire rim 
or edge the plate with Roman Gold. 

These are stately, lovely flowers and are very decorative 
for straight standing vases. Lemon Yellow, pale for out- 
side petals, Albert Yellow for cup, shade with Grey for 

ROSE HIPS— M. E. HULBERT ( Treatment page 48) 


O 2 01 









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Photograph by Helen Pattee 

Treatment by Henrietta Barclay Paist. Page 42 



Flowers, Yellow Brown and Deep Red Brown. Leaves, 
cool greens, Russian Green, Moss Green, Shading Green 
and Dark Green No. 7, Yellow Brown. Fill your brush 
with the color having the brush rather wetter with the 
turpentine than you would in painting a flower or anything 
on which you would paint stroke after stroke. Strive to 
put in the leaves with long sustained strokes going from 
the top of the leaf to the bottom without lifting the brush 
and using a brush large enough so that you can get the full 
width of the leaf. I put my high-light color on first, then 
take up my middle tone or general leaf color. For the 
second fire you can put on with the same clean stroke the 
shadows. Wash in the background in the first painting, 
using Copenhagen Grey, Deep Blue Green, Copenhagen 
Blue, a touch of Violet or powder with Lavender Glaze, 
Dark Green No. 7 and Brown Green. Second painting; 
touch up with same colors as for first fire. 

The principal beauty in these flowers is their handsome, 
rich leaves and the stateliness with which the stem lifts 
its head of rich or delicate colored flowers and I should 
treat them in such a way as to impress this, for instance 
the bronze ring that some of the varieties show so strongly 
marked in the leaves and the richness of the dark greens. 
There are too many varieties to take up and treat individ- 
ually, but for the white ones or delicate pink ones, I sketch 
roughly my study on to the piece, paint in my foliage 
with such a palette: Moss Green, Deep Blue Green, Brown 
Green, Dark Green No. 7, Deep Red Brown, Yellow Brown, 
Auburn Brown and Violet of Iron. Now throw in a green- 
ish-grey background for the white flower heads to set in, 

or a blue grey for pink ones, by using Peach Blossom, 
Deep Blue Green, Chinese and Albert Yellow, or Rosa with 
Apple Green with more Blue or more Yellow as you wish 
to vary the background. Wipe out the high-lights where 
the heads catch the strong light. Put in stems with Yellow 
Green, Brown Green. Fire. Paint in general character 
of flower head, if white flowers, with Lemon Yellow and 
Black or White Rose. Do not try to finish details until 
third fire. Touch up foliage, bringing out the markings 
in one or two of the most prominent leaves. Re-touch 
stems with Brown Green and Violet of Iron. Third fire; 
indicate how the flower heads are composed of many separate 
flowers by carefully bringing out in the most prominent 
heads a few of these divisions. It is not the easiest thing 
to paint a compound flower and show its character at the 
same time, retaining that simple broadness of handling 
that is the charm in any kind of painting. We are merely 
representing these things and let it be in a beautiful way, 
an interesting way, not making colored photographs. For 
the red geraniums, Blood Red first fire, second fire Ruby 
with dark shadow side of heads painted with Ruby and 
Black, three-fourths Ruby to one-fourth Black. Another 
shade of red geranium is Ruby with Rosa for high-lights, 
dust with same Ruby and Black. Second fire; Ruby and 
Purple Black for the shadow side. Third ; strengthen color 
and add accents. 

It is like telling one how to paint faces. There is 
such a variety of expression to show. We must confine 
ourselves to a general treatment. Such a variety of color! 
Indeed they run the gamut of the chromatic scale, from 
the chaste, white ones with their gold or purple markings, 
the saffron yellow, the golden yellow, markings running 
from ruby, purple, royal purple, wood brown, to almost 
black; then the golden brown, the soft wood browns, the 
blue ones from plumbago blue to deepest violet, with every 
variety of marking. In painting the yellow or brown ones, 
always be careful to wipe out the place where the markings 
come, as they are usually of the deep gold colors, such as 
Ruby, Roman Purple or Violet, which if painted over the 
yellows and browns, will not come out the intense clear 
purple or crimson you may wish it. To make the mark- 
ings intense enough use a little Black with the Purple or 







If I am going to cover a pretty good sized surface with 
forget-me-nots, I tint the piece with clouds of Deep Blue 
Green and Chinese Yellow, letting a large cloud of the Deep 
Blue Green come where I will want my principal bunch 
of forget-me-nots. I then pad these two tints. In put- 
ting them on I bear in mind how I want my decoration to 
run on the piece, using the blue as the setting for the flowers. 
Of course there will be blue elsewhere than just behind the 
flowers, but at the principal bunches I try to have the 
color a little stronger. I then take a sharp stick with a 
tiny bit of cotton twisted around the point and wipe out 
some flowers where the bunch would seem to catch the 
light and here and there elsewhere also. Now some of 
the wiped out ones I paint in again with Rosa or Peach 
Blossom or with Violet very delicate in some, but near 
the center of the bunches I use touches of Violet to give 
depth to the mass and underneath some that I wish to 
bring out strong. This is one way in which to paint them, 
using no greens and letting them come up out of the china 
in an indistinct way, only defining a few in the heart of 
the bunches. Connect one bunch with another with 
trailing stem-like lines of blue and Violet. Put in centers 
with Albert Yellow, Yellow Brown and Deep Red Brown. 

These are not the easiest flowers to paint. Roses are 
the most popular miniature flowers painted and as this 
article has already lengthened itself too much, I will 
speak only of the way I have found best to paint these. 
I always begin by making the center, if it is a pink rose, 
one-fourth Ruby Purple to three-fourths Rosa. Then 
keeping the white china for the high-light or lighted side, 
I paint in a curving stroke the ball of the little rose pulling 
the color out where I want the side broken with a petal, 
or if I am painting the face view, wait until the paint is 
dry then with the brush point, paint in a few little lines 
about the center to indicate the edges of the petals. For 
second fire, touch up center with same as first fire, describe 
the turn or point of a petal here and there with the same 
Ruby and Rosa. Where the flowers want stronger model- 

ing, use a delicate wash of Rosa. For shadowy light ones, 
Rosa and Deep Blue Green; for yellow ones, Albert Yellow 
with centers of Deep Red Brown and Yellow Brown equal 
parts. Touch edge of petals with same, but thinner. To 
paint Saffranna colored ones, use Chinese Yellow and Deep 
Red Brown, with centers of Yellow Brown and Deep Red 
Brown. Touch up with same. Crimson ones, Ruby with 
Rosa for high-lights and Ruby and Purple Black for centers. 
Let foliage be sketchy. On last fire, you may suggest a 
vein here and there in the leaves, but don't try to paint 
little roses or their foliage as detailed as you would paint 
large ones. 


For pale yellow ones, Egg Yellow very delicate with 
a little Deep Red Brown added which gives that peculiar 
light pinkish yellow that you find among the lighter colored 
ones; the markings to be made with Yellow Brown and 
Deep Red Brown. Second fire ; Same colors as for first fire 
over flower with Ruby overmarkings. The bright yellow 
ones, Dark Yellow with markings of Blood Red for first 
fire and Ruby for second. Flame colored ones, Yellow 
Red, high-lights, any yellow; markings, Blood Red first 
fire and Ruby second. Leave center of cup greenish yellow. 
Deep crimson ones, Ruby Purple, dusted with Blood Red 
repeated for second fire. Markings, Ruby and Black, 
two-thirds Ruby to one-third Black. The rich, maroon 
colored ones, Deep Red Brown and Chocolate Brown for 
first fire, with Yellow Brown and Blood Red for second. 
The foliage in Nasturtiums is quite as beautiful as are the 
blossoms, and the character of the growth of the plant 
should not be lost. Foliage, cool green; use Deep Blue 
Green, Apple Green, Shading Green, Dark Green No. 7. For 
shadows under leaves use Auburn Brown and Green No. 7. 

Of course this is only giving, as it were, one way of 
treating a violet study, a rose study, etc., but it is impos- 
sible in so short a space to treat fully so comprehensive a 
subject, and so I have tried to show each of these flowers 
to its best advantage, handling it in such a treatment of 
complementary and harmonious colors as will secure to 
each its peculiar charm. 

(Treatment page 49) 




Wood Safford 


THE new galleries of the National Arts Club on Gram- 
ercy Park are well fitted to show off to the best advan- 
tage the work of our ceramic decorators and potters. And 
the exhibit this year, though small, seemed quite at home 
in its surroundings. We missed the work of several of our 
best decorators but nevertheless much was to be seen highly 
creditable to the Society. Perhaps the most unique exhibit, 
because so simple and unpretentious, was that of Mrs. Sara 
Wood Safford. All that her case contained was two sets 
of table ware, one a breakfast set in silver and white, 
the other a lunch set in silver and celadon, each tastefully 
arranged on a tray of grey wood which harmonized com- 
pletely. The designs were simple, abstract units repeated 
as a border, drawn free-hand and good in every way. The 
sort of tableware one could live with forever and not come 
to blows. 

The Misses Mason had the largest showing of important 
pieces. The framed landscape and the vase decorated 
with the same motif made an interesting study, while the 
tableware was more individual and clever than ever. Al- 
most every form, vases, bowls, cracker jars, tea jars and 
steins, had been made from designs furnished to potters by 
Miss Maud Mason herself. The bowl decorated with a ship 

design in gold on white was specially nice in^outline and 
the spotting of the design. 

Of the many interesting plates, the narrow border by 
Miss Bessie Mason in gold, silver, black and turquoise blue 
was especially well proportioned and nice in color. The 
fish plate in celadon on white had a clever Japanese effect 
and in fact all the plates illustrated were clever and unusual. 

The little tea jar designed by Miss Mason was much 
in evidence in several exhibits, and seems to adapt itself 
well to decoration. 

It was interesting to note in the exhibit of Mrs. Henri- 
etta Barclay Paist, several of the designs published in her 
edited number of Keramic Studio (January) carried out 
in gold and color. It was to be regretted also that her 
showing was not larger. 

Mrs. Anna B. Leonard's case held many pieces of table- 
ware good in design and color. We note especially the 
large chop dish, and plates in blue and green. 

Especially noteworthy was the exhibit of Miss Caro- 
line Hoffman, a new member, whose work was perhaps 
the most original of any in design and color. Throughout 
the other exhibits one could plainly note the influence of 
the prevailing ideas in ceramic design, either a running 
to the extreme of abstract forms or a semi-naturalistic 
treatment showing Japanese influence, certain color schemes 
following one school or another. The work of Miss Hoff- 

Caroliue Hofman 

Mary Hicks 



Maud Mason Landscape — Maud Mason 

man is unique and gives the impression of having been 
worked out by the study of the old fashioned ware of our 
grandmother's days, whose charm never fails. 

There is no piece which reminds one of^any other ex- 
hibit. Unusually fine is a bowl in grey blues with a narrow 
rim border inside, a medallion at bottom of bowl and on 
two opposite sides of the outside, the inside of bowl 
decorated on a white ground, the outside tinted a blue grey. 
The plates whose entire centers were occupied by the de- 
sign, leaving the edge white except for the rim border, were 
also unique in treatment, being in colors reminding one of 
old Bristol or Polychrome Delft. 

We would like especially to note a little fancy of Miss 
Mary Hicks which pleased as much by its fine color and 
nice arrangement of design as by the quaint idea suggested 
for the beautifying of a summer home. Miss Hicks had 
decorated an ordinary pottery butter crock in reds, browns 
and soft yellow. The effect was charming in the extreme 
and would be harmonious with any and all flowers. 

The pottery exhibit was exceptionally interesting, 
several new workers having entered the field. Most orig- 
inal and attractive of all was the stoneware of Russel 
Crooke, the forms thrown on the wheel being especially 
appropriate to the medium. The decoration in dark blue 

on grey with a smear glaze, was roughly sketched in with a 
boldness and simplicity that was charming. For a coun- 
try home and for holding flowers nothing could be more 
appropriate and satisfying. The work of Mr. Crooke 
opens up a new field and one not too difficult for the 
amateur who appreciates simple things. 

Another new name in the society is that of Fred 
Walrath who showed a case of interesting work in several 
lines. Matt glazes in the style of Alfred Pottery, Matt 
vellum, in the style of Rookwood, interesting experiments in 
flambe red giving the dark red shot with blue and a few 
crystalline glazes similar to some of those shown at the 
society's last exhibit by Mrs. Adelaide Alsop Robineau — 
altogether a clever lot of work. 

Miss Mary Chase Perry, a name which should be 
familiar to all of us, was well represented for the first time 
by a large wall space devoted to tiles in matt glazes, the 
designs simple and good and the colors harmonious and 
restful. Miss Perry is entering this field now in a large 
way and we hope soon to be able to tell Keramic Studio 
readers more about her work. 

Mr. Charles Volkmar showed an overmantel in tiles 
which was nice in colors, the motif being golden rod on 
a dull green ground. A case contained also some experi- 

Miss E. Mason 



Josephine Foord 

Mrs. Hibler Mrs. Price Miss Walsh Mrs. Price 

Mrs. Hibler Miss Warren Mrs. Ehlers Miss Sincla 

Wheatley Pottery— Harriet Clarke 


'^f ■ 





n^MSg? ^$ 


Caroline Hofman 
Katherine Sinclair 

Caroline Hofman 
Caroline Hofman 

Caroline Hofman 
Minna Meinke 

H. Barclay Paist 



Pewabic Tiles — Mary Chase Perry 

merits in flambe red similar to the results obtained by Mr. 

Another unfamiliar name is that of the Clifton Pottery. 
The shapes are simple and good with semi mat glazes of 
the rutile brown type used by Mrs. Robineau, the light 
mat brown at top of pieces running into a bright glaze with 
violet and blue streaks and small mat crystallizations at 
the base. They also showed some mat light greens, shapes 
not so good as the others, the outlines being grotesque and 
with odd handles similar to the shapes used by Teco Pot- 
tery and some German firms. 

A very interesting collection of pottery made by Mex- 
ican Indian women and accompanied by two pieces of her 
own work, was shown by Miss Josephine Foord, who has 
been sent by the U. S. Government to instruct the Indians 

i r i t 


Pewabic Tiles— Mary Chase P<= 

Pewabic Tiles— Mary Chase Perry 

Pewabic Tiles— Mary Chase Perry 



Pottery — Russel Crooke 

in making a more durable pottery. The work of the In- 
dian woman is the familiar black, ochre and red design on 
a cream white, slightly baked pottery, which is very porous 
and easily broken. The two pieces by Miss Foord her- 
self are more of the quality of stoneware, a grey body with 
a yellow brown decoration and a smear °;laze finish. The 

Pewabic Tile— Mary Chase Perry 

color is harmonious and the shapes are good and the body 
has the appearance of strength which the native pottery 

Miss Harriet Clarke showed some good pottery in 
black and dark wood brown, the finish being a wax 
polish. The decoration is in bas relief figures and the 
whole effect reminds one strongly of the work of Miss Per- 
kins of the Brush Guild. 

One hesitates to pass judgment on the Markham pot- 
tery, for fear of injustice, but to one at all versed in the 
mechanical processes of pottery making, this ware does not 
ring true. The shapes are simple and good, the colors are 
soft wood browns, reds and greens. The surface is entirely 
without gloss and covered with an impression, meander or 
network of raised irregular lines or forms suggesting leaf 
veinings or something else vaguely mysterious and sug- 
gestive. Altogether it reminds one of a refined edition of 
the apollinaris jugs of our youth which we decorated with 
the scrapings of our palette. The color does not seem to 
be fired on. The body has the appearance of being cast 
and low fired. It lacks good ceramic qualities, and yet 
this ware perhaps attracted more favorable comment from 
the general public than any other exhibit of pottery. 

Newcomb College was represented by a small exhibit 
of their familiar work in grey blues, greens, buffs and browns, 
which is always attractive. There were also some indi- 
vidual pieces in reds by Mr. Meyer who, we understand, is 
the technical director of the pottery. These pieces were 
especially interesting as they were thrown in the style of 
Japanese ware showing the finger lines of throwing on the 

A few pieces of AATieatley pottery were shown with 
modeled relief figures and matt green glazes similar to 
Grueby. These pieces have an architectural quality and 
would be effective as garden pottery, 

The Misses Penman and Hardenburgh showed some 
interesting work in hand built pottery, as did Miss Jane 
Hoagland. A fern dish in low relief and matt green glaze 
by Miss Edith Lynn was among the good individual pieces. 
Mrs. Hoyt showed some clever modeling of figures and 
animals. There was also some very large and elaborate 
work in Delia Robbia style by the American Terra Cotta Co. 



Gr^s— Fred. Walrath 

The Handicraft Guild of Minneapolis was represented by 
simple shapes, hand built or thrown with nice mat glazes. 

A loan collection of Persian, Spanish and other antique 
pottery completed the exhibition. 


Ida M. Ferris. 

THE new Bischoff |six-color palette is fine for this design. 
Roses, Peach Blossom shaded with Ashes of Roses 
and in darker ones use Magenta. 

Leaves, Verdigris and Celadon shaded with Purple 
Black. Dust Magenta lightly over pinkish ones. 

Background, Ashes of Roses, Verdigris, Magenta and 
Purple Black. 

Stems quite pinkish with Magenta and Green. 

JUNE ROSES (Page 30) 

Maud E. Hulbert. 

THE larger and more open of these roses are white, 
while the buds and newly opened ones are a very 
light pink. 

Use Lemon Yellow, Warm Grey, Pompadour (very 
thin), Copenhagen Grey and Brown Green. 

For the leaves, Deep Blue Green, Yellow and Moss 
Green, Brown Green and Shading Green and a little Chest- 
nut Brown. 

For the background, Copenhagen Grey, Warm Grey, 
Yellow Ochre, a little Violet of Iron and Ivory Glaze. 


Photograph by Helen Pattee. 

H . Barclay Paisi. 

THESE beautiful flowers are of the white and creamy 
variety. The white are the ones at the top and bottom 
of the group, modeled delicately with Grey for Flowers or 
Grey Green. The centers are painted with Albert's Yellow 
strengthened with touches of Pompadour Red and Yellow 
Brown. The creamy pink ones are first shaded delicately 
with Carmine No. 53 and shadows painted with Grey Green 
or Grey for Flowers, the whole glazed delicately in the 
second fire with Lemon Yellow just enough to give it the 
creamy tint desired. The leaves are a glossy green on the 
upper side, lighter green on the under side, same colors as 

for foliage in the other studies. The cream or pale green 
background is best if used fiat. If on a vase, a shaded back- 
ground may be used running from the lightest to the dark- 
est greens. Too many colors in the background is to be 
avoided. If one wishes to vary the background color 
use colors that appear in the flowers so as to be sure of per- 
fect harmony. 


Rose, dull violet; 
Light cream outline, 

leaves and stems, olive brown. 
Background, light and darker grey 


Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 232 East 27th Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 


Theo. Neuhuys. 

Brown dye — Very favorable results were also obtained 
in the dyeing in brown with gambier, a tanning and dye- 
ing material well known in the dyeing industry, prepared 
from the leaves of a creeper much cultivated in Malacca. 
A recipe is made up, in which bichromate of potash is used 
as a mordant. In this instance it was found that often 
repeated dyeing in weak baths gives much better results 
than steeping once in a strong bath; by the former method 
a much faster color is obtained than by the latter. On 
silk especially this dye gives rich tints of gold and bronze. 
For very dark brown on linen and cotton the yellow dye 
may be mixed with brown dye. A bright yellowish brown, 
a so-called "chamois," absolutely non-fading and fast, 
may be produced by a solution of sulphate of iron fixed 
with a solution of soda. 

In fact a great variety of beautiful tints may be batiked 
on textiles merely by using the fast blue and brown dyes. 
So we would advise every batiker to begin by practicing 
with these two splendid dyes. From the Solo batiks of 
Central Java, the most beautiful ever made, we learn what 
brilliant results are possible with them. 

Other brown vegetable dyes — Brown colors were also 
obtained in the laboratory by the use of various. Javanese 
barks, but the results were not better than those given by 
gambier; moreover these barks are difficult to obtain in our 

Purple dye — The textile is mordanted in acetate of 
aluminum; then it is left to dry, and is dyed in a filtered 
decoction of campeachy wood. After dyeing, the textile 
is again left to dry, then it is a second time mordanted in 
acetate of aluminum (Burow's solution). 

Yellow dye — For dyeing yellow the textile is mordanted 
in acetate of aluminum, left to dry, and dyed in a filtered 

decoction of rhamnus berries. After dyeing it is again 
left to dry and mordanted in acetate of aluminum. 

The above dye baths may be used for cotton and linen 
as well as silk. Many other vegetable colors have been 
experimented with in the laboratory. For particulars we 
refer to the detailed reports on batiking in the Bulletin of 
the Colonial Museum (Nos. 23, 25, 28.) 

Red dye for silk — For' this, cochineal is used. The 
silk is mordanted in diluted chloride of tin, and dyed after 
drying. The dye bath consists of ground cochineal and 
tartaric acid, boiled with water and subsequently filtered. 

Alizarin technique — Red dye — For the dyeing in red 
of batiked fabrics in this country, especially cotton and 
silk, it was found that the Javanese process was impractic- 
able in our climate, but successful experiments were made 
with certain alizarin dyes, which, contrary to most aniline 
dyes, are absolutely non-fading and fast.* And now 
batikers have at their disposal another series of very beau- 
tiful colors. 

In alizarin dyes the textiles are dyed boiling hot, 
which seems at first to be a disadvantage, but with a slight 
modification of the batiking process, it has proved to be 
very satisfactory. Experiments were made with alizarin 
in paste, such as it is found in the trade, and with the follow- 
ing kinds: alizarin red, alizarin orange, anthracene blue. 

Alizarin dyeing of cotton — The cotton fabric is first 
boiled in water and soda, then well rinsed and dried. The 
design is applied with the usual wax mixture (Japanese 
wax and colophony) by means of the tjanting. It is ad- 
visable to use the wax freely, as the dye bath will slightly 
corrode it. The fabric is now placed in a mixture of water 
and so-called "oil for Turkish red," then well shaken and 

*Alizarin is a peculiar red coloring matter formerly obtained from madder 
and extensively used as a dye. It was discovered in 1824 by Robiquet and 
Colin, who obtained it by digesting madder root with alcohol and treating 
this with sulphuric acid, thus producing a black mass which they called "char- 
bon de garance." On treating, this yielded a sublimate of alizarin in long 
brilliant red needle shaped crystals. It is now artificially prepared on a large ' 
scale from anthracene, a product of coal tar. (Pub.) 

Dutch Batik iu fast colon 

1 silk pill 

Dutch Batik on linen pillow. 



Dutch Batik c 

carefully pressed between sheets of absorbent paper, and 
dried still further. The design is looked over and wax 
added where required so that the mordant cannot pene- 
trate through it. This mordant is acetate of aluminum, 
in which the textile is placed, then it is dried, preferably in 
a warm place. A tepid chalk bath is prepared in which 
the textile is moved to and fro, after which it is rinsed in 
running water and dyed without drying. After being well 
shaken, the alizarin is now mixed with water and put 
through a sieve into a dye bath (an enameled saucepan or 
porcelain dish) with more water. The textile is first 
moved in this bath, then the bath is heated and brought 
to the boiling point; this boiling must last an hour. The 
wax which naturally melts during this operation is con- 
tinually skimmed off. The design is apparently lost, but 
will gradually reappear in the next bath. After a quick 
rinsing of the textile in cold water, the design is revived 
in boiling soap water which is continually renewed. The 
execution of this alizarin process, etching on cloth, as it 
were, is extremely fascinating. The color is absolutely 
proof against the long boiling. 

Alizarin dyeing of silk — Silk is dyed with alizarin in 
very much the same way. The batiked silk is placed in a 
solution of alum water, to which soda is added (the sedi- 
ment that is first formed is dissolved by heating). Then 
the textile is well shaken and fixed, without drying, in a 
solution of soluble glass. By the adding of alum and soda, 
the mordant may be repeatedly used ; the solution of soluble 
glass must be made fresh every time. After being fixed 
in this bath, the silk fabric is rinsed in running water and 
placed in the dye bath. A more detailed description will 
be found in Bulletin 28, pages 56-65. 

As a result of experiments with alizarin dyes and a 
few of the very best aniline dyes, we have come to the fol- 
lowing conclusions : 

1. The use of even the best aniline dyes in the dye- 
ing of batiks on cotton, silk and wool, is not to be recom- 
mended. Of the basic dyes for cotton (blue, red, 3^ellow, 
green, purple) only five proved to be at all non-fading, and 
these were all blue, and certainly not more beautiful than 
the absolutely fast indigo blue. Of the substantive colors, 
six proved to be non-fading, four yellows, one rose and 
one purple. One of the yellow dyes was tested in the 
laboratory and proved not to be fast at all. Of the dyes 

for half-silk only four proved to be non-fading, two blues, 
one rose, one grey. Of the dyes for silk, eight proved to 
some extent non-fading, three blues, two rose tints, one 
green, one purple, one yellow. But, excepting the yellow, 
which was a beautiful golden tint, these colors were harsh 
and much inferior to the indigo blue, the cochineal red and 
the campeachy wood purple. As these results were obtained 
with the best aniline dyes fresh from the most important 
factory in Germany, it is not to be wondered at that much 
batik work without any durability as to color, is placed 
on the market nowadays, especially as many batikers have 
their dyeing done by others, who take the first aniline dyes 
without testing them as to non-fading qualities. 

2. The use of alizarin dyes is much to be recommended 
for the dyeing of both cotton and silk. They have stood 
perfectly the test as to fastness and non-fading qualities. 
The process is slower than aniline dyeing, but the result 
is very satisfactory. These dyes will give a fine red, orange 
and purple on both cotton and silk. 

Dyes for parchment — On parchment we may use with 
favorable results the following dyes : 

Red — Cochineal with a mordant consisting of tartaric 
acid and salt of tin. 

Purple — Cochineal with acetate of aluminum. 

Brown — The dye described before, with bichromate of 

Black — Hydrochloric aniline with spirits of ammonia 
and bichromate of potash. 

Blue — The Indigo bath described before, and some- 
times the so-called Prussian blue, obtained by sulphate of 
iron and yellow prussiate of potash. 

Yellow — Bichromate of potash with acetate of lead 
(sugar of lead) , or sulphate of iron with soda. 

Green- — Sulphate of copper (blue vitriol). 

The fastness of these colors leaves little or nothing 
to be desired but it must be remembered that, as a rule, 
parchment is much easier to dye than cotton and linen. 



As I said before, any student who is interested in 
batiking, will find in a few numbers of the "Bulletin" 
particulars concerning the Harlem batiking technique. 
This Bulletin may be obtained on application from the 
Colonial Museum (No. 23, price $0.24; No. 25, with colored 
plate of a parchment batik, $0.40; No. 28, about alizarin 
technique, $0.40). These pamphlets ma)' also be had as 
a loan from the Library of the Museum, entirely free of 
charge. Requests for information concerning batiking 
are always gladly answered. 

At the Laboratory labels for batik work may be ob- 
tained, inscribed: "Done with dyes warranted non-fad- 
ing", the name of the maker and a number which is entered 
on a register. These labels may be obtained free of charge 
by any batiker who can give sufficient proof of the durable 
qualities of the dyes he has used. 

I here wish to call attention to the unfortunate influence 
on the batiking technique of a wholesale production by the 
trade. The latter will naturally apply the principle of 
division of labor, and the very quality which distinguishes 
the art product from the factory product at once disappears, 
the quality of being stamped with a character of its own, 
of being produced by a living, thinking artist. There is 
now circulating a Dutch batik work which consists of 
nothing but badly dyed factory patterns. For more than 
half a century the textile industry has used so-called "resists" 
which protect parts of the textile to be dyed from the in- 
fluence of the dye. As a rule these reserved spots have 
been produced by the mechanical appliance of ingeniously 
contrived implements. In factory made batik, the only differ- 
ence will be that the work will be done by men and women 
who will be made to work like machines, and thus the 
elevating and civilizing influence which a beautiful craft 
always exercises on mankind, will be destroyed. The 
superiority of batiking, as a craft, is precisely that it en- 
ables every artist to transfer his designs in a lasting way 
to silk, linen, cotton, parchment, leather, without the 
•intervention of a factory or dyeing establishment. 

May many feel called to apply themselves to this fine 
craft, and in so doing enrich modern industrial art with 
a new branch, which may bear as beautiful fruit as its 
sister branch, the Javanese art of batiking. 

In answer to inquiries, Mr. Neuhuys sends us the fol- 
lowing additional and explanatory notes : 

The tjanting or wax vessel is made of brass. To the 
lower projecting opening, on right side, a handle is adjusted ; 
in the Javanese tjanting, a bamboo stick. The pipe on 
top is used to regulate the flow of wax, by closing or open- 
ing it with the fingers. When the fingers are taken off the 
pipe, the wax flows through the spout, when the pipe is 
closed the wax stops flowing. Adjustable spouts of dif- 
ferent sizes are used on the tjanting, large ones to draw 
large lines or cover big spots, smaller ones for finer work. 
The smallest one used has a hole not thicker than a hair. 

Different wax mixtures have been indicated, but no 
definite formula given because no definite results have 
yet been obtained. But the foundation of all the mix- 
tures to be experimented with must be pure beeswax, no 
imitations should be used. 

The wax is kept in a liquid state by putting the tjant- 
ing in hot water and keeping it at an even temperature. 
The room in which wax drawing is done should also be 
kept well heated. 

Some artists draw their design at once on the material 

they are using for batik, others make the design on linen 
tracing paper which is attached to the back of the textile 
or parchment, and the latter placed on a frame against a 
window, as shown in the accompanying illustration. This 
frame arrangement is similar to that used by photographers 
to retouch their negatives. When treating parchment, 
the parchment may be placed on a glass plate and the 
pattern on the back of the glass. 


The larger spaces of the wax drawing often crack 
accidentally. After dyeing, these cracks show fine irreg- 
ular colored lines, which constitute one' [of the charms 
of the batik. After the wax drawing is made, the material 
can be folded and thus cracks can be produced purposely. 

The milk of lime spoken of in first part of the article 
is simply unslaked lime. 


Jules Brateau 
After the XVI. century the pewter industry increased 
in prosperity, although it lost in artistic merit. However 
tasteful articles were still produced, especially in Germany, 
but in such quantities that no real progress in decoration 
could be made. The invasion of Italian ceramics from 
Urbino, Faenza, and Gubbio, struck a blow at the produc- 
tion of large decorative pieces in pewter. These faiences 
of superb coloring, and of varied subjects, easily found a 
place in the homes of the rich, to the detriment of engraved 
pewter work. In France, as early as the XVII. century, 
the manufacture of these ceramics, at Rouen, Nevers, and 
Moustiers, caused a rapid decline of the pewter industry, 
which was powerless against the infatuation of the public 

No. 33. Bas-Relief i 

pewter. "Jupiter and Juno.'' XVII. century. Louis XI II. 
of France. Belongs to J. Brateau. 



No. 36. Pewter Tray with Louis XV. edge. XVIII. century. Pewter Water Pot. XVII. to XVIII. century. 

No. 38. Covered Dish. Style Louis XV. XVIII. century. Pewter. Modern interpretation. Composition and" execution by J.Brateau 

No. 40. Card Tray. Style Louis XVI. XVIII. century. Pewter. Modern interpretation. 20 centimeters. Composition and execution by J. Brateau. 



No. 35. Soup tun 

XVIII. century. Fron 
1887-1888. Paris. 

Revue Jes Arts Decoratifs 

No. 34. Ewer in pewter, time of Louis XVI. 

for wares of bright coloring, easily kept clean, and adapted 
to all kinds of uses. 

Pewterers were forced to limit their production to 
articles which could not well be made of other substances. 
There was a slight revival of their industry when, imitat- 
ing the example of Louis XIV., French nobles sent their 
gold and silver to be melted, in order .to defray the ex- 
penses of the War of the Spanish Succession. The va- 
cancies made on the dressers by the disappearance of fine 
pieces of gold and silver, had to be filled, but even then 

the use of pottery had become so general that the hopes 
of pewterers were not realized. 

After the Louis XIV. period, decorators, in search of 
novelty, created a new style, showing a peculiar scroll 
ornamentation, which has been called Louis XV. All 
branches of decorative art followed the new departure, 
and the style developed everywhere with astonishing 
rapidity. The pewterers, who were struggling for exist- 
ence, joined the general movement, and prudently attempt- 
ed to adapt their work to the taste of the day. They 
borrowed from Gouthiere, Germain, Meissonnier, and 

No. 37. Louis XV. style. XVIII, century, pewter. Modern interpretation. Composition and execution by J. Brateau 

4 8 


No. 41. Tray. Style Louis XVI. XVIII. century. " The Seasons." Pewter. Moder 
Composition and execution by J. Brateau. Diameter 25 centimeters. 

from less famous designers compositions applicable to 
their industry. The favor with which the public received 
the new forms put life into the deserted shops. Pewter 
potters became again numerous, and to the traditional 
technique of the craft was added a new method, borrowed 
from the skilled goldsmiths and silversmiths: that of ham- 
mering pewter, as if it were gold or silver. Dishes were 

No. 39. Fountain in pewter. Styli 

century. From the work of Salmc 

at Chartres. Edited in P 

Louis XVI. XVIII. 

No 42. Small candlestick. Style Lu 

Modern interpretation. ^Composit 

Height 16J ( 

is XVI. XVIII. century. Pewter. 
m and execution by J. Brateau. 
m ti meters. 

made, highly worked up, with edges twisted and turned, 
with bodies well rounded, ornamented with friezes, mon- 
ograms and crests, which were graven with the tool; the 
decoration becoming, as time went on, capricious, rococo, 
and often entirely out of balance. The new work in pew- 
ter met with considerable success, but the infatuation for 
it was short lived, and soon the industry encountered 
another check. 

(to be continued) 

^ J- 

ROSES (Page 29) 

Phil Wight. 

THE background of this design is in three different 
tones, the outer and darkest one is of a dark green 
shade for which we advise the use of equal parts of Brown 
Green and Shading Green No. 57. The inner and lightest 
part is Yellow Brown, while the intervening tone should 
be executed in gold. The roses should be in two shades 
of Rose No. 23 and Pink No. 17. Stems and foliage, Yellow 
Green and thorns and junction of leaves Dark Pompadour. 

Sketch in design in India ink, wash in Dark Green and 
light Yellow Brown parts of background, padding gently 
over to even it down, then dry. Take Clove oil and cut 
out the design, fill in and put on gold last of all. If desir- 
able trace whole in black, or, as the study suggests, very 
carefully in White Enamel (Relief) . 

ROSE HIPS (Page 32) 

Maud Huibert. 

PAINT the rose hips with Yellow Ochre, Orange Red, 
Pompadour and Blood Red or Carnation No. 1 and 
No. 2. The ripest ones are a dark red while some of the 
more undeveloped ones are quite • yellow. 

The leaves are a bright green, use Yellow Green for 



the lightest ones and Brown Green and Shading Green 
for the dark ones. 

If you wish a dark ground use Shading Green but 
add a little Orange Red to soften it and use some Violet 
of Iron in the shadowy leaves that go under the tint. 

If you wish to use a light ground, Copenhagen Grey 
and Brown Green will be good. Sometimes the rose leaves 
have turned to the autumn colors, yellows, reds and russet 
browns, when the rose hips are ripe. 
i> i> 

WILD ROSES (Page 30) 

Maud E. Hulbert. 

THE roses may be painted either with Pompadour, 
Warm Grey, and a little Lemon Yellow, or with Rose 
for the first firing, with thin washes of Lemon Yellow over . 
some of the lights, and Brown Green over the shadows 
for the second. 

For the centers Lemon Yellow, Yellow Ochre, a 
touch of Orange and a very little Green. For the leaves 
Yellow Green, Moss Green, Brown Green and Shading 
Green, and for the lightest leaves at the top, some Deep 
Blue Green with the Moss Green, and for the stems a little 
Pompadour with the Finishing Brown. 

Flush with Apple Green and Ochre or Yellow Green, 
and tint with Ivory. 

i> i> 

ROSES (Page 26) 

A my Dalrymple. 

IN painting the roses for the first firing treat the three 
pink ones almost entirely for the light and shade 
effect, using Rose color only very delicately on the very tips 
of the petals. Get the modeling of them by using a tender 
grey made of Myrtle Green and Rose blended in the brush 
as used to avoid monotony. Have your square shader 
brush in a good free condition, just enough oil, just enough 
turpentine and plenty enough of paint so that each brush 
mark may be a joy. For the centres of the pink roses 
which are in shadow, use this same grey with Carnation 
added and in the very darkest places a little Ruby also. 
Leave the very lightest parts of the pink roses pure white 
this time. For the two darker roses use pure Ruby for 
heart of rose and edges of petals painted very solidly yet 
smoothly, and for the outside or backs of petals use Ruby 
with Deep Blue Green and a little Yellow Brown (this last 
to avoid too violet a color). Paint lighter leaves with 
Apple Green, Primrose Yellow and Shading Green, and the 
darker ones with rich Brown Green added where the petals 
of the upper roses rest against them. Let the background 
echo the colors already used, very delicate Apple Green 
and Yellow at the botton and then warmth where needed 
in a bit of Yellow Brown and coolness where needed with 
a touch of Myrtle Green and becoming very rich with Brown 
Green, Shading Green, Hair Brown and Ruby at top. 
Dust lower part of background with Apple Green, Pearl 
Grey and Yellow Brown and pink roses with Rose color; 
the dark ones dust with Ruby and upper part of the back- 
ground with Myrtle Green, Ruby and Hair Brown. 

For second fire add whatever is needed in the model- 
ing and blending of the light and shade, by using same 
colors on pink roses and leaves and Finishing Brown for 
the deep darks of the red roses. 

For third fire, wash pink roses with rose color, make 
color richer on dark spots if needed (more Finishing Brown 
or Ruby or both) and wash leaves with clear Yellow Green , 
Yellow or Yellow Brown for sunlight effects. 



Elizabeth De hong. 
VORY tint fired. Background, grey green. Stems, 
bands, leaves and calyx, deeper shade of green. 
Rose and bud, carnation pink. Center of rose, yellow. 

HAWS (Page 34) 

Mariam L. Chandler 

FOR this brilliant and attractive study the following 
colors are used. — Capucine Red, Deep Red Brown, Blood 
Red, Apple Green, Moss Green, Brown Green, Shading- 
Green, Chinese Yellow, Yellow Brown, Auburn Brown, 
Violet of Iron and Black. 


ist Fire. For the haws use Capucine Red for the 
lightest part modeling with Deep Red Brown or Blood 

For the leaves in the foreground which are much 
lighter and brighter than the others, use Moss Green, Brown 
Green and a little Shading Green. For the distant leaves 
use Grey Green (§ Apple Green \ Black). Give the stems 
a light wash of Auburn Brown and the thorns Deep Red 

2d Firing. Retouch haws and leaves and lay in the 
background using for the lightest part at the top, Chinese 
Yellow, gradually blending into Yellow Brown, Deep Red 
Brown and Auburn Brown. 

3d Firing. Retouch, strengthen where necessary and 
powder the background with same colors that had formerly 
been used. 

i? i> 

N. B. — For the powder enamels use Fat oil of turpentine and oil of laven- 
der. Mix the powder with enough Fat oil to barely make it stick together; 
breathe on it, rubbing with a bone palette knife, add a little lavender, con- 
tinuing to breathe upon the mixture, make soft enough so that it can be easily 
taken on a brush but stiff enough so that it will not flatten down, if it flattens 
breathe upon it and turn over with the palette knife till it stiffens, if too oily 
add more lavender. 

Mrs. W. T. C. — Raised paste for gold is mixed the same as powder enamel, 
see answer to N. B. We are always glad to see designs by subscribers but 
can not always purchase for many reasons, either they are not properly drawn 
for reproduction, are similar to subjects we already have on hand, or we have 
so much material already that we can not use more. Sometimes the designs 
are not good or original enough. However, we always give attention to 
everything sent and purchase, if possible. 

X — You will find full information on lustres in January and February 
1906 Keramic Studio, which are out of print but which you must have as 
you say you had the Magazine for four years. Lustres can be applied at the 
same time as tinting, as long as it does not touch. You will find full instruc- 
tion in regard to paste for gold in December 1905 Keramic Studio. No one 
mixes an entire bottle of paste at once. Take just enough fat oil to make 
the paste stick together. Lavender oil is used for thinning. 


The next subject for the Class Room will be "Figure 
Painting." Articles must be sent in by July 5th. The 
special prize of $10.00 will be awarded to any especially 
good article; otherwise the prizes will be as usual, $5.00, 
$4.00, $3.00, $2.00 and $1.00. 



Latest complete illustrated Catalogue 30c. New Flower, Fruit, Figure. Land- 
scape and Animal Studies — suitable for Oils, Water Colors, China, etc. Dis- 
ts g'ven in Catalogue. M. G. PRICE. 357 W. U8lh Si.. New York. 





6 ParK Place (near Broadway) New YorK 

Are you interested in high grade materials 
for the studio? We control the output of the 
' ' Elarco ' ' Brand (unsurpassed quality) , hand- 
made French China Painting Pencils and Brushes. 

We are sole agents for Hancock's Celebrated 
Ceramic Colors, including their Paste, Carmines, 
Pinks, etc. We have sole control of "Elarco" 
Rose which will stand repeated firing. We are 
manufacturers of " Elarco " Mat Roman Gold. 



F2812 Lemonade Jug. 59 

From Onr May Bargain Sheet 

Send for our complete catalogue 
of white china and ■crtgs, 
art materials. 

Free on request. 

G1906 Salt and Pepper 
Tall. 12c pair. 

Agents for the celebrated Revelation Kilns 


a veritable encyclopsedia of information — for the 



Slierra/tt/s R,om.a.n O-olcL 

This gold is superior to all others in Quantity, Quality and Brilliancy. Fired properly 
and polished with Burnishing Sand, its brilliancy is unsurpassed. It can be burnished 
if desired. Per box $1; small box OO ots. Dealers' and Teachers' Bates on 

Classes Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays, 9 to 12 a. m. and 1 to 4 p. m. 

White China for Decoration; Colors, Brushes and Oils 

Ag'ent for Revelation China Kilns 

608 13th Street Northwest 

Washington, D. C. 


The Second Rose Book 



The Second Annual National Shoe and Leather Market-Fair will be held in 
the Coliseum Building, Chicago, August 28 to September 4, 1907. 

Artists in leather work are invited to take advantage of this opportunity, as 
it will be the largest and most comprehensive display of leather work ever held in 
this country, and a large attendance is assured. 

The management have generously offered free space for the display and sale 
of artistic leather goods. It will be an excellent opportunity for artists and others 
who work in leather to reach the public, as they will receive many duplicate 

The exhibition runs for one week, August 28 to September 4. We wish to 
hear from artists and craftsmen as soon as possible. There will be no charge for 
space. The only payment will be a reasonable commission on the goods actually 
sold. For further particulars address 

MRS. T. VERNETTE MORSE, President of the Art Craft Institute, 
1318 Republic Building, CHICAGO. 


The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles mast not be reprinted without special permission. 


Editorial and Club Notes 
Class Rom — Flower Painting 
Editorial (and following designs and studies) by- 
Fish Plate— Crab Motif 
Bird Design for Game Plate 
Violets (Supplement) 
Conventional Feather Design for border 
Tea pot Stand and Tile, Wild Strawberry Blossoms 
Scenery, Medallion Shape for Hot Water Pot or Stein 
Small Scenery in panels 

Country Road Sketch and Conventionalization 
Violet Designs for Plate, Creamer and Sugar Bowl 
Cup and Saucer, Roses 

Borders for Bowls in different flower designs 
Design for Tile — Caravel 
Panel — Sun Flower 
Wistaria Study 

Gold and Green and Yellow Lustre Plate 
Teapot, Pond Lily — Bonbon Box and Cover, Pond Lily 
Hot Water Pot, Grapes — Individual Salts — Jar, Bee Motif 
Huckleberry Sketches — Chestnut Design — Jar, Butterfly 
Answers to Correspondents 
The Crafts— The Mission of The Crafts 

Distinctive Work in Darning 
Answers to Inquiries — Studio Notes — League Notes 

Marie Crilley Wilson 

C. F. Binns 

Mabel Tuke Priestman 




60, 61 





The thousands of these Kilns in use testify to 
their Good Qualities. 



The only fuels which give perfect results in 

Glaze and Color Tone. ^HSrf* p ' Hs^^ut"" 1, 

/No. 1 Size 10x12 in $15.00 

Gas Kiln 2 sizes . ) No. 2 Size 16 x 12 in 20.00 

Charcoal Kiln 4 sizes ( „.„,...... 

JNo. 3 Size 16x15 in 25.00 

\No. 4, Size 18x26 in 50.00 

, FITCH & CO., 

Springfield, Ohio 


Vol. IX, 


July, 1907 

ARIETY is the spice of life." 
We can not resist the tempta- 
tion of setting before our friends 
the spicy trio of letters which 
arrived in one mail a short time 
since, in order that the pleasures 
and rewards of catering to the china 
decorating public may be appre- 
ciated. Note, especially, that the 
conventional decorator finds that 
everything is to be naturalistic and the naturalistic painter 
finds that Keramic Studio is given up to the conventional. 

Cofeeyville, Kansas. 
Keramic Studio: 

Keramic Studio just at hand, and I must frankly admit another dis- 
appointment. There is practically nothing in Keramic Studio for lovers of 
nature, who try to reproduce on china. 

I hastily renewed my subscription in order to obtain the landscape in the 
March number, and such a looking thing as it was. Were I to paint any of 
these miserable studies they would never sell and my class have no time for 
them, and I can't blame them. 

Will you exchange some of these supplements for those of other dates 
that I could use, and stop my subscription, which is paid one dollar in advance. 
I feel that I have not value received and now want something I can use in 
my work or my money returned. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
Keramic Studio Co: 

My subscription to the Keramic Studio expired with the May number, 
and I have decided that I will not renew it. I have always been very much 
interested in the Studio, taking it from the first number, and would continue, 
only that T see from your notice that most of the designs for this year are 
naturalistic. I do not care for that kind of work, so the magazine would not 
be of much assistance to me. 

Baldwin, Kansas. 

The missing numbers from my file of Keramic Studio reached me safely. 

I'm glad always to talk Keramic Studio to my friends because it never 
disappoints them nor me. For it is always all and more than one can ever 
describe or recommend it as being. Each succeeding year it grows better 
and the designs more beautiful. 

The third letter fully offsets the painful impression 
caused by the first two, but strange it is, that in trying to 
please everyone, we so succeed in "mixing these babies up" 
that each one thinks the other is the favored one. 

If one may be allowed to paraphrase the words of the 
immortal Lincoln, "We may please some of the people all 
the time, all of the people some of the time, but we may not 
hope to please all of the people all of the time." 

As a matter of fact, if all our subscribers would take 
pains to be fair, they would find that since giving the spe- 
cially edited numbers by conventional decorators we have 
devoted the alternate numbers to the naturalistic and when 
we come to the naturalistic special numbers we shall devote 
the alternates to the conventional. These same ladies who 
are so inconsiderate as to expect that every single design 
in Keramic Studio must be suited to their taste only and 
no other taste to be considered, would be horrified if any 
one should suspect them of being desirous of partaking of a 
feast of the particular goodies which please them most while 
the balance of the invited guests should go hungry. Be- 
cause they prefer pickles and cheese, may not those whose 
stomachs rebel against these particular dainties regale 

themselves on sweetmeats and honey? Or, must they sit 
around like skeletons at the feast while my lady naturalistic 
or my lady conventional has it all her own way. Fie ! Fie ! 
Play fair. Turn and turn about. 

To day we reintroduce our readers to the designs of 
Mrs. Marie Crilley Wilson, of Rye, N. Y., one of the cleverest 
of the younger workers. We are inclined to think there is 
variety enough to suit every taste. 

There were but three prizes given in the Class Room 
Competition Articles on Flower Painting : Mrs. M. Thomas 
Sisk, special prize, $10.00; Mrs. A. Seymour Mundy, first 
prize, $5.00; Miss Sydney Scott Lewis, second prize, $4.00. 
There were no other articles which added any information 
not included in these three articles. 


Lustres or iridescent metallic deposits used by decora- 
tors in overglaze decoration have never given very satisfac- 
tory results. The deposit is quite superficial and the colors 
lack the soft and mellow quality of the old Hispano-Mor- 
esque and Italian lustres. The reason is that the latter 
were obtained by an entirely different process; they were 
produced in a reducing atmosphere at a very low tempera- 
ture, only 65o°-C or cone 020. The famous old lustres are 
to-day reproduced in many European factories, the most 
conspicuous example being the beautiful work done at the 
Lancastrian Pottery, England, with designs by Lewis F. 
Day and Walter Crane. They are produced at Golfe Juan 
and Vallauris in France, by the Hungarian potter, Szolnay, 
and in many other potteries. The Doulton red is very like- . 
ly nothing but a repetition or a modification of the famous 
ruby red lustre of Giorgio Andreoli. There is no secret 
about the production of these beautiful metallic deposits. 
In one of the coming issues of Keramic Studio we will 
begin the publication of a French treatise on the subject 
by M. L. Franchet, giving simple formulas for the reproduc- 
tion of all the old lustre effects, the Hispano-Moresque lus- 
tres, the ruby red of Giorgio Andreoli, the yellow and golden 
tones of Deruta, also explaining in a thorough and practical 
manner how the firing should be done. This will be of 
great interest to pottery students who do not care to reach 
high temperatures in their kilns. The work can easily be 
done in the studio. 


At the last meeting of the California Keramic Club 
the following officers were elected for the ensuing year. 
Mrs. M. N. Arndt, president; Mrs. J. Peltier, first vice-presi- 
dent; Mrs. R. V. Bateman, second vice-president; Mrs. P. 
W. Clay, secretary; Miss Helen O'Malley, treasurer. 

Our club at present has the largest membership en- 
rolled on its books and is in the best financial condition 
that it has ever had since our club was formed years ago. 

Minnie C. Tayeor, Retiring President. 



First Prize, Anne Seymour Mtindy 

There is no better way to learn to paint flowers than 
to study the flowers themselves, considering first their 
general lines, and in the following order: Masses of light 
and dark, common or characteristic detail, to what form 
in china each flower is adapted and lastly the color scheme. 

No matter how beautiful the harmony of color, if the 
lines and spotting are bad, the flower form on a shape 
which distorts it, and the violet stems have blackberry 
"prickers," the design has not been carefully thought out, 
and the result will not bear criticism as a work of art, and 
criticism is the motor power of conscientious workers. 
Don't Paint First. 

Don't draw, but study. Many people have a mis- 
taken idea that "sketching" is the prime factor in flower 
painting. Know the flower first in every detail, just how 
many petals, what possible colors, and whether the same 
color inside and out; how the centers look, what color the 
stamens are when young or old; how the flower joins the 
stem; whether the stem is curved or upright, smooth or 
fuzzy; whether the thorns are long, short or broad, or 
there are none at all; then the foliage; whether the leaves 
are separate or in clusters, the characteristic color, light 
or dark; the veins, whether running from the base of the 
leaf or from the mid-rib. When all these little points are 
mastered and the flower, with its surroundings, may be 
seen in imagination, something may be done in flower paint- 
ing and not before. 

Study Out of Doors. 

It is true, as has been said before that more good work 
may be done in a hammock in summer time studying the 
flowers and vines and thinking about them till they be- 
come a lasting possession, than many months of work in 
winter with other people's studies, no matter how accurate 
the illustrations. 

Preserve Flowers. 

Flowers may be kept quite life like by sifting dry sand 
around them, being careful to keep the flowers and foliage 
in natural position, and when immersed in it, leave them 
until thoroughly dried out. 

Take them out carefully and hang head downward 
by cord or tape from hooks under the shelves of a cabinet 
arranged for the purpose. 

Flowers may also be pressed and dried, and kept after 
mounting in book form, and while they may lose their 
color, if properly labeled, and a helpful memorandum at- 
tached to the branch of each specimen, it will materially 
assist, when study from the fresh flowers or fruit is out of 
the question. 

It is nice to think about it early and begin with the 
very first flowers which come with the approach of Spring 
and see how many you may add to your collection ! 
Painting Flowers. 

Whatever may be the method in charcoal or water- 
colors, the writer believes that in china the flower should 
be so in mind and idealized, that all studies should be 
banished and the attempt, at least, made to paint the 
flower from memory. 

There is a freedom, a swing, a snap, to designs worked 
out from memory which could never come from the ham- 
pered thoughts confined to studies, or even to the real 

So, know the flower first, then idealize, finally paint it. 

You will get to love those dear little buds, the tender 
bits of color, the characteristic curves of each little life and 
they will become truly alive at last, at your magic touch. 
Of course it will not be "magic", but to the superficial 
student who has not ' 'gotten into the spirit, ' ' it may seem so. 

If w r e may be allowed to think of flower painting in 
its relation to china in a human way, we may consider 
porcelains as the parents, and flowers as the children, and 
while subordinate to their elders, intended to bring out 
more clearly their lines and graces. 

So the tall and graceful daffodil is claimed by the 
straight and slender mother vase; the modest little violets, 
not thrown here and there, each by itself to die or live in 
isolation, but bunched cosily together, caressing the low 
and rounding cheek of a broad mamma vase. 

Remember to put only those flowers and pieces of 
china together which seem related by family "lines" or 
"curves" or just enough contrast to relieve the monotony. 

There should be no unexpected guests in decoration 
so choose only those flowers which may live all their lives 
in harmony, without a jar of discord. 

Think with what reverence and love we may look 
dowm upon these little creatures of our study and imagina- 
tion; and if we may be allowed to put on the "crowning 
glory", color, which shall make them live forever, let us 
look well to it, that every line be in harmony with the 
china, realizing that while beauty of color or "life" may be 
independent of form, yet it is only perfect, when associated 
with its proper china family. 

China to which Various Flowers are Adapted. 

"American Beauty Roses" — or stiff stemmed cultivated 
kinds, to tall shaft vases or long panels for the drawdng 

Other cultivated varieties to vases, and ornaments 
more for formal or festive occasion. 

Smaller roses, for dessert sets, guest room sets, bonbon 
dishes, small vases and Louis XIV candelabra. 

Miniature roses, if painted softly enough, to luncheon 
or tea sets, or even formal dinner sets (Louis XIV) and 

Wild roses for less formal occasions, for the country 
home or summer cottage, for table ferneries, breakfast 
service, particularly in summer time. 

To low round vases, ferneries, small jars, bowls, 
dresser sets, five o'clock tea sets and buttons. 

To plain, tall slender vases, long panels, certain kinds 
of tall jugs for flowers. 


To salad bowls, salad -plates, sandw r ich sets, bread and 
butter plates, cold meat or luncheon platter, pickle dishes 
where glass is not used. Glass preferable to china for pickles 
and olives. 


To ferneries, jardinieres, certain kinds of vases and 


To library or writing desk set, also for guest room 
china, certain vases and buttons. 


To a child's or young girl's room, "heart party" prizes, 
baby mugs, baby pins, buttons. 














General color adaptability. 

For sunny rooms, use pale pink, violet and purple 
flowers if combined with rich cool greens; white or blue 
flowers, with blue background. 

For darker rooms, use pink, crimson, yellow orange 
or red on china. 

Technical Instruction. 

White roses — Use Yellow, Black, Grey for Flowers, 
Peach Blossom (Marsching's), Grey Green, Apple Green, 
Moss Green, Brown Green, Shading Green, Deep Blue Green, 
Violet, Copenhagen Blue and Yellow Brown. 

Pink roses — Never use pink in first fire unless a "one 
fire" miniature rose, but paint with Bischoff 's Ashes of Roses 
and little Purple Black, washing Pink over the last time. 
Colors otherwise same as white roses. 

Crimson roses — Use Peach Blossom, Roman Purple, 
Ruby, Black, Finishing Brown, Banding Blue, Copenhagen 
Blue, Violet No. 2, Pansy Purple, Apple, Moss, Royal, 
Brown Green, Shading Green, Yellow Brown. 


White, pink, blue violet, purple violets, yellow violets, 
double violets. 

Colors — Yellow, Black, Peach Blossom, Deep Blue 
Green, Violet No. 2, Light Violet Gold, Pansy Purple, 
Banding Blue, Aztec Blue with Greens and Yellow Brown 
as for roses. Remember in mixing Black for deep shades 
to use one-fifth Black with Violet No. 2 or Aztec, also to 
use Pansy Purple sparingly, and in combining Blues with 
Purple for Violets to use more Blue or more Violet but 
never mixed in equal proportions. 

Use Violet No. 2 and Black for "whiskers" and some- 
times touch of Pompadour or Yellow Red for "eye" or 


Mixing Yellow and little Black on lower petals; Imper- 
ial Ivory, Albert Yellow, Yellow Brown, and Black for 

Keep foliage in cool blue greens and keep line treat- 
ment simple by long sure strokes of grey greens for first 
firing, tint for second fire and accents the third fire. 

Use Apple, Moss, Royal and Brown Greens, little 
Shading Green, Chocolate and Finishing Brown, according 
to color scheme whether green or brown. 


Flowers — Use Albert or Silver Yellow, Yellow Brown, 
Yellow Red, Black, Capucine Pompadour, Blood Red, 
according to shade desired. Keep greens light, and cool 
in leaves, take veins out instead of painting in; use Apple, 
Moss, Royal Brown Green sparingly. Shading Green, 
Deep Blue Green and Yellow Brown in shadows. 


White, pink or red — Same colors as for roses; better 
painted out of background so that clusters may look soft. 
Mass the tints, which should be rich and dark to balance 
such large flower clusters and leaves, taking out lights 
such as petals and edges of flowers and leaves. Don't 
let it get finicky. Keep broad feeling. 


Yellow pansies with Yellow Brown to rich Deep Brown 
background and some warm Greens. 

Purple pansies : use Deep Blue Green, Violet No. 1, 
Violet No. 2, Shading Violet sparingly, Copenhagen Blue 

and Black. Lovely kept in blue and violet tones or with 
soft Yellow Brown and Grey Greens. 

Use Apple and Deep Blue Green; much prettier than 
clear Deep Blue Green; soft touches of Copenhagen Blue 
and Creamy Yellow in background. Apple, Moss, little 
Brown or Shading Green in foliage. 

Other Flowers. 

White flowers with blue background (Pale Blue shad- 
ing into Copenhagen) rich and dark under the white flowers, 
is particularly cool and beautiful for light room. Yellow 
should come in centers or central background. Tone pink 
flowers with Apple Green. 

Make color schemes as simple as possible and after 
deciding on lines of flower with the china form, either make 
background of simple harmonious tones, indicating the 
light and dark spotting, and take flowers out, or else paint 
flowers and foliage "clear and crisp" leaving tint for 
second fire and then dusting to throw back flowers or leaves 
to get desired depth and richness. 

Yellow flowers are particularly beautiful for chocolate 
set and Imperial Ivory a soft yellow with depth to give 
rich, not raw, tone. Yellow Red, Chocolate and Finishing 
Brown for background. Flux Chocolate and Finish Brown 
one-seventh for last firing only. 

Blood Red is rich and nice for all red things — partic- 
ularly in Japanesy effects. 

Miniature flowers should be done for last firing after 
tints and gold are perfect. Do softly but put in a few 
crisp touches. They will look much clearer and better 
if not worked up too much. White in combination is also 
better for miniature flowers, also fine gold traceries to give 
a dainty look. They are particularly appropriate for very 
thin, fine pieces and enhance the beauty of a dainty bit of 


These thoughts have been for naturalistic treatment 
which may be kept good in composition and color. By 
thinking and studying the suitableness of each flower 
to its use on china, naturalistic work should increase our 
joy in the simple classical lines of good conventional designs, 
and vice versa. 

A study of color used in old rugs, the paintings of old 
masters, of Japanese prints, will help to cultivate the sense 
of appreciation of fine color tones. 

Work in monochrome is good to develop a knowledge 
of tones and shades of each color. 

Harmony and contrast learned from monochrome 
or one-color-work will cultivate the eye and help it to 
detect at once whether "high light," "middle light", or 
"low dark" is the tone or shade needed to prevent monot- 

Five Points to be Considered. 

1. What are the decorative values of "line" in flowers 
and growth; that is, branches, stems, etc. 

2. What is the relative value of light and dark masses 
or "Notan". 

3. Characteristic detail. 

4. To what china forms are certain flowers adapted. 

5. What color schemes suitable. 

Notice that color comes last. It is the subtle some- 
thing which brings all else into harmony. It is the spirit, 
the soul, the life. 



(Treatment page 58) 




f f mi r^i'Ti "aiir r'Tl 


N every art, craft, or science there 
are a few elementary rules and 
facts, which, being thoroughly 
learned and mastered, are of in- 
estimable value, and are in fact 
vital to the success or failure of 
the student. 

This we may call the theoreti- 
cal part and is the accumulative 
result of the best work, study and 
experience of those who have gone before. 

The practical part is necessarily acquired only by ex- 
perience and experiment and is the personal working out 
and the acquiring to one's self the knowledge contained 
in the theoretical principles. 

This as a preface to an item of advice, that in the 
ceramic art one should begin at the beginning, and the 
beginning, to my mind, is draughtsmanship, which is too 
seldom exploited in the china decorating studio. 

Draughtsmanship is important, more especially so in 
the so-called conventional work and the lack of instruc- 
tion therein is the principal reason for the discouragement 
of the occasional worker in this line. 

Care must be taken to have a clear, well drawn and 
smooth outline. Do not think to cover up or detract at- 
tention from a poorly executed outline by your color scheme, 
no matter how beautiful and harmonious it may be it will 
not correct the defect. No amount of color can make a 
design if the drawing be bad. 

On the other hand, a perfect outline will often take 
away or subordinate the effect of an insipid color scheme. 
This is the key to the successful execution and applica- 
tion of a conventional design. 

Among the very few things that need be written about, 
one is the handling of the brush. Strength of muscle in 
any degree is not a requisite, the nerve should control. 
To produce the best results nothing more than the mere 
weight of the brush is necessary. 

In this manner one can in time actually feel with the 
point of the brush, and then it is that individuality will 
appear in the work, which I think should be striven for. 
It means something more than technique, however perfect 
that may be. 

There are few practical hints or suggestions that can 
be intelligibly followed when reduced to writing, the prac- 
tical part is acquired mostly from personal experience and, 
to amount to much, must necessarily be. You can learn 

more from your mistakes than from others' perfections. 
As, in writing, the hardest thing is to find something to 
write about, so in ceramics the hardest part is to find a 
subject to paint about. 

A brief course in designing will increase the pleasure 
in the work and the efficiency of the student, and then 
you will find that the "copy" grows on every tree, can be 
found on the streets, in coffee grounds and tea leaves, 
in and about the house, at home and abroad. 

Marie Crilley Wilson 


BACKGROUND, delicate wash of Brown Green; tip of 
feather, Delft Blue; the remaining portion, Brown 
Green two-thirds, Grey Green one third. 
& J, 

VIOLET STUDY (Supplement) 

Make a careful drawing of flowers and leaves of center 
group. Then impress on china panel, using graphite im- 
pression paper for this. 

The palette for violet shades is, Violet No. i and No. 2, 
Royal Purple and Deep Blue Green and a very little touch 
of Shading Brown. Ivory Yellow, very light, in center 
petal and very delicately traced veins of Shading Brown 
with a touch of Black. 

For leaves use Shading Green and Brown Green and 
Russian Green and for lights a little Yellow Green and 
Yellow Brown. 

Combine these colors to make a successful interpreta- 
tion of the whole. 

Paint centre group rather delicately for first firing, 
leaving out any accentuation and the details for second 
and third firings. 

Having painted center flowers and leaves only, and 
leaving violets in shadow, proceed with background tint, 
which must be very liquid. For this use Pearl Grey and 
just a suspicion of Grey Green. After padding this very 
evenly, when nearly dry, dust with Ivory glaze. 

When this has been fired finish your centre violets 
and leaves and over your background paint remainder of 
design which is in shadow. Make this of a warmer tone; 
draw the flowers and leaves with your brush, the outline 
will be soft and the appearance of having been labored 
over will be spared. 





I" EAVES, all grey portions, Green enamel. Flowers This treatment is for flat enamels. 

-L' and white design in small border of bowl, in White The teapot stand can be used for strawberry plates, 

enamel. Center of flowers, in Lemon Yellow. Back- or would make an attractive cover for a bonbon dish or 

ground, cover the entire background with gold dots. puff-box. 

Blue enamel can be substituted for the white, but the The small border at top of bowl can be used to 

green and gold is especially refreshing. decorate lower part of box. 



(See full size drawing- page 53) 

BE very careful to get a correct outline of this design. 
Do not weary in trying until a satisfactory outline is 
obtained,'] as the charm of conventional designs lies in the 
beauty of outline. 

Outline — Use Blood Red in powder form, mix with 
sugar water and apply with a crow quill pen. 

Background, space behind crab — Equal parts Blood Red 
and Yellow Red; paint this smoothly and evenly. 

For white spaces leave the white china. 

The design is all of gold. 

For dark grey portion between gold spots joining 
units of design, and for outer band of plate, use Blood Red; 
by repeated paintings make this color rich and deep in tone. 

*• -f 


THIS design is suitable for a stein or small vase, repeat- 
ing large and small panels twice. 

The base may be of some solid color that suits the 
decorator's fancy. 

For sky and small light portions between trees, use 
one-half Banding Blue and Blue Green; paint this delicately 
but let it be brilliant. 

Roof of little building may be of Pompadour with a 
little Black. 

Cover house with wash of Grey. 

Trees, Brown Green, Shading Green and Russian Green, 
and the grass of the same color but lighter in tone. 

Apple trees in blossom, use Pompadour and Yellow 
Brown and wash it so delicately as to appear almost white. 


FOLIAGE, Shading Green, Brown Green and Russian 
Green. Grass, two parts Sea Green, two parts Grey for 
Flesh, one part Copenhagen Blue. For trunks of trees 
and places in road which are not in shadow and for the 
fence, use two parts of Violet No. 2 and one part Blood 
Red (much lighter in tone in the road than for trees.) 

The tree trunks must be dark and rich to harmonize 
with depth of tone in foliage. 

House, a brown grey made of equal parts of Shading 
Brown and Grey for Flesh. Bushes bordering house, 
Yellow Brown one-seventh, and Yellow Red six-sevenths, 
very delicate. Sky, three parts Yellow Brown, one part 
Brown Green; Yellow Red near horizon. 

Second firing — Cover entire design with tinting oil 
colored with one part Meissen Brown, one part Brown 
Green, two parts Yellow Brown, pad well. Set aside for 
twenty-four hours, then dust with Grey for Flesh. 

Third firing — Retouch with same colors used in first 
firing and outline with strong black line. 

I have not given a color scheme in water colors for 
the original from which the above is taken because I did 
not think it within the province of the magazine. 


FOR trees, Shading Green one part, Brown Green three 
parts; grass, two parts Sea Green, one part Brown 
Green; road and trees, Gold Grey (very light); sky, Albert 
Yellow (a very light wash) and for the little cloud effect use 
Yellow Red. Mix with medium and a little clove oil. 

This little design can be arranged with good effect 
on a stein or hot water pot, and for a border will need to 
be repeated about three times. 

PLATE, BIRDS (Page 55) 

OUTER band of plate, six-sevenths Copenhagen Blue 
and one-seventh Banding Blue. Leave a white space 
and make second band either of green made of Sea Green 
and Shading Green, or of gold. Tail of bird, six-sevenths 
Copenhagen Blue and one-seventh Banding Blue. Head 
of bird, a touch of Dark Blue. Breast, just a suggestion 
of cream color, shading into a deep blue green, which can 
be softened by a little grey in the second firing if it is too 
harsh. Leaf form, which makes inner band, of Sea Green 
and Shading Green. Outline in Black. Wash over entire 
border with tinting oil to which is added a little Brown 
Green and in twenty-four hours dust with Pearl Grey. 
This will harmonize the whole. 

The color scheme given for cup and saucer, boat 
motif, can also be used. 















Tj^OR naturalistic coloring, background, flowers and leaf 
A form, the same as colored study (supplement). 

After last firing cover entire piece of china with tint- 
ing oil, pad thoroughly and after standing about 10 hours 
(the china) dust with equal parts of Ivory glaze and Pearl 
Grey, by which process the work will be softened and 

The monochrome effect can be used which is given 
in grey blue for cup and saucer, boat motif, or green 
color scheme for sunflower or violets in flat Blue enamel 
to which a little Ruby is added to give it a violet tone; 
green for leaves, and for background gold dots, or the same 
color scheme as given for sugar bowl (Trumpet vine), 
would be very charming. 





"p\ESIGN in gold, outlined with Black, using a fine brush. 
-L' (The Fry Art Co. have brushes which are especially 
adapted to this purpose.) Upper background space in Yellow 
Brown lustre; lower spaces in Black, or flower in Yellow 
Red (keep tone delicate); leaves, German Yellow Green; 
background, Meissen Brown, dry dust with Pearl Grey. 


T> ASE of bowl in Meissen Brown, dust with Pearl Grey. 
-L* Design in New Green. Small portion of design in 
Yellow Red. 


Tj^OR flowers use Yellow Red, and for leaves, New Green 
-T and Pearl Grey; background of Meissen Brown in 
tinting oil, dust with Ivory glaze. 



FIRST firing — Leaves, one part Grey for Flesh, one 
part New Green. Outline with Grey for Flesh. 

Second firing — Leaves, one part New Green, one part 
Brown Green. Dry dust with New Green. Use medium 
and clove oil. 

Flowers, Yellow Brown and Lemon Yellow. Black 
portion, Brunswick Black, or for a more brilliant effect, 
Black lustre, Light and Dark Green lustre and Yellow and 

For table service, make design of silver or gold. 


FIRST firing — Roses in Violet No. i and No. 2. Leaves, 
two-thirds Brown Green and one-third Royal Green. 

Second firing — Cover entire design with tinting oil to 
which a small quantity of Brown Green has been added 
and after twenty-four hours dust with Pearl Grey. Keep 
this color very delicate. 

Third firing — Retouch roses with Violet No. 1 and 
No. 2 to which a touch of Blood Red has been added. 

Stems and leaves are to be deepened with color used 
in first firing. 



h m Wrf W 




6 4 


DESIGN FOR. TILE-CARAVEL (Treatment page i 


Charles F. Binns. 

IN view of the present revival of the Crafts the man in 
the street is asking "What is it for?" and the question 
is perfectly reasonable. It is probable, nay, certain, that 
a large number of those practicing crafts do not themselves 
know why. Begun perhaps as a fad or a fashion, perhaps 
for want of something to do, the fascination of the work 
has taken hold until "the joy of the working" is experienced 
and then, for that particular case, no reason is required. 
But this is far from being sufficient to point out the real 
mission of the crafts. To understand the purpose one 
must realize the need. 

The halcyon days of the crafts were in the time when 
every workman was an artist and every artist a workman, 
when gain was of less importance than quality and things 
were made to endure. The spirit of commercialism changed 
this and resulted in large production at low cost. This 
placed low priced wares at the command of the multitude 
and luxury, in the sense of the ownership of many things, 
rapidly increased. Consequently the value of workman- 
ship was lowered and the purchaser was satisfied with 
machine-made ornament. Naturally, then, excessive adorn- 
ment became the rule, and art was divorced from industry. 
These are obvious truths and the reiteration of them but 
paves the way to a consideration of important problems. 

The American character is in the formative stage. A 
few years ago this could not have been stated and would 
not have been published, for the American people thought 
that they as a nation were complete and fully developed. 
They filled the position of the freshman who, as college 
boys say, "knows not and knows not that he knows not." 
Within the last two or three years, however, a great change 
has been wrought. American practice and method, prin- 
ciple and expression have been criticised in the public press 
as never before. The exposures of financial methods and 
the revelations of Boss rule to which readers are treated 
ad nauseam have only recently become possible. The 
people have reached the sophomore stage of comprehension, 
for he "knows not and knows that he knows not." 

In the formation of national character the Crafts have 
a distinct mission to perform and this will be best under- 
stood by a consideration of the needs of the nation and 
how they may be met by the manipulative arts. 

The needs are two, sincerity and simplicity, terms 
which are capable of wide application. 

It may seem a bold thing to say that the American 
people are insincere and the word is meant not so much as 
a personal, individual trait but as a definition of the general 
trend of life. The common practice of living beyond one's 
means, the lavish use of veneer and imitation in the indus- 
trial arts, the general desire to be accepted at a fictitious 
valuation, these are indications of insincerity. Or if the 


U y in 














matter be pursued into commercial fields it is a theme of 
common conversation that stock is watered, false reports 
are spread and the market manipulated without regard 
to truth. This is an absence of sincerity and to crown all 
a fortune made by falsehood is distributed in benevolence. 

But is it not the height of absurdity to claim that the 
crafts can change this? 

A young man or woman who has studied any of the 
manual arts is necessarily impressed with a sense of the 
importance of reality. A person of normal temperament, 
dealing with material and manipulation can only derive 
real satisfaction from the work in the absence of qualms 
of conscience. An expert worker was once urged to con- 
ceal a flaw and was told that nobody would ever know it 
was there. "No", he replied "but I should." This knowl- 
edge would destroy for ever his pride in that particular 
piece of work for the true craftsman works not for praise 
or profit but for his own delight. If, therefore, his knowl- 
edge of himself and his motive be not free from conscious re- 
buke "the joy of the working" is lost. 

And as this joy takes possession of the heart of a man, 
he becomes jealous of his reputation. He cannot put his 
hand to any work which is not as good as it can be, for the 
result of any such action would be to him a thorn in the 

Thus does the dignity of labor acquire power. The 
standard of quality is open to the eyes of men. Every 
touch, whether of hand or tool, every gradation of tone 
or color is open for examination and comparison and by 
the verdict of his work the craftsman stands or falls. 

As the individual, so is the nation and as an increasing 
number of devotees bows at the shrine of the crafts, each 
one receiving, even perhaps unconsciously, the blessing of 
a belief in sincerity, the effect upon the people at large will 
be widespread and deep. 

The second need is simplicity. 

Human happiness is compassed not by the maximum 
of possessions but by the minimum of desires. In a multi- 
tude of surroundings the quality and individuality of 
separate articles matter little. If one's life be filled with 
a vast number of small efforts the energy expended upon 
each is trivial. In this way much to have and much 
to do make for the diffusion of powers and the belittling 
of values. In a word, complexity, whether of things or 
thoughts, is opposed to quality. Of course no proposition 
of this kind is capable of universal application, there are 
exceptions,' but in the bulk the contention is true. 

It may be proven by an inspection of the average 
parlor and by an investigation of the average life — meaning 
particularly the living life for which a man works. 

In the home one is confronted with gaudy carpets, 
"tiger in jungle" rugs, machine made ornament, and scroll 
saw grilles. Bric-a-brac abounds and the greater part of 
it is machine made, bizarre in shape and decoration and 
fit for nothing but to accumulate dust. 

It is to be feared that the life is to match. This is a 
subject upon which great restraint must be observed but 
when in summer small groups of women are seen on the 
porch at ten in the morning, clothed in wrappers, gossip- 
ping over the Sunday newspaper; and when it is known 
that these and other women assemble at three o'clock or 
earlier and play bridge for hours, one may be pardoned 
for believing that life is being frittered away in useless 

These Marthas are "cumbered with much serving" 
but if it were intelligent or useful service it might be ,ex- 

PANEL— SUNFLOWER (Treatment page 66) 



cused. If value came of it it might even be commended. 
So much splendid work is being done in city and country 
by those who have chosen "the good part" that the waste 
of the majority is the more apparent. 

The need is simplicity both in home and life and it 
is the mission of the crafts to promote this. 

In the home, perhaps, this is sufficiently obvious but 
it will be well here to point out that the simplification of 
surroundings does not necessarily mean a lessening of cost. 
In fact if one elects to surround himself with a few things 
merely to save money he has altogether missed the point. 
A few things, yes, but each one of the best, each one a 
masterpiece bringing and ever repeating the message of 
a master. These are the works of which one does not tire. 
They become life-long friends and are so fashioned that 
they mellow but do not decay with age. 

Returning to a home so furnished one is, even if alone, 
immediately surrounded by congenial company. Life 
becomes full and satisfaction is complete. 

In this way also the daily life is affected. Surely it 
is not by accident or as a measure of reform only that the 
settlement houses have engaged in the crafts. In the 
development of character craftsmanship is akin to garden- 
ing. One can hardly think of a devoted florist but as a 
gentle, lovable man and any kind of a serious occupation 
which has for its purpose the production of value must 
exercise a potent influence over one who pursues it. 

The worker in the crafts learns by doing. He has real 
and not fictitious standards of value by which to judge his 
work. He cannot now be satisfied with machine finish 
or meretricious display. He demands sincerity in his sur- 
roundings, and almost unconsciously his life grows more 
and more sincere. A love for clean, sound workmanship 
renders one dissatisfied with the distraction of the many 
things and the result is a simplicity of living which leads 
to simplicity of life. 

The mission of the crafts is to teach these things and 
the more firmly they take possession of the American 
people the more persistently will they preach and the more 
patiently will they be heard. 

SUNFLOWER (Page 65) 

BACKGROUND— Cover with tinting oil colored with 
Brown Green ; dust with two parts of Pearl Grey and 
one part Ivory glaze. 

Leaves and stems to be painted over background with 
three parts Grey Green; flower, Meissen Brown and Albert 
Yellow, dust with Pearl Grey and follow tone in study 

This study can be applied to a vase. 

If monochrome effect is desired use treatment given for 
cup and saucer, boat motif, in blue. 

For green color scheme, first and second firing, New 
Green ; third firing, use Special tinting oil tinted with Apple 
Green and dust with Ivory glaze. 


MAKE the black portion of the design very dark; this 
can be done successfully by three firings, La Croix 
Delft Blue being used each time. The white china is left 
for the white portions. 

This design repeated three times makes an attractive 
design for a stein. 


FIRST Firing. Flowers, Violet No. i and 2. Leaves, 
Sea Green and Shading Green. 

Second Firing.' Rub a little Brown Green in enough 
tinting oil to cover entire design, pad well. In 20 hours 
dust with Pearl Grey. 

Third Firing. Strengthen dark leaves with Sea Green 
and Shading Green. On stems lay a very thin wash of 
Shading Brown. Retouch flowers with two-thirds Violet 
No. 2, one-third Blood Red. 




DRAW design with crow quill pen, using for outline 
Ivory Black with touch of Pompadour to give it warm 
tone; mix this with sugar water (one part sugar to seven 
parts water). Background, Yellow Brown lustre. Flowers 
and bands, Gold. Leaves, equal parts Ro5 r al Green and Brown 
Green and a touch of flux, and paint in very delicately. 

Second firing — Over background, previously painted 
with Yellow Brown lustre, apply coat of Opal lustre, also 
deepen leaves near center of plate. 

Thud firing — Retouch gold; cover lustre with gold 
dots, soften green leaves with thin wash of Brown Green. 
This color should be tender and delicate. 



FIRST firing — Background and drawing of petals, six- 
sevenths Copenhagen Blue, one-seventh Banding Blue. 
Second firing — Same as first. Leave flowers, leaves 
and grey marks on spout and handle, white. 

Third firing — Cover entire form with tinting oil mixed 
with Deep Blue Green and dust in a few hours with 
Pearl Grey. 

Gold and white or silver and white can also be used. 


FLOWERS and stems in Dark Blue flat enamels (the 
proportions of flat enamels have been given in many 
previous numbers of The Studio.) 

Shade deeper toward centre; leaves and bands in 
Green enamel; small lines forming background in gold; 
background of center in gold also. Inner band in gold. 



in tone with grey in design; for white portion leave china; 
feet in gold. 

Or substitute Yellow Brown lustre for Red and out- 
line with Black. 

Spear shaped leaf — Leaf, Green lustre; black portion, 
Brunswick Black; background, gold dots. 

This design can be used in vertical lines on small 

Clover leaf — An old fashioned effect can be obtained 
by painting this in Grey Green or Delft Blue or gold. 

A good design for collar button box, and it can be 
easily arranged on the lid or cover. 

Tree design — Tree, Dull Blue; trunk, Gold Grey; grass, 
Shading Green; sky, gold. Or trees and white portion of 
gold, dark portion Opal lustre. 

Pansy — The design, in Green and Blue enamels on 
white ground. 

Small Boat — Tight Green lustre; boats and feet, gold 
dots; black outline, water white. Opal lustre can be used 
for the inside as it requires no padding. 


BANDS and border design in dull silver, or bands and 
border in Grey Green. Space between borders, use two 
parts Copenhagen Grey, one part Pearl Grey. 

Dust with Ivory glaze, or band and design of gold out- 
lined with Black and space between borders in Tight Green 


r I \HE designs can be applied to after-dinner coffee cups 
A and saucers, collar button boxes, match holders and for 
many little things used for holiday trinkets and favors. 

Morning Glory — Design in gold; outline Pompadour, 
applied with pen ; lower background in Pompadour to agree 


BACKGROUND of Deep Blue; wings, in silver lustre; 
body of dull silver. Lines and spots in body and wings 
in Black. 

Or, gold outlined with Black on white ground; or bees 
of dull silver on white background might be preferable to 
the above combinations. 




COVER entire surface with thin wash of Meissen Brown, 
dust Pearl Grey. 
Second firing — Draw design and paint very delicately 
with equal parts of Ruby and Shading Brown. 


BUTTERFLY in gold; background of butterfly in Black. 
Lower light portion of design to be tinted with Chinese 
Yellow to which a touch of Brown Green and Meissen Brown 
has been added. 


T. M. — The only way we could suggest to remedy the gold on your Belleek 
tea set which is fired too hard and is muddy and blurred is to retouch with the 
hard or unfluxed gold. You might try this on one piece and if successful re- 
pair the others in like manner, otherwise we can only suggest retouching with 
the same Roman gold. We do not know what would be the effect of retouch- 
ing with liquid bright gold and afterward with Roman gold. If neither of the 
suggested ways succeeds you might try this last, but retouch heavily as if 
never before gilded. 

Mrs. E. M. P.— China can not be fired in the oven of a stove or range. 
It must become red hot — or rather orange heat. 

"Grand Feu Ceramics" treats entirely of the handling of porcelain clay 
and gives all necessary instruction for working in that medium. We think 
however, that you would probably prefer working in a lighter fired body. 
Mr. Charles Binn's articles in Keramic Studio would be of great assistance. 
But the matter of building vases, etc. by hand or on the wheel would have to 
be worked out by yourself. The Alfred, N. Y., School of clay working, teaches 
this work in its summer school. 


Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 232 East 27 th Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions m'tsl be received before the lOlh day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 


Designed and ( 

uted by Maud Robinson 

enough for any background and the darning itself is eon- 
fined to the design. 

Most of our illustrations show exquisite pieces of darn- 
ing which were exhibited at the recent exhibition of the 
National Society of- Craftsmen in New York. The tree 
design with four panels is particularly effective. It is 
made of Russian crash which, being only fifteen inches 
wide, gives opportunity for dividing lines of darning to 
hide the same. The ground work is almost brown, while 
the warm terra eotta tones of the fruit harmonize well 
against the background of rich shades of green introduced 
in the leaves. The darning is very fine in some of the 
leaves, while others show quite a good deal of the ground 
work. In some leaves the darning runs up, while in others 
it runs erossways, giving a most charming variety in texture 


Mabel Titke Priest-man. 
TT really seems a matter of congratulation when we com- 
A .. pare the art needle-work of to-day with that of some 
twenty years ago. There is a unity of material and of 
design which is most pleasing, and there is no calling forth 
of pity for the needleworker, when examining the needle- 
work of to-day. Instead a warm admiration is felt for 
the skill of the designer, and worker, who is able to combine 
beauty of design and excellence of needle craft. 

In no way is this more evident than in the develop- 
ment of darning. The old time darning consisted of the 
design in relief and the background patiently worked out 
in darning stitch, or else the design was darned on such 
fine Brussel's net that the making of it must have been a 
source of danger to the eye sight. The present fashion 
consists in the using of lustrous shades which are good 

One of the attractive pieces sent to the exhibition by New-comb College 

Darning in loops is somewhat of a novelty 

as well as in color. There is something very clever in the 
way the trunks are indicated. 

The panel seems to be a favorite form this season. 
Another panel was shown at the same exhibition with a 
design of fruit and leaves. The treatment is so different 
that there is no further similarity between the two. It will 
be noticed that the leaves are only outlined with two rows 
of darning, making them stand out in strong relief to the 
fruit which is in tones of red. The hand made linen on 
which this is worked is very charming in texture. 

The horse-chestnut is the motif chosen for the attrac- 
tive side-board cloth on soft brown linen, and here again 



uted by Maud Robinson 

the colors are rich pomegranate red, and soft greens. The 
introduction of fruit on the sides shows a good distribu- 
tion of color. 

The trumpet flower is a very unusual and decorative 
motif for needle work, and serves to make a most original 
design for a table cloth or table center. Usually the design 
points to the corners, but in this case the designer has 
reversed the order of things. 

Most of this needlework is done by the art students at 
Newcomb College and is an evidence that their clever 
and artistic work is not confined to the making of pottery 
with which we are all familiar. This institution is making 
itself felt in the excellence of the work its pupils turn out. 

One of the most artistic pieces of needlework at the 
exhibition was the oblong cover with hemlock as the motif. 
The stiff straight stems, and the feathery flower, is charm- 
ing in its conception, and although extremely simple it 
can be seen that it emanated from the hands of an artist. 
The flower is worked in white silk, and shaded with gray, 
while one tone of green is used for the stems and outline. 

Somewhat of a novelty is the introduction of looped 
darning. One illustration shows a tree motif worked in 
this way. The background is a mottled gray towelling 
and instead of the darning being flat, every stitch is raised, 
giving it a very quaint and unusal appearance. Naturally 
it would not be so serviceable as flat darning. 

There are endless possibilities for the development 
of darned work and original designs can be worked out with 
the needle, which is after all true art, for with the fertile 
brain nimble fingers can often carry out quickly what the 

brain directs, giving individuality to the work that is im- 
possible when other people's designs are made use of. 

It is interesting to know that darning is the revival 
of the old Danish hand craft known as Gitteryl. Catherine 
de Medicis had her bed draped with hangings ornamented 
with this stitch. Altar cloths made in the sixteenth century 
are still preserved in England. There is a wealth of romance 
and historical association combined with the quaint me- 
diaeval simplicity of the work, which makes the revival 
very interesting. 

Another material that is much in favor for darning 
is a square mesh canvas which must be firmly and evenly 
woven. This can be bought with meshes of various sizes 
in white, and cream color. A soft square mesh net, sold 
for dress trimmings, is charming for making collar and cuff 
sets, one of the most practical uses to which this kind of 
work can be put to. 

When darning the canvas, a long, blunt crewel needle 
must be used, threaded with a heavy twisted mercerized 
cotton. Quite a number of stitches can be used in darning. 

The pattern may be darned, by counting the stitches, and 
if the design is geometrical, this is a good plan, as the figures 
will then be accurate. As it is impossible to draw a design 
on the net, a piece of cambric or heavy paper can be basted 
securely on, and the darning carefully done on this. Care 
must be taken that the threads lie smoothly and that they 
are pulled through evenly as the work will not lie flat after 
the paper or cambric is removed, if the work is too tightly 

Darning can be varied by working the pattern upwards, 

ve Wall Panel designed on Russian Crash by the Art Students of Newcomb College, exhibited at the National 



and forwards, until the places are all filled, but chain stitch 
is often used in connection with darning for making stem 
lines. Usually a single-darn stitch is the one that most 
people prefer, but work can be done by the double darn 
stitch when a high raised effect is desired. Variety is also 
given by running the stitches on the "bias" making diagonal 
lines and patterns and in steps. The straight and diagonal 
lines can be arranged to look like the treads and uprights 
of the steps of a house. To do this, three threads are woven 
diagonally, and half an inch space left, and then three more 
threads until the space to be filled is evenly striped. Single 
darn is then resorted to (on the straight) between the first 
two stripes, each space being filled in the same way at right 
angles to the first and so on until the leaf or flower is com- 

The basket darn is another stitch which raises the 
pattern in relief. Begin the work at the top of the space 
to be filled and work down, and to the right, taking one 
thread of the canvas each time. Then turn the work, and 
fill the next line the same way. 

These are practically all the stitches that are employed 
in the most intricate fancy darning, and by it many beauti- 
ful patterns can be worked out, although in reality nothing 
is more decorative than the simple single darning on linen, 
relying only on the beauty of the material and the excellence 
of the design. 


N. M. C. — We do not know of a process whereby textiles decorated 
with water colors can be washed. Textiles printed with oil colors thinned 
with turpentine and afterwards ironed can be washed, care of course being used. 

B. C. — A good paste for leather is made in the following way: take 1 lb. 
of flour, two quarts of water, one-half ounce of nitric acid, one dram of boric 
acid, one dram of oil of cloves, make in the same way that starch is made and 
strain through cheesecloth. 

G. O. — Etching ink for glass is made by mixing equal parts of hydro- 
fluoric acid, fluoride of ammonia and dry precipitated barium sulphate and 
rubbing them together in a porcelain mortar, when well mixed the mass is 
transferred to a platinum dish, or one made of gutta percha and fuming hydro- 
fluoric acid poured over it rapidly. The mass must be stirred constantly 
with a gutta percha rod, until the impression left by the rod vanishes. The 
fluid made in this way can be applied with an ordinary steel pen and the 
glass written on is etched immediately. The ink only needs to stay on the 
glass for 15 seconds. 


Mrs. Gertrude T. Todd, of Kansas City, Mo., has gone 
to New York to study for two months. Mrs. Todd has 
suffered a heavy loss from fire, her studio being entirely 

Outline of Study Course, 1907-1908 

Problem i — Facts from Roses. 

Problem 2 — Low wide bowl, two sizes in French China, 
one nine and one-fourth inch, one and three-sixteenth inch 
rim, and another six and one-fourth inch, thirteen-sixteenth 
inch rim, use either size. Or a low dish in German china 
with flat, oval rim, sometimes called "Crab plate" eight and 
one-fourth inches. These give a chance for decorating inside 
as well as rim. 

Problem 3 — Vase. Choice of Wheeler vase or eighteen 
inches cylindrical vase made by Willets, No. 639J or smaller 
cylindrical vase eleven inches in German china. 

Problem 4 — Chop plate, coupe. Size, eleven and one- 
fourth inches. Suitable decoration for use on table. 

Problem 5 — Fernery built, thrown or moulded of clay. 

Problem 6 — Outline of flower bowl, two or three 
inches high, nine inches wide, with perforated interior 
plate to hold stems. 

Problem 7 — Sugar bowl to be manufactured from best 
drawing of last year decorated with rose design. 

Conventional ornament on all pieces. Members are 
requested to send in number one and two by October first, ' 
number three November first, number four December first, 
numbers five and six January first, number seven as soon 
as possible after it is manufactured, outline will be sent to 
members or published in Keramic Studio. This Avill give 
ample time to finish the pieces before the annual exhibition. 
Try and send drawings exact size. 

Much can be accomplished this year by the League 
if there is a union of heart, thought and effort of members, 
let each do their share and remember that according to 
eminent authority "in America to-day is waking to life 
the New Great Art School of the world." 

Send all designs and correspondence regarding study 
course to President of the League, Mary A. Farrington, 
1 108 Norwood Ave., Chicago. 

The following notes made by our critic, Miss Bessie 
Bennett, are for the assistance of beginners and in reply to 
numerous questions: 

"A jury in judging art crafts articles for exhibition 
purposes has to consider primarily three things, Originality, 
Craftsmanship and Color. These in turn have subdivisions 
both numerous and subtle, but of minor importance. 

Facts from flowers mean careful and minute analysis 
of roots, stems, leaves, flowers and parts of flowers. Pencil 
sketches would be best for the purpose. Make a pencil 
note of the connection of leaf to stem, a note of the connec- 



tion of the petals to the central section of the flower, a note 
of the single petals from both front and side. Note the 
seed pod closed, also partly open and so on until the entire 
growth could be reconstructed from memory. 

Conventional design includes the use of geometric 
forms. All design is founded on geometric arrangement, 
although, for expression, we do not always indicate by 
actual lines. If masses of ornament are properly placed 
both in relation to a given idea and to the surface to be 
decorated they are based on geometric knowledge." 

Mary A. Farrington, Pres. N. L. M. P. 



White China for Decorating 

The largest and most complete 
line in the United States 

All Colors for China Painting 




(Mailed free of charge) 



6 ParK Place (near Broadway) New YorK 

Are you interested in high grade materials 
for the studio? We control the output of the 
"Elarco" Brand (unsurpassed quality), hand- 
made French China Painting Pencils and Brushes. 

We are sole agents for Hancock's Celebrated 
Ceramic Colors, including their Paste, Carmines, 
Pinks, etc. We have sole control of "Elarco" 
Rose which will stand repeated firing. We are 
manufacturers of " Elarco " Mat Roman Gold. 


a veritable encyclopaedia of information — for the 



;., marks ... 

ON v,,. ^ r*J cc0 RATED 

The finishing touch is thai indefinable finality 
of artistic effort -which gives Pouyat china Us 
enduring claim to supremacy. Ebery passing 
season witnesses a steady increase in the Amer- 
ican demand for the best that the Touyat factory 

We are keenly alive to the importance of this 
demand, and <we respond to it tvith due appre- 

37 and 39 Murray Street, New Yoik 


^*sonian liwitfifr 

The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted without special permissio 



Deague Notes 

Class Room — Flower Painting — 3d Prize 

Thistles (Treatment by Henrietta Barclay Paist, page 88) 


Water Color Treatment for Fleur-de-lis (Supplement) 

China Treatment for Fleur-de-lis 

Sweet Peas 

Plate and Border— Wild Pea 



Strawberry design for tile 

Design for Vase 

Exhibition of the Chicago Ceramic Art Association 

Sweet Pea Border for Stein 


Trumpet Vine 

The Crafts- 
Art in Pewter 
Practical Book Binding 

Helen Pattee 

Adelaide Alsop Robineau 

Rhoda Holmes Nicholls 

F. B. Aulich 

Maud E. Hulbert 

Emma A. Ervin 

Austin Rosser 

I. M. Ferris 

Nancy Beyer 

Mrs. O. P. Wilson 

Albert Pons 
A. A. Robineau 
Mariam L. Candler 

















J. Brateau 92-94 

Mertice MacCrea Buck 95-96 

Encyclopedia of Ceramics, by W. P. Jervis 6.75 

Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania German Potters, by 

Edwin A. Barber, in paper cover 1.10 

Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania Potters, by Edwin A. 

Barber, cloth, limited edition 5.00 

The Old China Book, by N. Hudson Moore 2.18 

The Old Furniture Book, by N. Hudson Moore 2.18 

Old Pewter, by N. Hudson Moore 2.18 

The I,ace Book, by N. Hudson Moore 5.30 

Chats on English China, by Arthur Hayden 2.18 

Chats on Old Furniture, by Arthur Hayben 2.18 

China Collecting in America, by Alice Morse Earle. . . 3.20 

Chats on Old Furniture, by Arthur Hayben 2.18 

Pottery and Porcelain, a guide to collectors, by Fred- 
erick Litchfield, the English expert 6.25 

French Pottery and Porcelain, by Henri Frantz 2.68 

Dutch Pottery and Porcelain, by W. Pitcairn Knowles 2.68 

Old English Furniture, by Fred Fenn and B . Wyllie ... 2.68 

English Embroidery, by A. F. Kendrick 2.68 

French Furniture, by Andre Saglio 2.68 

Old Pewter, by Malcolm Bell 2.68 

Sheffield Plate, by B. Wyllie 2.68 

The Oriental Rug Book, by Mary Churchill Ripley . . 3.20 
Home Furnishing, practical and artistic, by Alice M. 

Kellogg 1.65 

William Adams, an old English Potter, by William S. 

Turner 6.00 

Practical Wood Carving, by Eleanor Rowe 3.15 

Keramic Studio Pub Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

list or boors 


The Second Rose Book, containing some of the best rose 
studies and designs published in Keramic Studio. .$ 3.00 
(The First Rose Book is out offprint.) 
The Fruit Book, containing some of the best studies 

and designs published in Keramic Studio 3.00 

Composition, by Arthur Dow 1.65 

Principles of Designs, by E. Batchelder 3.00 

Decorative Studies, by J. Foord 12.50 

Plant Forms and Designs, by Midgley and Lilley. ... 2.20 
Practical Pottery, elementary instruction for students, 

by Richard Dunn 2.15 

Grand Feu Ceramics, a practical treatise on the making 
of hard porcelain decorated with high temperature 
glazes by Taxile Doat of the Manufactury of Sevres 

France 5.00 

Seger's Collected Writings, 2 volumes i5-5o 

For the Collector : 

Vol. II Old China, bound-blue cloth 2.50 

Anglo-Emerican Pottery, a manual for collectors, by 
Edwin Atlee Barber, Curator of the Pennsylvania 

Museum, second edition 2.00 

American Glassware, old and new, by Edwin A. Bar- 
ber 1. 00 

Marks of American Potters, by Edwin A. Barber. ... 2.25 
Pottery and Porcelain of the United States by Edwin 

A. Barber 3.75 

Vol. IX, No. 4 


August, 1907 

E would call attention to the fol- 
lowing letter from one of our old 
customers. If any one of our read- 
ers recognizes the order not heard 
from, she would do well to write 
again more definitely to Mrs. Fil- 
kins. Babies and servants and 
housekeeping are poor aids to mem- 
ory of details. It would be well to 
hang this letter in a conspicuous 
Dear Keramic Studio : 

If space permits, you might do me (and also other 
Dealers in White China and Materials) the favor of pub- 
lishing something on 

the; inconsequence of women. 
Having had many amusing and exasperating illustra- 
tions of the sweet inconsequence of the dear sex in general, 
it might help both customer and dealer, if you would call 
attention of your readers to several little points that seem 
to escape them when giving orders. 

Item: it is always necessary to sign your name, with 
address to letters. Most dealers are of necessity good 
' 'guessers, ' 'but this precaution saves time to you, and mental 
strain to the dealer. Postmarks are frequently illegible on 
envelope, and often more than one customer lives in a town. 
One of your readers, having noted my AD. has written 
a very irate letter to me stating that she inclosed $6.00 in 
currency with an order for china, and has not received 
any reply. No such order has been received here, and as 
this letter is signed Mrs. , no address at all, post- 
mark illegible, and the name new to me, I must appeal to 
you, to learn if you can furnish address. i -, 

Item: Don't send coin or currency in letters. It is 
unfair to the House, for if lost, always occasions more or 
less ill feeling. Postal employees are not all honest, and 
soon learn to know the houses that are doing a Mail-Order 
business, and are on the lookout for their mail, with its 
possible inclosures. I have suffered repeatedly these last 
two years, from peculations in this way, the Authorities 
seemingly being incapable of locating the thief. Drafts, 
Money-Orders, etc., are easily duplicated, thus no loss 
occurs, but coin and currency never are recovered. 

Item: Don't open an account in your husband's (if 
you are blessed with one) initials or name, and afterward 
send in orders signed with your pet, or christian name. 
It is generally better to give your worser half's name, and 
Mr. "John" is generally to be identified in the City Di- 
rectory, while Mrs. "Pet" is an unknown quantity to 
the Post and Expressman. 

Item: Be "definite" in your order. Don't ask for 
"plates No. 412" leaving it to the dealer's imagination to 
fill quantity and size. This last is the more common omis- 
sion, and frequently makes exasperating delay to the cus- 
tomer, in filling orders, through necessity of asking for 
definite instructions. 

Here endeth the first lesson. 

With best intentions, yours, 

. C. C. Filkins. 


At the triennial meeting of the National League of 
Mineral Painters held at the Art Institute, Chicago, May 8, 
1907, the following officers were elected. : 

President, Mrs. Mary A. Farrington, 1108 Norwood 
Ave., Chicago. 

Vice President, Miss M. Ellen Iglehart, 100 Auditorium 
Bldg., Chicago. 

Recording Secretary, Mrs. Mary J. Coulter, 960 Belle 
Plaine Ave., Chicago. 

Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Lula C. Bergen, 7404 
Harvard Ave., Chicago. 

Secretary to President, Mrs. lone Wheeler, 941 Fine 
Arts Bldg., Chicago. 

Treasurer, Miss Minnie C. Childs, 4742 Evans Ave., 

The members of the Advisory Board for the year 
1907-8 are: 

Chairman, Mrs. Mary A. Farrington, 

Vice Chairman, Mrs. Evelyn Beachey, 

Secretary, Mrs. Mary J. Coulter, 

Treasurer, Miss Minnie C. Childs, 

Member from New York, Mrs. C. Church, proxy, Mrs. 
Nellie A. Cross. 

Member from Boston, Mrs. Ella A. Fairbanks, proxy, 
Mrs. Lula C. Bergen. 

Member from Denver, Miss Ida C. Failing, proxy, Mrs. 
lone Wheeler. 

Member from San Diego, Mrs. Nora V. Sullivan, proxy, 
Mrs. Anna H. Abercrombie. 

Member from San Francisco, Mrs. M. E. Perley, proxy, 
Miss M. Ellen Iglehart. 

All clubs and individual members belonging to the 
League are requested to send in their dues for the current 
year promptly. The correspondence of the League is so 
large that in justice to other members those who have al- 
lowed their dues to lapse must be dropped from the roll. 

Unusual advantages are offered to every keramic 
decorator in the League Study Course this year, the plan 
of which was published in the July number of Keramic 
Studio. Every member sending in designs this year is 
entitled to criticisms by Miss Bessie Bennett of the Art 
Institute, Chicago, one of the foremost designers in the 

At present instruction in keramic designing can only 
be obtained of Miss Bennett by members of the League 
and students at the Art Institute. It is doubtful if so great 
an apportunity can be offered League members again at 
the present cost of membership. It is only made possible 
to offer it this year through the fact that Miss Bennett's 
interest in the success of the League and the advancement 
of keramic art is not a matter of dollars and cents. 

Notes of interest to all members will, through the cour- 
tesy of publishers of Keramic Studio, appear in each 
issue of the magazine, these will enable individual members 
to keep in close touch with all work of the League. Some 
of the best designs of this year will be reproduced occasional- 
ly during the year, these will be selected by merit alone. 
Printed slips containing cuts of the shapes selected 

7 6 


for the problems have been mailed to each club and individ- 
ual member, so there can be no misunderstanding about 
the shapes and members can order their china without 
delay. These slips will be mailed to any reader of Ker- 
amic Studio sending stamped self-addressed envelope. 
Designs may be sent in earlier than the specified time if 
desired, and it is hoped all will be sent in promptly. 

In making the designs for problems two and four, 
which are for table service, bear in mind the fact that 
ornament on such pieces should be kept simple, as the effect 
of repetition on a number of pieces must be considered. A 
plate which would, from its boldness of design and strength 
of color, be charming if used alone as a wall decoration, 
might lose its charm and become unpleasing, if the same 
design was used for the ornament of a set of service plates. 
Fitness to purpose and to position is one of the funda- 
mental principles which must be applied by all designers 
to their work. 

Several inquiries have been received relative to the 
cost of the study course. It is free to all members of the 
League. The initiation fee for individual members is two 
dollars, the dues one dollar a year a present. Persons 
belonging to a club already on our roll of clubs are not 
required to pay initiation fee on joining the League. 
Mary A. Farrington, President, 

1108 Norwood Ave., Chicago. 


Mrs. Sara Wood Safford is in the country for the sum- 
mer weeks gathering material for the winter's work, and 
will open her New York studio early next fall, the first 
week of September. 

Second Prize — Sydney Scott Lewis. 

IT is generally conceded that it is best to use a flower 
as a suggestion for a color scheme, and in that way 
to keep the motif of decoration subordinate to the shape of 
the article to which it is applied. As for example, a vase 
may represent a harmony in yellows and greens, or yellows 
and greys, or greys and blues, etc., instead of a painting of 
daffodils, or one of iris, etc." In this way the painting of 
flowers is kept to simple lines, is not too strictly naturalistic, 
and is more pleasing and artistic than a too realistic ren- 

In flower painting it is well to have in mind a general 
color scheme, also to adapt as nearly as one can the subject 
of design to the form to be decorated. Either fit the design 
to the form or secure a form that will fit the design desired. 
If one space of color is too large or too small for the others 
the balance is lost, even though the harmony in color is 
good. There must be a central point of interest and all 
the rest of the design lead up to it and emphasize it. A 
piece of china decorated naturalistically and with no point 
of interest is bad enough but, with several, is confusing, 
looks spotted, and does not hold together. Study nature 
closely, observe the beautiful forms of flowers, the outlines 
and texture, pull them to pieces. Make water color studies 
of parts, and of the whole. The backgrounds for flower 
paintings must be soft and harmonious, repeating the tones 
used in painting the blossoms and leaves. 

Work for the first fire as broadly and simply as possible. 

Let each stroke be sure and telling, working back over the 
painting as little as possible, reserving detail and bringing 
together by flushing and dusting in color for the second and 
third fires. It is advisable to lay in the entire piece for 
the first fire at one sitting, working the background, flowers 
and leaves along together, softening the one into the other, 
thus avoiding hard lines and sharp edges, and patches of 
color that will not blend. If it is a large piece the color 
must be kept open for working by adding to the usual 
mediums a little clove oil, though if one works with lavender 
oil, this is rarely needed. It is a good plan to begin with 
shadow flowers and leaves and work from the darkest up 
to the lightest and more prominent ones. Indicate with 
crayon' pencil (if a beginner) the main features of the design 
but do not draw it in precisely and exactly. It is almost im- 
possible to keep a naturalistic design from stiffness if one 
has to follow an exactly drawn flower, leaf or stem. In fact 
the design generally seems to suggest itself as one works 
along. A dark spot here, a light there, a shadow, or a leaf 
or flower seems to grow of its own will out of the background 
or general mass of color, and behold in the end you find 
something very different perhaps from the study you 
started out to copy or make, but you find you have some- 
thing equally as charming and of your own creation. 

Nearly every teacher has her especial make of colors 
and a special flower palette that seems to her the only one 
from which to work. In this article the colors given are 
the ones from which the writer has obtained the most 
satisfactory results (Fry's powdered colors, unless other- 
wise stated) ; the color palettes given for use in the 
painting of various flowers, those that she has used when 
working under very experienced teachers and from notes 
taken at that time, also some very excellent facts as to the 
best colors to use for a given flower, selected from the 
directions given from time to time in the Keramic Studio, 
all of which have been tried and tested by the writer and 
found entirely dependable. 

Every china decorator wants to paint a rose, generally 
right away, a large one, no! well then a small one, be it 
pink, white, red or yellow, forgetting that small things are 
ofttimes the most difficult. In the hands of the amateur 
decorator the rose is the most abused of flowers. It is the 
most admired, "Every body knows what a rose is like." 
hence they think it will be easy to paint it. Whilst if the 
truth were known the simplest little rose that grows is so 
perfect a thing, is so elusive in its beauty that only the 
master decorator can seem to catch and hold its charm. 

In painting roses and indeed in all flowers there must 
first be a well laid color, good modeling, and proper hand- 
ling and light and shade and this must be accomplished 
for the first firing. In painting white roses or creamy 
roses the shadows play an important part, as in these roses 
the modeling makes or mars them, they have no color to 
fall * back on. Use for shadows, Violet and Yellow with 
a bit of Dark Green in deepest shadows or a touch of Pearl 
Grey, this cools and deepens. For the very faintest shad- 
ows use Yellow and Pearl Grey. If the rose is full blown 
the center will be "rich and sunny" almost golden hearted, 
use Yellow and Yellow Brown. If somewhat closed, the 
center will be darker, use Brown Green and Yellow. Lay 
in color for first fire in broad flat washes keeping the green 
leaves pretty flat in tone. Tone the greens for leaves with 
violet colors; if a few touches of warm, rich foliage be 
desired use Carnation with Brown Green. This is good to 
use in modeling stems and thorns. For soft shadowy 
leaves use Carnation and Violet. 

FLEUR-DE-LIS — rhoda holmes nicholls 

AUGUST 1907 









(Treatment page < 



In second fire glaze Yellow over the center of rose, 
work up detail markings. Glaze leaves with washes of 
Light or Dark Greens as the case may be. In first working 
keep the edges of light roses and leaves light and crisp, 
softening and fading others off into the background. In 
the second or third fire add detail, dusting and flushing 
a part or the whole painting to bring it together. 

Pink Roses — Use light wash of Rose with touch of 
Yellow added (this softens tone and prevents pink turning 
purple in firing). Or use Osgood's Standard Pink, which 
is always reliable. In center of rose use Vance Philip's 
Special Rose; over high lights put a light wash of Yellow. 
For shadows use Violet and Yellow and touch of Pearl Grey ; 
for warmer shadows, Yellow Brown and Brown Green. 
For deeper pink roses use a deeper wash of the Pink 
and in center Special Rose and Ruby. Tone greens for 
leaves with Violet, shadow leaves and buds Violet and 
Carnation. For the background for delicate pink roses 
mix Ivory and Lavender glaze with the colors shading 
off into a cool green. 

Red Roses — For light red roses use first Rose and 
Deep Purple. Second fire, use in darkest parts Deep Purple. 
For dark red roses, Deep Purple or Ruby for lightest, 
for any very light petals a wash of Rose if pinkish, if bluish 
a wash of Copenhagen. Where outside petals join calyx 
use a little touch of Yellowish Green. First fire should be 
hard. The darkest part of the rose may be in last fire 
touched with Finishing Brown. For this treatment of 
red roses in succeeding fires strengthen and retouch with 
same colors. Another good palette for red roses is to use 
first, Deep or Ruby Purple and little Pompadour, second, 
wash of Pompadour Red, darkest part Finishing Brown, 
third, wash of Ruby Purple. In painting red roses the 
colors must be well grounded, not put on too thick, else 
they will scale, spot or turn brown. Red Roses must be 
painted on in a good even wash and not worked over after 
being laid on. Pompadour alone is not a good color for 
roses, is used with Rose for second fire in painting pink 
roses or with Ruby Purple for red roses. 

For American Beauty Roses use, first, Rose and shade 
with American Beauty, second, American Beauty and 
Ruby Purple in center of rose, third, strengthen and put 
in detail. 

Violets (Single) — In painting violets care must be 
taken to preserve the beautiful texture of the flowers to 
keep them the winged beauties they are. For light flowers 
use Violet No. i , center, Yellow with touch of Yellow Brown. 
On the three lower petals near the center there is a bit of 
yellowish green, use Apple Green and Lemon Yellow. 
Darker flowers use Violet No. 2 and a little Royal Blue 
(Mason's) sometimes Violet No. 2 pure, again a touch of 
Banding Blue. Do not get them too purple for first fire, 
this can be added later if too blue by a wash of Rose. A 
very effective treatment is to paint in a bluish, purplish 
background fading into lighter tones. Mass in a lot of 
darker violet colors and wipe out with brush the shapes 
of the lighter and more prominent violets, putting in a 
wash of the lighter tones, working out the lighter leaves 
and stems from the background in the same way, putting 
in washes of Green where they catch the light, using Apple, 
Russian, Brown and Dark Greens, keeping leaves 
flat in tone and tender in color, the darker ones taking 
mostly the purple tones when they touch the background. 
The violets must be worked delicately, edges of lighter 
flowers crisp but not hard, keeping a good deal of light 
for first and second fires. Royal Purple is an excellent 

color for violets and always when a good purple is desired 
its use is recommended. 

For white violets use Grey, shading for petals Yellow, 
center touch of Yellow Brown, delicate shading of Green 
on three lower petals near center and on some of the outer 
edges of the petals a touch of Pink. 

Double violets are more blue in tone than single ones. 
Use two parts Royal Purple to one part Banding Blue for 
the dark flowers. Banding Blue for half tones, white china 
for high lights, for a dark purple use Royal Purple, Aztec 
Blue and a little Black. Start with background and work 
out as in single violets leaving plenty of high lights, have 
no hard edges. Second fire, wash of Aztec Blue over dark 
flowers, Banding Blue over light ones. Tone greens 
for leaves with Black. Third fire, wash of same color as 
for second working. Put in markings and detail. 

Nasturtiums — There are so many varieties of these 
flowers with such varied markings that it is difficult to be 
specific. For the yellow ones use Albert Yellow, Yellow 
Ochre or Yellow Brown shading them with Deep Red 
Brown or Blood Red, markings of Finishing Brown. Yel- 
low nasturtiums may also be painted with White Rose for 
first fire, second, glazed with Yellow. Dark red flowers, 
Blood Red glazed with Ruby for second fire, with some- 
times a touch of Dark Brown. The bright red nasturtiums 
paint with Deep Red Brown, veins in Blood Red, glaze with 
Carnation. For yellowish red ones use Yellow Red, retouch 
with Albert Yellow. For markings for light flowers use 
Carnation, for darker, Blood Red and Ruby. 

For still other nasturtiums use a wash of Flesh, add 
Pompadour for shadows, dark stripes, Red Brown or Ruby. 
Leaves, Dark Green, Shading Green, Lemon Yellow, Yel- 
low Brown. Cool Grey Green for stems and under side of 
leaves and seed pods. 

For very deep red blossoms use Blood Red and Violet 
of Iron (Gold Grey). 

Geraniums — In painting these flowers, work flowers 
and background at the same time repeating in background 
the colors used in leaves and blossoms. Put in dark mass 
of flowers and work out lighter forms from that. For 
brightest red use Pompadour and Blood Red. For darker 
ones Blood Red and Brown Pink. The leaves Brown 
Green and Olive Green, the lighter ones Albert Yellow and 
Yellow Brown, modeled with Hair and Finishing Brown. 
Dust Blood Red over darkest flowers and leaves. Second 
fire, retouch with same colors. Flush flowers with Carna- 

Pansies — Pansies are even more varied as to color and 
variety than nasturtiums, combining the yellows, rich blues, 
purple, violet and lavender shades, along with the velvety 
browns and red brown pansies. 

For the dark purple use Banding Blue, Ruby and 
Black, for light purple Violet No. 2. For a deeper and 
more blue color, Violet No. 1; centers, Lemon Yellow; 
veins, Deep Purple and Black. 

Model white pansies with Pearl Grey Blue and Violet. 
Use for the pansy, Banding Blue and Violet No. 1, some- 
times Royal Blue and Ruby. For yellow pansies, Yellow, 
shaded with Yellow Brown or Violet and Yellow, or Blood 
Red and Hair Brown. The leaves are a cool green, use 
Apple Green and Violet, Shading Green and Violet, Brown 
Green, Dark Green and Yellow Green. 

Forget-me-nots — The best effects are obtained in 
painting these pretty blue flowers by putting in a soft 
toned background and leaves, then wiping out the flowers 
with a brush and putting in wash of the blue color. Deep 




(Treatment page S3) 


Blue Green used very light, modeled with the same color, 
otherwise they are apt to look stiff and solid instead of the 
dainty and airily little flowers they are. The center is 
Yellow with a touch of Yellow Brown or Deep Red Brown. 
Pink blossoms and buds light wash of Rose, shadowy ones 
Rose and Copenhagen, for very dark flowers an occasional 
touch of Deep Blue. Leaves and stems, Yellow Green, 
Brown Green, Dark Green and occasionally touches of Yel- 
low Brown. 

Chrysanthemums — For the white blossoms use Violet 
and Yellow deepened with Dark Green, Yellow for the 
centers. Also a very delicate grey for white flowers is Pearl 
Grey with touch of Yellow. If one wishes to change after 
first fire these flowers into pink or yellow it is easily done by 
using a wash of Standard Pink. Or Demon Yellow for 
light and, for deeper, Albert Yellow and Yellow Brown. 

For dark red chrysanthemums use Dark Purple, Pompa- 
dour and Finishing Brown with wash of Ruby Purple for 
second fire. 

Tulips — Shade white ones with Copenhagen Blue and 
Rose, near stems use Olive Green. Shade pink ones with 
Rose and deepen with Ruby Purple. For yellow ones use 
Albert Yellow, shade with Blood Red. 

Rambler Roses — Carnation for first fire, Yellow and 
Yellow Brown for centers; shadows, Rose and Blood Red. 
Second fire, wash of Rose. Usual greens used for rose 

Dandelions — Should be painted in broad flat washes 
using a bright, strong Yellow, modeling in Violet and Yel- 
low Brown. Leaves and buds a crisp green using Brown, 
Moss and Dark Greens, toned with Violet; stems, a pale 

Wild Roses (Pink) — Blossoms, Osgood's Standard 
Pink, shadows, Pink and Copenhagen Grey. Darker 
flowers Rose and Ruby; darker still, wash of Ruby powdered 
with Brown Green. Centers Lemon Yellow, touches of 
Brown Green and Blood Red and Yellow Brown. 

Yellow Wild Roses — Lemon Yellow shaded with Grey. 
Darker ones Yellow Brown with grey shadows. Second 
fire retouch with Dark Yellow and Brown Green, Yellow 
Brown in centers. 

Carnations— Use Rose or Osgood's Pink for the light 
pink blossoms, American Beauty for the darker ones, shad- 
ing with Violet No. 2 and a little American Beauty mixed 
with it. Rich red carnations Blood Red and Ruby glazed 
with Carnation. 

Poppies — Carnation for light ones, Blood Red and 
Blood Red and Ruby for darker ones. Second fire, Carna- 
tion, centers, Violet and Black. 

For light yellow poppies, Lemon and Egg Yellow. 
First fire, centers, Green and White, stamens, Deep Yel- 
low. Second fire, tone Yellow a soft greyish yellow. 
Violet and Carnation mixed make a good shadow color for 
red poppies. Greens for leaves toned to greyish color with 
Violet. For centers of dark poppies, Violet and Black, 
for lighter ones Violet and Dark Green. Use Violet and 
Yellow shadows for light poppies. 

Asters — Banding Blue and Violet for the light purple. 
Violet and Royal Blue( Mason's) for the dark purple, centers 
are Albert Yellow and Olive Green. Flush pinkish flowers 
with Rose, light purple with Banding Blue and dark purple 
with Violet and Ruby. 

Clover (pink) — First fire, Pompadour for pink, Lemon 
Yellow and Apple Green up towards the calyx, shadow 
side Pompadour and Copenhagen. Light part of leaves 
Lemon Yellow and Apple Green. Second fire, wash rose 

over blossoms and accentuate markings with same. Sha- 
dow leaves, blossoms and stems, Copenhagen and Rose. 
Other stems Light Green modeled with Shading Green, 
Dark Green and Brown Green. 


In painting flowers remember the complimentary 
color of yellow is violet or lavender and you will find the 
shadow tones by adding violet to yellow. For red the 
complimentary color is green (also blue and yellow mixed). 
For blue the complimentary color is orange, obtained by 
mixing red and yellow. 

In purple flowers such as fleur-de-lis use three-fourths 
Dark Blue (Dresden), one and one-fourth Lacroix Ruby 
Purple, this makes a good purple for nearly all purple flowers, 
also Fry's Violet No. 2 and Royal Purple can always be 
depended on. 

Light yellow flowers may be painted with White Rose 
and glazed with Yellow. For yellow flowers such as 
jonquils use light wash of Yellow; in centers, Orange Red 
and Yellow Brown. Shadowy leaves, Copenhagen Blue 
and a little Pink. Leaves in blue green tones. For dark 
rich reds like currants, poppies, geraniums, nasturtiums, 
etc., use Blood Red and Ruby glazed with Carnation 


Small Roses — In painting small roses or any small 
flowers it is a good plan to hold in mind a definite color 
scheme, if the flowers are pink use shades of that color 
in the general scheme; if yellow, shades of yellow and violet, 
not a medley of pink, yellow, red and purple. For small 
pink or creamy roses, Rose near center and Rose and Yel- 
low for outside petals. For a deeper pink a touch of Rose 
and Ruby in center of some of them. Small pink roses 
may first be painted in Light Yellow and Carnation in cen- 
ter, second fire wash of Rose. 

For small yellow roses, first, Primrose Yellow; center, 
touches of Yellow Brown; shadows, Violet No. 2 and Yel- 
low Brown. Shadow roses, Violet of Iron and Yellow 

For dark red roses (small) Ruby, first fire. Second 
fire, Roman Purple Leaves or small roses soft, tender 
green, Brown and Apple Green, Violet No. 2 with Light 
Green. Violet of Iron and Brown Green for warm, deep 
shadow leaves. 

Pleliotrope may also be classed with miniature flowers. 
For light tones use Blue Violet (No.i), little Turquoise 
Blue, model with Deep Violet; Yellowish Green for centers; 
shadow flowers, Violet No. 2 and Grey; leaves, Yellow, 
Olive and Blue Green, a wash of Rose when a pinkish tone 
is desired. Much depends on the handling of light and 
shade ; leaves simple and flat. 

Lilacs— These small flowers require careful modeling 
to obtain desired effects. The design should be washed 
in with Violet No. 2 and little Deep Blue Green, then with 
brush take out shapes or light flowers, these to have a 
wash of Lavender. Centers, Yellow; buds, soft green; 
second fire, retouch and strengthen. Add a touch of Rose 
to Violet to get a pinkish tone. White lilacs are treated in 
much the same way using the Grey tone to model with. 

Small Asters— For the darkest use Ruby, Royal Blue 
and Black, next shade, Banding Blue and Ruby. Lightest 
flowers Blue Green and Violet, leave some flowers almost 
white for first fire. For pink flowers, Pompadour, Albert 
Yellow and Olive Green in centers. Flush pink flowers 
with Rose, bluish ones with Banding Blue and darker ones 
with Violet and Royal Blue. 






(Treatment page 83) 




FLEUR-DE-LIS (Supplement) 

Rhoda Holmes Nicholls 


TO make a satisfactory copy of the fleur-de-lis study 
prepare the paper by moistening it and placing it over wet 
blotting paper on a board. Draw with a red sable brush 
with firm point and Cobalt Blue the whole design. Then 
wash in the background using Indigo, Raw Sienna, Aligarin 
Crimson and Hooker's Green No. 2. For the flowers use 
French Blue, Aligarin Crimson, a little Black, Lemon Yel- 
low and Carmine and for the leaves Hooker's Green No. 2, 
Black, Aligarin Crimson and Lemon Yellow. The sharp 
accents must be applied when the paper is comparatively 
dry. These accents are very important and the life of the 
study depends on them. In case the brilliancy of the 
paper has been lost, use Chinese white thickly with a little 
of the local color. 


[Reproduced from September, 1901; K. S.] 

For china painting I would advise the study be applied 
to tall shapes or where a long stem can be introduced. The 
fleur-de-lis is also prettier when painted in the natural size. 
The flower is a difficult one to paint, and careful attention 
must be paid to the drawing. For the violet tints in the 
upper petals use Turquoise Blue mixed with a little Rose, 

the quantity of both depending on the depths of the violet 
to be desired. If you wish a pale lavender use Air Blue 
instead of Turquoise in the mixture. For the lower dark 
petals use Crimson Purple with Banding Blue. For the 
center and inside parts and the narrow shaped stripes 
down the center of each petal curling downward use Lemon 
Yellow and shade with Albert and Yellow Brown. Do not 
forget the purple veins in the petals which lose themselves 
in the yellow center. The three petals hanging downwards 
are always darker than the others. 

When you paint the white fleur-de-lis use a grey made 
of Yellow Green and Violet, first lay in Lemon Yellow, Blue 
and shade with Grey. There are purple veins in the lower 
petals also. Yellow Green, Blue Green and Shading Green 
can be used in the leaves. For the distant greens use more 
Blue. The general character of the greens in this plant is 
cold in tone, but as in all paintings use warmer colors in the 
leaves, etc. For the first firing you may lay in color scheme 
as given above using colors very oily for the painting of 
backgrounds also. The background is laid in for the second 
firing, which I consider more practical for the less expe- 
rienced painter, as he can change the color scheme and 
effects to suit the individual taste, and if not successful 
can wipe off the tint without destroying the design. The 
last firing I use for finishing and accents and a general 
rounding up of the color scheme and light and shade. 






Adelaide Alsop Robineau 

ONE of the most decorative of wild flowers is the 
Mallow whose seed pods make the little "cheeses" with 
which children are so fond of playing. The flower is a 
delicate lavender pink, reminding one strongly of a minia- 
ture Hollyhock, to which family it belongs. There are 
several varieties of Mallow, the one drawn by Miss Ross 
being quite different in several points, the flower petal 
being wider, as also the lobes of the leaves. The two 
decorative arrangements in panels can be used as repeated 
units on a tall piece, such as a vase or pitcher. The sym- 
metrically arranged panel, somewhat suggestive of art 
nouveau can be used also as a repeat in a decoration. The 
all over pattern No. 1 is very effective on the neck of a 
vase in gold and enamel or in flat enamels on the body of a 
piece combined with a wide border at the top. 

No 2 is more suggestive of a silk pattern and No. 3 
of a dimity or wash goods design, but the units can easily 
be re-arranged for china decoration. The little narrow 
border can be used well in combination with the all over 
pattern No. 1 or alone. A good color scheme in flat enamels 
would be, center and stems olive green, petals dark blue, 
ivory ground ; or center and stems brown, petals deep cream, 
yellow brown ground. The other two borders can be 
executed in flat gold or gold and color 

* C#3 m 






Emma A. Ervin. 

TINT the background with Chinese Yellow in the center 
and Yellow Ochre with a touch of red for darker edge. 
The leaves and stems should be in grey greens to harmon- 
ize with the background. Use a delicate pink in the open 
flowers and a slightly deeper pink in the buds. 


A. Rosser 

THE blossoms of the dolichos are a rather bluish lav- 
ender shading to darker reddish tones. The seed- 
pods, stems and veins of leaves are dark purplish maroon. 

There is also a white dolichos — the flowers of which are 
a pure clear white — seed pods and stems a greenish white. 


Maud E. Hulbert. 

THESE sweet peas may be either white or a very delicate 
pink. The ground might be either a very light 
green, Apple Green perhaps, with a very little Olive, or a 
grey, Copenhagen and Warm Grey. 

If the peas are white the palette would be Brown Green, 
Deep Blue Green, Lemon Yellow and Warm Grey, and if 
they are pink Pompadour Red, Warm Grey and Lemon 
Yellow, or Rose, Lemon Yellow and Brown Green. 








(Treatment page 84) 




S \ 



(Treatment page 90) 




Photograph by Helen Pattee. 

H. Barclay Paist. 
r I \HIS subject is one of the most decorative of the wild 
A flowers. The arrangement of this particular speci- 
men within the space is especially fine. It is so strongly 
silhouetted against the background that a monochrone 
treatment is at once suggested. But if one wishes to carry 
on the natural colors, use a pale Lemon Yellow or Ivory 
Yellow for background. The blossom is painted with 
shades of purple, from pale lavender, (Fry's Lilac) to Pansy 
Purple. The greens, Grey Green and Dark Green, the 
dark portions being glazed or dusted with Moss Green. 

This would be beautiful on a small vase in Copenhagen 
Grey against a delicate Ivory ground, also in tones of 
brown running from Yellow ochre to Dark Brown— with 
background of Neutral Yellow. Tint the background all 
over first and fire before beginning the study. 


lone Wheeler Evelyn B. Beachey 


THE fifteenth annual exhibition of the Chicago Ceramic Art 
Association was held at the Art Institute of Chicago 
from May 7th to June 1st. The exhibition included the 
work of the National League of Mineral Painters, of which 
a detailed account will be given later. The exhibition 
was exceptionally fine this year, and included decorated 
porcelain and many beautiful pieces of pottery, both thrown 
and built. 

Evelyn Beachey showed a number of pieces, all interest- 
ing examples of her individual style, strong both in color 
and design. Notable among them was a bowl which was 
very quaint in color and decorated in a geometric design 
introducing a rose motif. She also exhibited several good 
plates especially adapted for table service. 

Lula C. Bergen's vase decorated with sweet pea motif 
was very beautiful in color as well as design, she also showed 
two pleasing plaques and other pieces. 



lone Wheeler 

lone Wheeler 
Mary J. Coulter 

Mary J. Coulter 

May E. Brunemeyer 

Mary J. Coulter 
Belle B. Vesey 

Mary J. Coulter Mrs. A. H. Abercrombie Mary A. Farrington lone Wheeler 
Cora A. Randall Myrtle E. Lidberg Eleanor Stewart Mary J. Coulter 

Nellie A. Cross 
Belle B. Vesey Evelyn Beachey 

Mary J. Coulter's work was exceptionally well executed, 
clever and original in design and color. A large bowl in 
soft shades of blue lavender, green and pink was one of 
the most interesting and attractive pieces in the exhibition. 
A smaller bowl in aster motif and a quaint pitcher in blue 
and white were very dainty. A plate in which the spotting 
was unusually good and striking in color, contrasted favor- 
ably with the subdued tones of the other pieces shown by her. 

Nellie A. Cross had a very good exhibit of pottery, re- 
markable for its light tones in blue and green semi-matt glaze. 

Mary A. Farrington was represented by a salad bowl, 
the design was very effectively done in green on a white 
ground. A smaller bowl decorated in dandelion bespoke 
the Springtime. 

Helen H. Goodman's work was readily recognized by 
the neutral tints in coloring and broad style in handling. 

The exhibition was greatly enhanced by the work of 
the new members, Helen M. Haines, May Brunemeyer and 
Eleanor Stewart. The Sidji creamer and sugar done by 
Helen Haines was most unique. May Brunemeyer 's soft 
blues and pinks in her conventionalized flower forms made 
an especially attractive group to be shown on white damask. 
The design of Eleanor Stewart's green and gold plate is well 
adapted to an entire dinner service. 

Special attention has been given this year to salad 
bowls and the one decorated by Ellen M. Iglehart attracted 
much attention in its colonial type. 

Myrtle Lydeberg was represented by a plate which 
showed much strength in composition. 

Among Mrs. A. H. Abercrombie's pieces was a large 
plaque very charming in color and design. 

Cora A. Randall's vase in narcissus motif was very 
pleasing. Belle B. Vesey exhibited several good examples of 
pottery, also some over-glaze work, among which was a 
quaint little ring bowl, and a tea caddy in delicate tones. 

lone Wheeler's work showed strength and cleverness 
in design and execution. Among her entries was a vase 
exquisite in its formal design and dainty coloring, and 
a plate in blue and green enamels on white ground was 
exceptionally good. She also exhibited a vase modeled 
after her original design, known as the Wheeler vase, 
decorated in lustre with a conventionalized tulip, especially 
adapted to the shape. 

Evelyn B. Beachey 

Helen Haines 
Evelyn B. Beachey 

M. Ellen Iglehart 

Lula C. 
Lula C. Bergen 
Evelyn B. Beachey 

Helen H. Goodman 
Nellie A. Cross 




OXALIS (Page 87) 

Ida M. Ferris. 


THIS bright and highly enterprising little flower is a 
bright silvery pink on the right side with darker 
thread like lines running toward the center and a much 
lighter tone on the underside. The buds therefore are a 
pale pink with light green calyx. Leaves are a soft yellow- 
ish green. 

For the flowers use Peach Blossom and Ashes of Roses 
to shade, with a few deeper touches of Rose or American 
Beauty in second fire. 

The leaves are quite light except in shadow. Moss 
Green, Brown Green and Dark Green may be used with 
pale green stems. 

Use a warm greyish undertone for background, Ivory 
Yellow in lightest parts, Ashes of Roses and Air Blue to 
grey it, with Persian Green and Dark Green in darkest 


Mariam L. Candler 

* I A HE Trumpet Flower is one of our old fashioned 
* garden vines and is very decorative. The flower 
whose name is descriptive of its formation is very gorgeous 
in its tone of coloring. 

For the first firing, wash in the trumpet part of the 
flower with Albert's Yellow, shading with Blood Red, 
or Deep Red Brown. The cup shape requires careful 
modeling with reddish yellow tones. Put a touch of 
Yellow Green in the center for the stamens. The calex 
and stem are laid in with Moss Green shaded with Brown 
Green. The clusters of buds are kept in the soft grey 
green tones^ with a touch of Yellow Brown for the high 
lights. For the leaves, use Yellow Green, Grey Green 
and Shading Green. 

If the study is used on a vase the background may 
be a soft dark green gradually shading into a pale yellow 
(Chinese Yellow) at the top, or the tones of Dark Brown 
and Red may be substituted for the dark green. 

For the second firing use the same colors accenting 
where necessary; when nearly dry, powder for the strong 
effects. Then glaze with Ivory Glaze over the brown 
tones or Green Glaze over the dark green effects. 





Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 232 East 27th Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 

Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under ''Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 

stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

Ewer and Basin. Pewter. "The Arts." Composition and execution by J. Brateau, 1889. Musee du Luxembourg, Paris. Diameter 0.43 centimetres. 


/. Brateau 

A new style, the Louis XVI., succeeded the rococo, 
having nothing in common with it, either in form, or dec- 
oration; consequently everything in the pewter industry 
had to be created again. It was impossible to follow the 
new style, without employing entirely different molds, 
and there was then a dearth of good engravers and die 
cutters. Pewterers appeared not to know how to inter- 
pret in their medium the delicate ornament of the Louis 
XVI. style, and the industry rapidly declined to the point 
of disappearance, not to revive until a century later; this 
revival being due to a timid attempt of the writer of this 
article, who exhibited at a special competition for metal 
work,* two plates in pewter, one of which symbolizes the 
Zodiac, and is reproduced in our illustration No. 43. The 
results there attained appeared to surprise the most com- 
petent experts in artistic metal work, for the technique 
of pewter had been completely forgotten. 

When in 1889 the writer produced the ewer and basin 
"The Arts," as well as other subjects, and a Louis XV. 
plate, the interest became general. Sculptors remarked 
at once the soft qualities of the metal and the artistic 
coloring which made it well adapted to statuary. The 
remarkable works in pewter by such artists as MM. Alex- 
andre Charpentier, J. Desbois, Ledru, Jean Boffier, and 
others, show conclusively that such employment of the 

metal is justified, when subjects are broadly treated by 
master hands. We take pleasure in here illustrating 
several subjects treated by these sculptors, who have 
kindly authorized us to reproduce them in the Keramic 

A number of manufacturers, always seeking new 
ideas, seized their opportunity, and pewter pottery has 
been revived. We may add that at present, in many in- 
dustrial centres, articles of this substance are manufac 
tured in great quantity, and with varied ornamentation. 
But, as is often the case in industrial work, the canons 
of good taste are not always observed. Art suffers from 
the production of articles of cheap and easy manufacture, 
while cheapness and easy production are naturally the 
main preoccupations of industrial manufacturers. We 
earnestly hope that those interested in the decorative, 
or applied arts, will react against these commercial tend- 
encies, and strive for artistic and technical value, which 
are too often forgotten. Commerce has abused the ad- 
mirable qualities of pewter, in order to make it yield a 
maximum, considered from the commercial point of view. 
We have a right to demand from artists the production of 
works similar to some of the beautiful decorative objects 
which formerly made pewter the equal of the more precious 

(To be continued.) 

♦Organized by the Union Centrale des Arts Decoratifs, in Paris, 1880. 



No. 47 
Large leaf shaped tray. (67 to 70 centimetres.) " Eve" Pewter, by Jules Desbois, Sculptor. 

No. 45 
Mask in Pewter. Made natural size. Mode: 
Jules Desbois, Sculptor. 

No. 48 
Pewter Tray. " Leda." Musfe du Luxembourg, Paris. By Jules Desbois, Sculptor. 



No. 46 
Gourd and tray. Pewter. Modern work by Jules Desbois, Sculptor. 

No. 51 
" Morning Star." Pewter tray, modern work, by M. Ledru, Sculptor. Courtesy of 
Mess. Susse, Publishers, .Paris. 

No. 43 
Pewter plate. "Zodiac." Composition and execution by J. Brateau. 

No. 49 

Fountain. Pewter. "Danaids, Narcissus, etc., " t by Alexandre Charpentier, Sculptor. 

Musee GalHera, Paris. 

Pewter shell. Modern work, by M. Ledru, Sculptor. Courtesy of Mess. 
Susse, Publishers, Paris. 



No. 2 

De la Piffie" des Chretiens envers Ies Morts. Bound by Padeloup, Paris, 1719. 

Courtesy Chas. Scribner's Sons. 


Mertice Mac Crea Buck 

AMONG the arts and crafts that have begun to arouse 
the attention of women as possible avocations, one of 
the most fascinating is bookbinding. 

It is well within the physical scope of a woman, it is 
cleanly, and altogether delightful, and offers great future 
possibilities, as the number of Americans increase who 
can indulge in the luxury of line libraries. As this 
number is at present very small, most women binders eke 
out their livelihood by teaching. 

As the work is taught by Douglas Cockerell, Cobden- 
Sanderson, and other famous binders, it takes two or three 
years to acquire a very modest degree of skill, for even 
the simplest "hand-bound" involves about fifty processes. 
I make these statements to satisfy the natural desire for 
knowledge of many women who would like to learn some 
form of handicraft which could be practiced in their own 

Time, patience, accuracy, and money are all required 
to make even a start in this craft. This is due to the fact 
that binding has not kept pace with the other applied arts 
in the introduction of labor saving devices. A hand-bound 
book is as much the product of physical labor as a piece of 
real lace. The processes remain the same as they were four 
hundred years ago, when the few volumes in existence 
were mostly confined to communities, like monasteries 
and universities, where they were subject to the wear and 
tear from the touch of hundreds of hands. Most of these 
were fastened to the shelves by chains, as illustration 
No. i, reproduced by the courtesy of Chas. Scribner's Sons. 
This is of course the manuscript, as it was written before 
the invention of printing. The illustrations No. 2 and .3 
are a book and doublure of the same, bound for Marie 
Leczuiska's private library by Padeloup who was one of 
the best of the early 18th century binders; famous for his 
tooling, and for the beauty of his doublures, or inner cover 

Whether the gulf between hand binding and commer- 
cial work will ever be bridged remains to be seen, mean- 
while we of flat purses must choose between having a very 
few well-bound books, or a number of such as will stand 
but little wear. 

There is, however, a substantial style of binding, often 
used by the hand binders for music, by means of which an 
amateur possessed of patience and a few tools, can pro- 
duce a volume which will stand any amount of wear, and 
be quite effective on the library shelf. 

In order to follow the directions given below, it is 
necessary to have first an understanding of the difference 
between a "bound" book and one that is merely "cased," 
as most books are nowadays, when publishers compete 
with each other as to how cheaply they can produce and 
sell their work. In a "bound" book the sheets are laid 
one over the other and sewed over cords or tapes, which 
lie across the outside of the back, the ends being firmly 
laced into the boards which form the sides. The cover of 
cloth or leather or whatever it may be is merely a protec- 
tion and may be torn off without weakening the binding. 

In a "cased" book the sheets are placed in a sewing 
frame as before, and horizontal saw cuts made across the 
back, in which cords are laid. Then if the book ever needs 
rebinding the back of the sheets are full of holes and re- ■ 
quire much mending. The ends of these cords are not 
attached to the boards, which are merely glued to a piece 
going over the back, so that they come off in time if the 
book is much used. 

It is not necessary to know all the many intricate pro- 
cesses which go to make up a really fine binding in order to 
produce a durable book, but these two principles must be 
remembered, that a form of sewing is to be used that does 
not injure the leaves, but does allow the boards to be at- 
tached solidly. 

The amateur, possessed of time, accuracy, and a few- 
tools, can add some satisfactory books to her library if she 
will carefully follow the following directions. In the first 
place, the book chosen to be experimented on should not be a 
very thick one, nor should it be one already punctured 

Doublure of preceding bo.ik U 

No, :; 
und by Padeloup. 

Courtesy Chas. Scribner's Sons. 



No. 1 
e on certain of the Books of the Bible. 

Manuscript on vellum in the 
iginal chain at- 


50 ea. 
50 up 

^11511111,1 uajvcii yjvjniyia uutcicu Willi Slltr^psivlll, Having IHC ' 

tached. Early XV. century. Courtesy Chas. Scribner's Sons. 

along the back with the holes left by sawed-in bands or 
wires. Leaves for a diary or guest-book are excellent to 
begin with. 

The following supplies must be on hand before work 
can be begun. See also Illus. No. 4. The approximate 
cost of special book-binder's tools are affixed, but 
small articles, like carpenter's square, dividers, etc., can 
often be found in the family workshop. 

Large shears 

Backing hammer 

Cutting knife 

2 Leather paring knives 1 

Paring stone (lithographer's stone) . . 

Bone folder 

Dividers (2 pairs large and small) 

Carpenter's Square 

Metal ruler 


Sewing frame 1.75 up 

Band nippers 1 .50 up 

Finishing press 2.25 

Pressing Boards, several sizes 

Pressing tins, several sizes 

Backing boards or irons 

Glue pot and brushes 

Small letter press 

This list does not include a press and plow, essentials 
if the worker intends to take up hand-binding as a profes- 
sion. Generally, however, the amateur can manage to 
get boards cut at some bindery which are sufficiently ac- 
curate to use for a guest-book. The dimensions must be 
given correctly to the one who does the cutting. 

In regard to presses it may also be said that a large 
standing press is of course infinitely better than a letter 
press, but the latter can be made to answer very well by 
leaving the book in for 48 hours, or by pressing it in sections 
between tins before pressing it as a whole. 

Whatman's hot pressed, Michelet or Van Gelder, and 
a good bond paper should be kept on hand in small quanti- 
ties, also a few sheets of strong thin Japanese rice paper. 
At the end of this article will be given a list of places where 
supplies can be obtained. 

Book-binders' elastic glue is to be obtained by the 
pound. It should be broken into small pieces, and, if it 
seems very hard, soaked in cold water over night. A dou- 
ble glue pot is essential; but a granite ware double boiler 
has been known to answer. The glue should not be heated 
until nearly time to use it, and it should not be heated and 
re-heated, as this causes it to lose its strength and elasticity. 

Bookbinders' paste is the best, but a substitute may 
be made by a very simple recipe given further on. 

We take it for granted that the amateur will sew her 
book on outside, not sawed-in, bands. First she must see 
if the sheets are in perfect condition. If the book is com- 
posed of sheets of blank paper, it will be found that char- 
coal drawing paper (Michelet or Van Gelder) is very satis- 
factory, for it is strong and also keeps its color well. These 
sheets are large, and if divided into quarters the size thus 
obtained makes a good double leaf. The fold should be 
rubbed clown with the "bone-folder", this is also used in 
cutting these sheets in preference to a knife. Sheets are 
arranged in what are called "sections," consisting of from 
three to eight thicknesses, depending upon the heaviness 
of the paper. Four thicknesses of charcoal paper are as 
many as a needle will easily penetrate. The leaves in a 
section are placed one inside another as closely as possible 
and each section should be well rubbed down with a folder. 


1*2, =x>/7.; </£,-=, 

3 .t. o--- /fammc fs..f°r 6^Ar/rr%, 

/«•?-= p«t-/n%-A-/t,Vcs. . 

n/poe. 7-s 

( AUG 29 «07 

The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted without special permission 


Editorial Notes 

League Notes 

Studio Notes 

Editorial, and the following studies, by 

Crabapple Blossoms 


Pale Pink Roses 


General Instructions for Water Color Work 


Wild Rose Study 

American Beauty Roses 


Pond Lily 


Yellow Roses 

Landscapes for tiles 


Red Roses 

Snow Ball 


Pink Roses 


Small Roses 

Fleur De Lis 

Sweet Peas, supplement 

Use of Fusible Cones in Firing 

Answers to Correspondents 

The Crafts 

Practical Book-binding (continued) 

Teana McLennan 

Mertice Mac Crea Buck 












The thousands of these Kilns in use testify to 
their Good Qualities. 



No. 2 Size 14, x 12 in $30.00 

No. 3 Size 16x19 in 40.00 

Write for Discounts. 

The only fuels which give perfect results in 

Glaze and Color Tone. '^SS^'fl^JJ^tf** 

!No. 1 Size 10x12 in $15.00 
No. 2 Size 16x12 in 20.00 
No. 3 Size 16x15 in 25.00 
No. 4 Size 18x26 in 50.00 



Springfield, Ohio 

Vol. IX, No. 5 


September, J 907 

E take pleasure in presenting the 
work of Mrs. Teana McLennan 
Hinman of New York. Her 
water color studies are so well 
known to readers of Keramic 
Studio that her work needs no 
comment. It is sufficient to say 
that her studies in opaque water 
color are among the most popular 
of those presented by Keramic 
Studio. The lovers of conventional design will find inter- 
esting motifs and will, we hope, be unselfish enough to 
gladly give up one number to lovers of naturalistic studies. 

The study of cyclamen which was published in April 
number without the name of designer is by Miss Carrie E. 
Williams, of Dunkirk, N. Y. 

o o o 

In our Class Room competition for Figure Painting, 
the first prize was awarded to Emma S. Timlin, of Kansas 
City, Mo., and the second prize to Nellie F. Du Bois Hen- 
derson, of Herkimer, N. Y. 

o o o 

The next issue will be mostly of decorative designs. 
November Keramic Studio will be edited by Miss Jeanne 
Stewart of Chicago, and the January California number by 
Miss Leta Horlocker will be the last of our special editions. 


AT different stages of mental growth we require different 
standards. Beauty is said to be external, that is, 
outside ourselves and we become acquainted with it through 
our senses. A thing is said to be beautiful which is pleas- 
ing to the mind; it is evident then that our standard of beauty 
must change with the development of the mind. The paint 
patches on the face of the Indian are beautiful to him but 
not to us. 

In our work as students of design adapted to keramic 
forms we find this true, that our standard is constantly 
changing with our education and we have outgrown the 
things which pleased us once. Each day we are aiming at 
a higher standard. We no longer paint nature studies on a 
surface which distorts them, yet we do study nature faith- 
fully and apply her principles to our designs. The better 
we understand and apply these principles the better our 
work will be, for it will illustrate the principles of Fitness, 
Proportion and Harmony derived from our study of Nature. 
Members are urged not to neglect this study of nature. If 
you have not already made the pencil sketches of "Facts 
from Roses" problem one, there is still time. A few hours 
work direct from nature will give one his own interpreta- 
tion of the facts, the application of them will differ from 
that of others and the work will be original and have a style 
of its own. If one constantly studies the work of any 
designer he acquires his style but variety in nature is 

infinite and your work from it cannot resemble any one 
else's if you state the facts as you see them. 

Fine studies of flowers and plant forms are frequently 
reproduced in the Keramic Studio and are a great help to 
the student of design for reference, but if you desire to ad- 
vance rapidly do not depend entirely on them but have your 
own sketch book to refer to. See League Notes in July 
number of Keramic Studio for what is meant by "Facts 
from Roses." 

The designs for Problem II are also to be sent in for 
correction by October ist. The drawings may be made, if 
desired, several times the size required for the finished 
design but try and keep them exact in scale so that they 
can be easily reduced when applied to the china. 

Mrs. Nellie A. Cross, chairman of Exhibition Committee 
and Mrs. Lula C. Bergen, chairman of Transportation Com- 
mittee have not yet completed the schedule of the route for 
the travelling exhibition because some clubs are slow in 
replying and the committee desires to hear from all. As 
far as arrangements can be made at present it is planned to 
have it leave Chicago, October 20, going first to Pittsburg, 
Pa. The complete schedule will be published later. 

Miss M. Ellen Iglehart, our vice-president, has kindly 
offered her studio, 100 Auditorium Bldg. and her services 
to League members visiting Chicago, arid will gladly give 
them information desired in regard to the League and place 
them in telephonic communication with other officers of the 
League. The central location of her studio will make it 
very convenient for visitors having only a short time in 
the city. 

Club members and individual members are asked to 
send in suggestions of interest to the League before the 
October meeting so that action may be taken upon them 
at that time. 

Presidents of affiliated clubs by virtue of that office 
are honorary vice-presidents of the League and members of 
the council and are expected to aid the Advisory Board in 
the management of League affairs by giving them the benefit 
of their judgment and experience. The officers of the 
League are willing to do all that is possible for the League 
but success depends on the support given by the clubs. 
The newer clubs need the support of the older and stronger 
ones. By aiding others we ourselves are benefitted. 

Send all communications in regard to the study course 

Mary A. Farrington, Pres. of League 
1 108 Norwood Ave., Chicago. 


Miss M. Helen E. Montfort will reopen her studio in 
October after a most delightful summer in Italy. 

Mr. Marshal Fry's summer class at Southampton closed 
the middle of August. 

Mrs. Vance-Phillips has just closed successfully her last 
season at Chautauqua. She is intending to reside in the 
future in California, 




N this edition it has been my 
object to have the studies so 
arranged that they should be 
used for the decoration of china 
as well as for water color studies ; 
for use on china they must be 
decorative, and by that I mean 
conform to the lines and shape of 
the object on which they are 
painted, while a water color study 
is essentially a picture. It has been no small task to do 
this, and I trust that the many readers of Keramic Studio 
will not think that these studies were made to please each 
of them individually, my object was to present a set of 
studies such as my pupils paint, so that all might see and 
perhaps find something to their taste. 

I was much pleased when the Keramic Studio asked 
me to edit this number, and I thought of some new and dar- 
ing decorative schemes, most of which I thought best not 
to use, as at every mail, it seems to me, I received letters 
asking me to make this kind or that kind of a study, but no 
one asked for anything like the "bold ideas" I had in mind. 
And how distressed I have been by the word received 
from the various ones who have written me ! 

One said, "Please do not have any roses in your number, 
as every one has so many now, and besides no one knows 
how to paint a rose." I was overjoyed when I saw by the 
name of the writer that it was no one who knew my work. 

(Treatment page 102) 

Another wished me to do all landscapes, as that was 
what her pupils were studying at the present time, having 
learned all there was to know about painting flowers ! 

Then a visitor from the West wished me to do a "lot of 
little studies," as the big articles were so expensive and her 
pupils could not afford to buy them, adding "and please do 
not do any conventional studies or I shall not buy the book." 

The other day a lady, in discussing the present work of 
the china painters, said very sweetly that she hoped I had 
made a few studies at least that were worth printing, that' 
most of the work was so bad these days it was hard to get a 
good study, and again wished I would have a few good ones, 
So did I, and I mentioned that they were all naturalistic. 
"Such a pity." she said, "as no one paints naturalistic 

Another visitor, who was charming, said it was so nice 
that "you celebrities" (I was so flattered), never paint any- 
thing that is good, as it gives the others so much more 
opportunity. I might have answered many things, but 
thought of them only the next day, and at the moment 
simply agreed with her, regretting all my great new ideas, 
which, I now fear, would have been disastrous. 

And I realized how difficult it is to try to give to many 
thousand china painters designs that will please each and 
all. Surely one who does the work of editing such a mag- 
azine as the Keramic Studio every month, deserves much 

Teana McLennan 





(Treatment page 102) 






Lemon Yellow, Payne's Grey, and Hooker's Green. 

Leaves — Hooker's Green No. 1, Payne's Grey and Emerald 
Green, with Lemon Yellow for high lights. 


Apple Green and Grey for Flowers. Leaves — Apple 
Green, Dark Green and Banding Blue. 
*'• *■' 
No White is used with Carmine alone; it must have 
Safflower with it to give a brilliant effect, as the White 
is blue in tone and the Carmine is the same, the result is a 
muddy color without the Safflower. 

No White should be used with Indian Yellow unless 
Lemon Yellow is used with it. 

The method of working in the opaque color is very 
simple, very direct and not experimental. All teachers 
who wish to make studies from nature for use in the studio 
will find this method of working will materially expedite 
matters, for one may lay in the shadows and put on the high 
lights, thus working around one's work at the modeling, 
the drawing and color at the same time, usually being sure 
of a good result. 

The first wash after the drawing is made is light in 
color and thin, the shadows first and then the lights, hav- 
ing a blocked in idea of the values and modeling, then the 
White mixed with the same colors, beginning with the high 
light and working to the shadows; in this way the study is 
kept clean and the color pure. 

To work on white paper the entire background must be 
covered before the study is begun as the dead white of the 
paper is very trying, causing one to make all shadows too 

Practice, practice, practice, and "If at first you don't 
succeed, try again." No one learned to paint who was 
easily discouraged, and no one ever succeeded who did no 

Paint, paint, paint, and at the end of six months you 
will be amazed at the number of good studies you have. 
Generally speaking, if one is careful and earnest and can 
give up one hour each day to painting what one wishes to 
paint, excluding the thought of the profit, one year or even 
six months will work wonders in technique, color and 
strength. But work alone will do this. We have all made 
so much money with so little knowledge that we are apt to 
think we always shall — well we shall see. 

When giving the treatment for the china studies it is 
impossible to give the exact amount of each color to be 
used; all depending on how an article is fired and (as so 
many seem to forget) the experience of the painter. It is 
very much like a good cook of whom I have heard, giving 
a recipe for a cake, "use flour and salt and water, then your 
own judgment. " That is always the feeling I have when 
giving the treatment for water colors or china studies. I 
can give the flour, the salt, and the water, perhaps a little 
more, and then one's own judgment must do the rest. 

All roses that are pink are not all pink and one of neces- 
sity must use discretion in painting them. The same with 
any other color. The color must be thin the first firing, 
only an indication of what the result will be; the second 
and third fire worked each time in more detail, and the dust- 
ing is a very important matter as this deepens the color, 
it pulls the study together and brings all in harmony. 

The treatment for several of the china studies was given 
me by Mrs. Thompson, of New York, to whom I am very 










Peach Blossom and Carnation. For the shadow side 
Carnation and Ruby. 



Safflower, Carmine in the shadows. Steins — Burnt 
Sienna and Van Dyke Brown. 


Peach Blossom and Rose in the shadows. Stems — Hair 
Brown and Blood Red, and Yellow Red and Hair Brown. 

POPPIES (Page 9Z) 


Safflower, Carmine and Green for shadow, with Brown 
Pink and Safflower for the yellowish tone. 

Leaves — Hooker's Green No. 2, and Indian and Lemon 


Yellow Red, Pompadour and Blood Red, Carnation 
or Rose with a touch of Grey and Lemon Yellow for the 
pinkish ones. Ruby in the shadows. Leaves — Apple 
Green, Yellow Green and Banding Blue. 



Yellow — Lemon Yellow, Indian Yellow and Safflower 
with Brown Pink. 

Pink — Safflower, Carmine, Hooker's Green, and Van 
Dyke Brown. Leaves — Indian Yellow, Payne's Grey, Prus- 
sian Blue, Burnt Sienna and Carmine in the shadows. 


Yellow — Lemon Yellow, Yellow Brown and Yellow 

Pink — Peach Blossom, Rose and a little Yellow. 

White — Grey for Flowers and Apple Green. 

Leaves — Yellow Green, Deep Blue, Green, Hair Brown 
and Black. Same color in stems, a trifle more brownish 



Rose — Rose Madder and Cobalt, Carmine or Madder 
Carmine in the centers. Leaves — New Blue, Hooker's 
Green, Payne's Grey and Burnt Sienna. Stems — Same 
color as leaves. 

# <?■ 


Rose — Carmine and Hooker's Green with a touch 
of Van Dyke Brown for the shadows, Safflower 
and Lemon Yellow for the lights; Emerald Green is a great 
help in the half tones. Leaves — Lemon Yellow, Emerald 
Green, Hooker's Green and Payne's Grey; Stems — The 
same as leaves. Thorns — Burnt Sienna, Carmine and Saf- 


Peach Blossom or Carnation and Grey for Flowers. 
The leaves and stems are the same as the small rose leaves. 

RED ROSES (Page ttJ) 


Rose — Carmine and Safflower with Hooker's Green 
and Van Dyke Brown in the shadows. Leaves — Hooker's 
Green No. i and Hooker's Green No. 2, Lemon Yellow, 
Indian Yellow and Burnt Sienna. 


Carnation, Pompadour. Leaves — same as pink rose 
a little more Banding Blue being used. 



Safflower, Hooker's Green, and Van Dyke Brown with 
a touch of New Blue and Payne's Grey. 

Leaves — Hooker's Green and Carmine, New Blue, 
Indian Yellow and Payne's Grey. Stems — The same color 
as leaves. 


Aulich's Rose and Aulich's American Beauty. The 
same colors for dusting, deepen the color and it is well to 
give these reds as few firings as possible. 

The leaves — Apple Green mixed with Banding Blue. 
The tone of these leaves is decidedly blue, Empire Green, 
and Deep Blue Green. The stems are the same tone as the 
leaves so the same colors are used using a little more Black. 
The thorns — Yellow and Yellow Red. 







(Treatment page 102) 




page U8) 





Yellow — Lemon Yellow, Indian Yellow and Carmine. 
Green — Lemon Yellow, Hooker's Green and Emerald Green. 
Purple — New Blue, Carmine and Prussian Blue. 

Leaves — Hooker's Green No. i with Burnt Sienna 


Green — Banding Blue, Egg Yellow, Brown (ween. 

Blue — Banding Blue, Violet and Black. 

Red— Ruby and Blood Red. 

Leaves — Apple Green, Dark Green, Yellow Green, Yel- 

in the brown touches. Stems— Burnt Sienna, Van Dyke low Red in touches, Yellow Red and Hair Brown in 
Brown and Carmine. stems. 




(Treatment page J J 8) 





.1 Hj 

r v^ 



' '^£^HP 



The water color treatment of landscapes, Prussian Blue 
and White for sky; Hooker's Green No. 1 and 2 for foliage; 
with Payne's Grey and Red; same color in grass with Em- 
erald Green and Lemon Yellow. The walk — Payne's Grey, 
Burnt Sienna and Van Dyke Brown. Tree trunks— Van 
Dyke Brown, Burnt Sienna. 


The landscapes are done in Copenhagen Blue dusted 
with Black and Ruby. 




(Page J JO) 

Berries — New Blue, Carmine, Payne's Grey, Prussian 

Leaves — Hooker's Green, Burnt Sienna and Carmine. 
Stems — Van Dyke Brown, Burnt Sienna and Carmine 


Light tone, Blue Green, Banding Blue and Violet, a 
little Ruby and Black. Leaves — Blue Green for the light 
tone and Apple Green and Banding Blue, and the brownish 
boughs Yellow Red and Hair Brown. 






. (Treatment page J09) 

SWEET PEAS— teana Mclennan 









(Treatment page J02) 



shadows. Leaves — Hooker's Green, Payne's Grey and 
Indian Yellow, Emerald Green and Lemon Yellow for the 
high lights. 



Samower, Carmine, Van Dyke Brown and New Blue. 
For shadows, Carmine, Hooker's Green No. 2 with Carmine. 
Leaves — Hooker's Green No. 1, Indian Yellow, Prussian 
Blue and Payne's Grey. Stems — The same color as leaves. 


The thistles from the color study are a purplish tone 
and Blue may be used freely. Banding Blue or Blue Green 
in the lights, Carnation, and Carnation and Ruby in the 
shadows. American Beauty may also be used as it gives 
a bluish tone. Egg Yellow for the little lights. 

The leaves also are bluish in tone and Banding Blue, 
Apple Green and Black give the tone ; Yellow Red for the 
points of the leaves. 

■ ■'/.■ 



Lemon Yellow, Payne's Grey and Hooker's Green No. 1. 
Leaves — Hooker's Green No. 2 and Indian Yellow with 
Payne's Grey. Stems — Van Dyke Brown and Carmine. 


Apple Green, a touch of Peach Blossom, and Grey for 
Flowers. Dusting — Apple and Yellow Greens. Stems — 
Hair Brown and Yellow Red. 



Daisies — Lemon Yellow, Indian Yellow and Payne's 

Centers — Lemon Yellow or Indian Yellow with a 
touch of Safflower or Carmine on the shadow side. 

Vase — Indian Yellow, Lemon Yellow and Burnt 
Sienna with Payne's Grey in the shadows. 


Grey for Flowers, Apple Green. Centers — Lemon Yel- 
ow, Yellow Brown, Yellow Red for the shadow side. Vase, 
Lemon Yellow shadow side, Yellow Brown and Black. 



New Blue, Carmine, Prussian Blue and Carmine in the 





Very low in tone. Carmine, Payne's Grey, with a 
touch of Safflower or the light side. Leaves — Hooker's 
Green, Carmine and Payne's Grey. 


For thistle very low in tone: Copenhagen and a little 
Rose and Black, Green, Deep Blue Green and Ruby for 
body and leaves. Dusting — Copenhagen and a little Black 
and Ruby growing darker toward the bottom. 






(Treatment page J02) 








(Treatment page i f 8) 


(Treatment page I \2) 



SWEET PEAS (Supplement) 

IN painting this study the greatest effort should be 
made to keep the work broad and bold as it is always 
difficult when painting any small flower not to have it look 

Pink — Carmine, Safflower, and Van Dyke Brown, 
Emerald Green (in the half tone) mixed with Carmine. 

Purple — Carmine, New Blue, in the high lights Saf- 
flower and New Blue. 

White — Lemon Yellow, Payne's Grey and Indian Yellow. 
Green leaves — Indian Yellow, Prussian Blue and 
Hooker's Green No. i. 


Pink — Peach Blossom and Carnation. 
Purple — Blue Green, Banding Blue and Ruby. 
White — Lemon Yellow and Grey for Flowers. 
Green leaves — Apple Green, Banding Blue and Yellow 

POND LILY (Page J 05) 


Lemon Yellow, Payne's Grey, Indian Yellow and a 
touch of New Blue and Brown Pink for transparency. 
Leaves and background — Burnt Sienna, Prussian Blue, 
Payne's Grey for the lights, in ground Lemon Yellow and 
Hooker's Green No. i. 


Apple Green, Grey, Copenhagen to give the transpar- 
ency. Leaves — Deep Blue Green and Empire Green. 
Background — Deep Blue Green, Dark Green and Black, 
wipe out the high lights and dust with Yellow Green. 
«?* "jf 


Flowers — New Blue, Prussian Blue and Carmine, Saf- 
flower with New Blue for the high light. 

Leaves — Indian Yellow, Prussian Blue and Hooker's 
Green No. i. Stems — Carmine, Van Dyke Brown. 


Banding Blue, Grey, Ruby, Blue Green and Violet, 
Blue Green, Apple Green, Deep Blue Green and Black. 

SMALL ROSES (Page 116) 


Rose Madder and Cobalt, a touch of Lemon Yellow and 
Green, if desired. 

Centers — Carmine or Madder Carmine. Leaves — New 
Blue or Cobalt, Payne's Grey, Hooker's Green or Sap Green. 
Stems — Van Dyke Brown and Brown Madder. 


Pink roses may be painted entirely in Peach Blossom 
but a better result is obtained if a little Carnation or 
American Beauty is used in the centers, and Grey for 
Flowers always improves the half tones. 

Green leaves — Yellow Green light, or Apple Green, 
Banding Blue, Empire Green. Stems — Yellow Brown 
and Hair Brown. 

■f -P 
YELLOW ROSES (Page 107) 


Centers — Burnt Sienna and Safflower for the bril- 
liancy. Leaves — Hooker's Green, Indian Yellow and 

Payne's Grey with a touch here and there of Brown Pink. 


Lemon Yellow, Indian Yellow and Van Dyke Brown 
with a touch of Payne's Grey in the shadow. 


THE fusible cones showing the different temperatures 
which the kiln reaches during firing, are becoming of 
more and more general use among potters, and there is no 
reason why they should not be used also by china decora- 
tors. It is true that it is easier to judge of the stage of 
firing from the color in the kiln at the low temperatures 
used in overglaze work than it is at the higher tempera- 
tures reached in pottery work. In fact it is impossible 
to do so at high temperatures, but it seems to us that, even 
in an overglaze muffle firing, great advantage would be 
derived from the use of cones. After a little experimenting 
the decorator would find out exactly at what point the 
firing should be stopped both in front and back of the kiln. 
In overglaze work some colors must be fired hard, others 

As we have not experimented with cones at low tem- 
peratures, we do not know exactly what numbers should 
be used in overglaze work but think it must be about cones 
013 and 012. Prof. Ed Orton, Jr. of the Ohio University, 
Columbus, Ohio, who manufactures these cones and sells 
them for 1 cent a piece, would undoubtedly be glad to 
give information on this point. 

The cones should be imbedded in a lump of fresh clay, 
which should be left to dry thoroughly before the firing 
is done, otherwise it might explode in the kiln. With the 
base thus firmly set in clay the cones will stand upright 
and can be watched through the spyhole. When the 
temperature of the muffle reaches close to the point of 
fusion of the cone, the point of the latter is seen to 
bend and it will gradually go down until it touches the bed 
of clay in which the cone is imbedded. A little later on 
the cone will collapse entirely. These three stages mark 
three slight variations of temperature. 

We would like to see some of our snbscribers experi- 
ment with these cones and would be glad to publish the 
result of those experiments. It would be interesting to 
know at what cone, or what stage of melting of the cone, 
best results are obtained for the firing of different colors, 
lustres and gold, on Limoges, Belleek and other china. 


Mrs. W. T. C. — Powder colors are not so good for deep tinting as tube 
colors. Ruby, Purples and other gold colors are more difficult to handle this 
way than other colors. Try tinting with the following formula: As much 
fat oil (in bulk) as color, rub to a stiff paste, thin with oil of lavender. Depth 
of color is obtained by dusting powder color into the tinting. Dropping the 
color on the tinting and brushing it over with a pad of surgeons wool avoid - 
letting the wool touch the tinting, dust until the oil will absorb no more 
color. If the livuid bright gold comes out spotty, the gold is put on too 
thick, thin with essence of lavender until it goes on a smooth golden brown, 
or perhaps there is dust on the china or gold, or occasionally , if the spy holes 
in kiln are not left open long enough, the moisture may collect on the china 
and make spots. 

A. W. — Maroon is a rich, dark red for dusting. In doing a conventional 
design where there is an all over tinting of color, it is always safest to fire the 
tinting before dusting different colors on small spaces. Then tint the places 
to be dusted only, cleaning off the edges. There is no comparative list of 
colors published except a short list given in Keramic Studio answers to 
correspondents, There are slight variations in all the different, makes so 
that one must learn the colors separately. 


Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 2j2 East 2jth Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions musl be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries'" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 


Mertice Mac Crea Buck 

EVERY book has what are called "end-papers," some- 
times known as fly leaves, in this case made of charcoal 
paper like the sheets, and always as nearly like the printed 
paper as possible. The best end-papers are those made 
with a hinge joint, or zigzag sheet (Illus. No. 5,) to allow 
the book to open freely and must be made as neatly as 
possible, as a great deal depends upon their accuracy. 

In making them take a sheet and divide it into four 
equal parts with a large try square by making lines crossing 
at right angles in the center. Mark these four corners x 
and cut along the line with a sharp knife on card-board or 
glass. Fold each of these pieces very carefully so that 
the corner marked x meets the other corner and the edges 
exactly coincide. Rub this fold with the bone-folder, open 
it out and measure one quarter of an inch from the fold 
on the right hand side top and bottom, turn this back over 
to the left and rub it down. Open it out and on the other 
side of the central fold mark points one-fourth of an inch 
less thickness of paper. Crease as before and open out. 
Cut a piece of strong thin paper, (linen bond does very well) 
the size of the folded sheet, this is called the tip, and paste 
carefully on to the wider of the two folds. Fold it over 
and rub down. 

A word ought, perhaps, to be said in regard to the 
pasting. The paste should be made of flour, wet with cold 

SE»cl pap. 

1 L 

(1 = one 


-_A pdper 

£ = emd pd.per. 

Aet-rT'f end pl-P 
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7fa.fl fy ''„cA. (/ffi/c/YcsS ep /°d.p er /ess) 
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//>c TDsAorrj 1:0 /J -fa mud di.c.fX 

o pi.srcd th yv/'afe- p*M. 

water and then rubbed through a sieve to get out the lumps. 
A half cup of flour makes a good amount, with about four 
cups of boiling water poured on. It must boil until well 
cooked, and if necessary strained again to ensure perfect 
smoothness. If it is not to be used at once a bit of alum 
should be disolved in it to make it keep. For very thin paper, 

6"//o^5 r^r~c/ a 

Pre. pa n Tt 


73. Pressing . ,x = had of , hook:. 

71 s^ with, /r'f squn-i-cL- yeffia/ ; fy of 

hazar-e. S <- 1~ a w 1 77 g up. p7-ess- 

and especially for mending holes in the paper, half starch 
and half flour ' should be used. The paste must be put 
on with a small brush, in pasting the tip on an end paper, 
the space to be covered being outlined by a clean piece of 
paper, which should at once be crumpled and thrown away. 
This leaves paste exactly where is it wanted, and the tip 
being put in, another clean piece of paper should be laid 
over and rubbed down. Great daintiness must be observed 
in all pasting, as wet paper shows every finger mark. The 
end-papers must be laid between clean papers and pressed 
under a lithographic stone till dry. They may then be 
taken out, the two extra sheets slipped in, and the papers 
laid in position, tip out, at each end of the book (Illus. 
No. 6.) 

- If desired the edges may be cut by hand, the top or 
head being cut, section by section, with a sharp knife along 
the edge of a try-square at right angles to the back. If 
the edges are to be gilded this is a good plan. If the head 
is straight the gilder can cut the other edges by machine. 
The edges gilded before the book is sewn make what is 
called a "rough gilt" appearance when the book is done. 

The top being cut and the end papers put in place, 
tip out, the book should be put in press. It must be 
knocked up very carefully, i.e. held between the two 
palms, exactly vertical, "head" (or top) down, and tapped 
gently on a horizontal surface. The back must also be 
knocked up in the same way. , The book must be held 
with great care after being knocked up, and laid on a board 
without altering the position, for if a single section slips in, 
in putting the work in press, the correct position can never 




be regained, and disastrous results will ensue in the sewing. 
After the book has been carefully laid on the board, it should 
be tested with the try square to see that the head and back 
are vertical, if not, the whole thing must be knocked up 
again. If the result seems satisfactory another board 
should be placed on top of the book, and the two boards, 
with the sheets between, carefully transferred to the press, 
and placed as nearly as possible under the center. The 
screw can then be tightened and the book left thus for 
twenty-four hours. 

In sewing a book on tapes it is not absolutely neces- 
sary to use a sewing frame, but much more satisfactory 
results are obtained by its use. Ordinary tape answers 
very well, and either embroidery silk or book-binders' linen 
thread may be used to sew with. Silk, in a soft green 
shade, harmonizes with almost every cover, and it can be 
bought by the skein for three or four cents, while it is neces- 
sary to buy a large quantity Tof binders' thread, more than 
would be used in two or three years ; the silk is more satis- 
factory. An ordinary large needle is used, and held in 
place at the top of the thread by running it backwards, say 
half an inch through the silk, and pulling it tight. 

Let us suppose that the book is pressed sufficiently 
and ready for sewing. It must first be marked up; that is, 
lines must be drawn vertically across the back to show the 
sewer the position of the sewing tapes. Four tapes are 
generally sufficient, so the length of the book should be 
divided into five sections with the one at the bottom or 
"tail" slightly longer. On each side of these points a line 
should be drawn with a try-square half the width of the tape 

In addition to these lines two others should be drawn, 
about three eighths (f ) of an inch from each end, for the 

/n% frame- t isn front" 
yrffh. feffdrm cL^ 

kettle stitch, which is a very essential part of the sewing. 
It is a kind of button-hole stitch, which will be referred to 
again later on, the name is said to be a shortening of the 
term "catch up" stitch. Some people saw in the line of 
the kettle stitches, but if this is done the end-papers must 
be moved down, or taken out, as the saw cut would show 
too much. 

The tapes are pinned over the top bar of the sewing 
frame as shown in Illus. No. 7. and slipped along until 

JJL S'e-YS/ft g on rapes 

iZ ■ 72^ff/7/.-n e^ fop a. S 

&. Se.rS/71% e-flJ- p£Pe 7-s. 

dftd cross/ 7i £ of 'fep^S- 





they nearly as possible coincide with the spaces in the back 
of the book. They should be left well to the right of the 
press, so as to leave room for the sewer's left hand and arm 
to go in behind the sheets, as shown in the sketch. 

The tapes should be tacked under the lower edge of 
the sewing frame to hold them in position, the screws 
of the frame then tightened, care being taken to keep the 
top bar exactly horizontal and the tapes quite taut. 

The book should be left in a convenient position back 
of the tapes on a board. A board of good size should also 
be laid on the press, close up against the tapes. Often it 
is wise to lay the sewing frame upon the paring stones, so 
that the sewer need not stoop. 

There is some difference of opinion as to whether or 
not it is better to begin with the front or the back of the 
book in sewing. Personally, I think a beginner should 
start with the back, for in this art, as in every other, prac- 
tice makes perfect. It is well to prick through with a 
large needle the pencil marks where the stitches are to go 
through in each section, and in the end paper. In the latter 
it may be done twice as there are really two rows of sewing. 

In starting the sewing of the back end paper, after it 
is laid in position, the thread to be used may be tied to a 
tack two or three inches from the end of the hook. The 
needle goes in at the first kettle stitch, and is pulled through 
at the back by the fingers of the left hand, and comes out 
at the mark on the right hand side of the first tape. It 
crosses the tape and goes in again on the other side, and so 
on to the kettle stitch mark at the other end. The next 
row goes back through the end papers to the first kettle 
stitch, where the thread is tied to the loose end untied from 
the tack. The end paper should be rubbed down with a 
bone folder, then the next section laid on, open in the center, 
half the leaves being held upright by a weight tied to the 
top of the sewing frame. When this section is sewed a 
kettle stitch is made as in the sketch. In every third 
row a thread is caught over the preceding two in crossing 
the tape. 

Care must be taken not to leave the kettle stitches too 
loose, on the other hand they must not be so tight as to 
leave the center of the book bulging. It is a good plan, 
especially in sewing charcoal or other heavy paper, to rub 
down each section after sewing. The head should occas- 
ionally be tested with a try square to see that it is vertical. 
Where the thread is exhausted a new one may be tied on 
by means of a weaver's knot (D in Illus. No. 7) and made 
so that it will come midway between tapes. It is pulled 
through to the inside and the ends frayed out. When 
the other end paper is attached the thread is fastened with 
a double kettle stitch. The ends should then be cut off 
almost three-fourths of an inch long, frayed out and pulled 
through into the book. The tapes should be cut off about 
two inches from the book, which is now ready to be put in 
the finishing press, back up, then the tapes pulled as tight 
as possible. These cut off ends are called slips by binders. 

After taking the book from the finishing press, knock 
up the head and back and put it back in the press with a 
piece of waste board on each side, coming up to within an 
inch of the back. Glue the back all over, working in as 
much as possible between the sections. Scrape away as 
much as comes off easily. Take the book out of the press 
and lay it on a wooden board to dry, and let it stay until 
no "tackiness" remains, half an hour or perhaps on a 
damp day, an hour. It may be tested by touching it with 
the finger. It should not stick, neither should it seem 
dry and hard. 

When it seems to be in the right condition it is ready 
for the process called rounding. Lay the book on a table 
with the fore-edge to the front, and with the hand spread 
out so as to use the full force of the fingers, push the top 
cover forward till it is considerably in front of the lower, 
and tap the back of the book with the backing hammer 
several times. Then turn the book over and repeat the 
process on the other side. Rounding is intended to make 
the book of the same thickness throughout by doing away 
with the extra width at the back due to the sewing. In a 
guest-book or a diary it is not necessary to have much of a 

The rounding of the book is the first of the processes 
included under the general name of "forwarding," from the 
time the sewing is completed until the cover of leather is 
ready for "finishing" — (decorating). These processes are 
rounding, backing, preparing and attaching boards (sides), 
covering, etc., each of which will be described in its turn. 

XiT-oL. n f/n,nA, 

//i/& rn-c/vje-s, &// processes Aefn'ce./i seW/rt^ 
?\ ,e. r JceoTd-f/kK %e Cotter, 

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"6 i c /f/rt % io cr/Vs ", fffi'tfb oarM vse<t 
fur Hit st'4es or errors <tr<. a/s 


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The book being rounded evenly, it is ready for backing, 
the most particular process of all, In the first place, the 
thickness of the mill boards to be used for the sides must be 
decided upon, as the joint, or groove, where the book opens, 
corresponds to them in size. Backing not only provides a 
groove into which the boards will fit, but it also helps weld 
the sections together. It forms the backbone of the bind- 
ing and can never be omitted, even in the flimsiest commer- 
cial work. The width of the joint should be marked off on 
the top of the waste or "tip" paper, setting off the exact 
thickness of the board with dividers from the back of the 
book at each end and connecting these points with a light 
line. The book must then be put in the press, tapes outside 
with the top of the backing board exactly on this line on 
each side the whole length, (as shown in sketch B i, Illus. 
No. 9) and the same degree of rounding at each end. The 
press should be partly tightened so as to allow the position 



of the book to be corrected. Even professionals often have 
to try several times before the book is in the right position, 
when the press may be screwed up. 

Backing is a wrist movement, literally "down and out," 
as shown in the same illustration. First beat the edges 
over to form the joints, then take out the book and see if 
the two joints are exactly alike and the two ends rounded 
equally, if not, and they are very likely not to be, correct 
the fault by hammering it again. 

n% on -. 

■ •,*>p*aai6« 

-,f,p*4 u/> U pAin /,5n «„f( en 4 pJpe, 
7/»i-,/-4 eW paper <W o„* >i,i/d v#,«-, 

■ r ;,,»H7 


The joints being well started, screw up the press as 
tightly as possible, and begin the backing, striking with 
steady pressure all along the back, so that the sections slant 
slightly toward the joint on each side. Keep at it till the 
back is smooth and hard, and leave it to dry over night. 
The skill and speed of a good backer, and the peculiar twist 
of the wrist holding the hammer, come only by practice. 

While the book is drying the boards may be prepared. 
Books sewed on tape should have double boards, between 
which the ends of the tape are glued. One of these should 
be of rather thin English mill board, the other of common 
straw board. A large piece of each, twice the width of the 
cover, with at least an inch margin all around, should be 
used, that is, if the book is 5 x 7 inches — twice that size 
would be 10x7 and an inch margin all around would make 
12x9 inches. Square the board using a steel try square 
and a sharp knife . Draw a line along the long side of the 
board (see Illus. No. 10, sketch B marked V V) and a line 
down the center, marked middle line. On each side of the 
middle line, two inches from it, draw, with a compass , lines as 
marked in same sketch. 

Cut a strip of paper four inches wide and as long as the 
board and lay it on the space formed by the two inch lines 
each side of the middle line — on either side of this paper 
cover the board quickly with glue, and lay the other board 
over, and put in press. The paper prevents the glue from 
getting into the space to be occupied by the tapes. The 
boards should be left in the press over night, The measure- 
ments for the sides of the book should allow one eighth of 
an inch margin, from the joint, and at the top and bottom. 
If the sheet is 5 x 7 inches, one eighth at the top and one- 
eighth at the bottom gives one fourth to be added to the 
length, and one eighth in front, making the boards 5 J x -]\. 

The boards should be cut along the line marked in the middle 
of the mill board, and the two pieces folded together along 
this line, mill board in, and stuck together with a streak of 
paste, then put in the press a few minutes. 

The press used for cutting mill board is expensive, hence 
not included in this outfit, so our boards must be taken to 
a bindery to be cut. The straight edges with the two inch 
spaces must be used as the basis of measurement. Give the 
binder the exact dimensions you wish the boards to be. The 
boards being cut, all the edges should be sand-papered, 
and are then ready to attach to the book. First paste the 
tapes down to the waste end-paper. Then on each end of 
this, measure one inch from the joint and connect these 
points with a line. Cut along this, and' there remains a 
flap one inch wide which can be fitted between the two 
thicknesses of the cover board. Take out the slip of paper 
which was between the mill board and the straw board and 
put glue in the space. Put in the flap, mill board being 
outside. Push the board very carefully into position, one 
eighth inch from the joint — forming a "French joint" — 
and see that it is parallel the whole length, and that the 
top and bottom margins are equal, and parallel with the 
edges of the book. This is called "setting the square." 
In a book sewed on tapes it must be done when the covers 
are put on. Study the drawings well (Illus. No. 10, sketch 
"C. Putting on boards.) 

Take a tin, covered with clean paper, a little larger 
than the size of the board, and press it well up to the joint, 
inside the cover. Put on the other cover and put a tin in it. 
Also put a tin outside each cover and put the book in press, 
being very careful that the book is not thrown "out of 
square" in doing this. 

(To be continued) 





Sample Sent Postpaid on Receipt of 25 cents 
Ask Your Dealer for It — Take No Other 


Box 129, Station W, Brooklyn, N. V. 

The entire content, of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted without special permls: 


Editorial Notes 

Asters (Supplement) 

Class Room — Figure Painting 

Locust Flower 

Under-glaze Decoration (Illustrated) 

Plate Rose-leaf Motif 

Studies of Insects Used Decoratively 

Azorean Pottery- 
Locust Flower Treatment 

Seed Heads in November 

Wild Flower Studies 

Tile in Blue and Grey 


Passion Flower 


Plate — High Bush Cranberry 

Cup Border in Acorns 

Border for Water Set 


The Crafts' 

Practical Book Binding — concluded 

Art School Work of Y. W. C. A., New York 

Answers to Correspondents 

Teana McLennan 

Helen Pattee 
Frederick A. Rhead 
Mary Overbeck 

Agnes Austin Aubin 
H. B. Paist 
Hannah Overbeck 
Edith Alma Ross 

Hannah Overbeck 
Alice B. Sharrard 

Carrie Williams 
Hannah Overbeck 
Mrs. A. Soderberg 
Henrietta B. Paist 

Mertice Mac Crea Buck 











Just a word to caution our friends against giving their subscriptions to strangers. 
We have no agents ; but complaints have recently come to us that swindlers are out 
taking subscriptions for our magazine and pocketing the proceeds. Be sure you know 
the party to whom you give your money. The best plan is to go to your regular 
dealer or send the subscription to us. 

• 108 Pearl- St., 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

Vol. JX, No. 6 


October, 1907 

ERAMIC STUDIO announces the 
beginning in an early number, of a 
series of illustrated articles on 
"Design for the Decoration of 
Porcelain" by Caroline Hofman, 
whose work was so admired for 
originality and technique at the 
last exhibition of the New York 
Societ)^ of Keramic Arts. This 
series of articles has been reviewed 
and endorsed by Mr. Ralph Helm Johonnot, instructor in 
composition and design at Pratt Institute. From a hasty 
review by the editor it is judged that this series should be 
among the most useful published by the magazine. 
The Keramic Studio management is taking under 
consideration the enlarging of the scope of the magazine. 
The space allotted to ceramics would be the same as always 
and as specially considered, but so many of our subscribers 
ask continually for instruction in water color, oils, drawing, 
etc., etc., that we feel that an added department of instruc- 
tion in these branches would be gladly received. Opinions 
and suggestions on the subject would be welcome from our 

We have received a very interesting account of the 
exhibition of Mr. Fry's summer class work at the "Way- 
side" Southampton, h. I. As it arrived too late to make 
illustrations for this number we shall hope to give the fuller 
account in a succeeding issue. 

This issue is filled with "odds and ends" in the en- 
deavor to present new motifs drawn from summer studies 
and other sources for the use of the ceramic designer. The 
November number will be edited by Miss Jeanne Stewart, of 


An interesting and helpful booklet on Classroom Prac- 
tice in Design has lately come to the Keramic Studio 
editorial table from the Manual Arts Press of Peoria, Illinois. 
It is the work of James Parton Haney, is well illustrated 
and helpfully arranged. The opening paragraph will give 
an idea of the scope of the work : 

"Any discussion of classroom practice in applied design, 
naturally divides itself into a consideration of the problems 
to be solved and the methods to be employed in solving 
them. The sequence of problems constitutes what is famil- 
iarly known as a course of study, and to the principles which 
underlie such a 'course' attention must first be directed. 
These principles may be stated as follows: (i) The designs 
made must be for use. (2) The forms decorated must ad- 
mit of decoration. (3) The designs must be based on struc- 
ture. (4) Their treatment must be conditioned by ma- 
terial. (5) They must permit individual interpretation. 
(6) Each problem in the sequence should develope through 
a similar series of steps with increasing complexity in the 
relations of the elements employed." 

The booklet is full of good subject matter both for pupil 
and teacher. 

ASTERS (Supplement) 

Teana M cL en n an. 

THIS study is painted on tinted paper in the opaque 
method, by this I mean that the ordinary water colors 
are used, being careful to have a clean wash with as much 
detail as is consistent, and then using the White with the 
high lights, and in this manner strengthening and purify- 
ing the lights and half tones. To those not accustomed 
to this method, it is advisable to leave the shadows as they 
were washed in adding a little detail here and there if nec- 
essary, but not using any White. After a little practice, 
one soon finds where it is wise to use the White. The pink 
asters are washed in first with Van Dyke Brown and Car- 
mine in the shadows and Safflower in the lights, this is a very 
brilliant color and adds much to the purity of the color 
when the White is added. A little Emerald Green is a 
great help in the half tones. 

The Davender — New Blue and Carmine for the shad- 
ows and New Blue and Safflower with a little White for 
the high lights. 

Purple — Carmine, New Blue, Paynes' Grey and a little 
Crimson Bake for the shadows and for the lights, a touch 
of Safflower and New Blue with the White. 

The White — Lemon Yellow, Paynes' Gray and Hookers' 
Green No. 1 with White and Demon Yellow in the high 
lights and perhaps a little Emerald Green. 

The leaves — Hookers' Green, Prussian Blue, Paynes' 
Grey and Brown Pink in the shadows, in the lights Hook- 
ers' Green No. 1 and Emerald Green mixed with White. 

The background — care should be taken to have clean 
water and a clean brush as any White mixed with the the 
background will prove disastrous. Another thing to be 
observed when laying in a background, work from the top 
down always. Use Prussian Blue very lightly, Paynes 
Gray and Van- Dyke Brown and no White. 


Maud Mason. 

THE pink flowers are laid in with Pompadour, Albert 
Yellow and Olive Green in the centres. The lightest 
purple asters are in Violet and Banding Blue, the darker 
ones in Violet and Royal Blue fading into a background of 
Royal Blue, Violet and Black, with a little Ruby introduced 
toward the lower part of the panel. The lighter parts of 
the background are painted with Blue Green, Russian 
Green Ivory, Albert Yellow, Olive Green and Brown Green. 
The leaves are in Yellow Green, Myrtle Green and Brown 

The background should be carried along with the paint- 
ing of the flowers or put on before the flowers have dried 
so the whole thing can be blended together. 

The same palette is used in retouching, keeping the 
washes as broad as possible and not being tempted into 
bringing out too much detail. The pinky flowers are 
flushed with Rose, the lighter purple ones with Banding 
Blue and Copenhagen, the darker purple one with Violet 
and Royal Blue. 

12 4 




First Prize — Emma S. Timlin, Kansas City, Mo. 

THE art of figure painting on porcelain is a branch quite 
by itself both in application and technique. It is 
more difficult, more taxing work for the eye, more subtle 
in all its details than the painting of flowers or of conven- 
tional forms, yet by so much is it the more fascinating, 
and the more satisfying in its results. A graceful figure 
on a properly shaped porcelain, well done as to color, draw- 
ing and modeling has a quality in texture, due to the glaze 
no doubt, which makes it a work of art indeed. 

There are many features which are essential to its 
being a work of art, namely, figure work is almost wholly 
applied to decorative pieces of porcelain, such as plaques, 
panels, vases, table tops, etc. One does not care for cupids 
on tea cups or a Diana on a chop plate. Large place plates 
however are very handsome with portrait heads, such as 
some of the Gainsborough or Asti heads. Punch bowls 
may be made attractive by a border of wood nymphs or 
light airy figures done in minature. Then too the shape 
must be in keeping with the line of the figure or figures; 
just as daffodils look well on a cylinder vase, so an upright 
full length figure needs an oblong shape, while reclining 
figures may be applied to oval or circular shapes; heads 
look well on round or rectangular shapes; the china must 
be large enough to admit of a background in keeping with 
the size of the figure, since a harmonious background is as 
essential to the whole as any part of the figure. 

Owing to the method of work it is next to impossible 
to paint from nature and since for decorative work, fanci- 
ful figures and pictures are largely used, it is necessary 
either to trace the figure on the china or else draw it free- 
hand. Very few are blessed with the ability to draw cor- 
rectly enough for this purpose, therefore it is best to have 
a study just the size desired for the work and to trace it 
on the china carefully. The implements needed for this are, 
a very transparent tracing paper, a finely sharpened pencil, 
light transfer paper, a tracer or a large needle in the end 
of a cork, also India ink and an outlining brush, as well 
as some kind of mucilage paper to hold the tracing in 

The main lines should be traced, always keeping the line 
on the dark portion and being very careful to get sharp 
corners such as those of the eyes and the pupil with its light ; 
in case of strong shadows the line should be kept on the 
shadow edge. The tracing should then be fastened by 
means of the mucilage paper and transferred to the china 
by going over the outline with the needle. The tracing is 
then removed and the outline made secure, by means of 
the India ink and outline brush. 

Next comes the painting for the first fire. The palette 
for flesh is quite different from the other palette; mixtures 
of the Dresden colors are used, but Mrs. L. Vance-Philips 
now has a palette in powder colors, all mixed for flesh: 
Blonde, Brunette, Reflected Light, Cool Shadow, Warm 
Shadow and other colors peculiar to figure painting. The 
medium is also different, being mixed with a view to working 
into it for some time, and for stippling. Mrs. Philips also 
has a medium or one may use six parts of copaiba to one 
part of clove oil. 

The oil is first painted smoothly over the entire flesh 
surface with a large square shader; if there is a large surface 
and any drapery divides it, it may be easier to do it in sec- 

tions as the oil is liable to get too dry to stipple in some 
places while one is working on the other parts. It is well 
to let the oil run into the hair a little, as this softens the 
outline when stippled. 

The local flesh tint, either Blonde or Brunette as the 
case may be, is next painted with a square shader over all 
the high lights, and Reflected Light is painted over all the 
shadow portions. The Cool Shadow is then hatched in by 
means of an outlining brush, No. i or 2, on all the half tones 
and cooler shadow portions. By "hatching" is meant 
short lines of color, taking somewhat the direction of the 
shape of the figure, and these lines linked into each other, 
giving the effect of an Indian's war paint. A little Pompa- 
dour is hatched in on the cheek and the Warm Shadow on 
the deeper shadow portions, letting the Warm Shadow link 
into the Cool Shadow. 

By this time it should be about ready to stipple, if the 
oil was not put on too thickly at first. The larger the stip- 
pler which can be used the better the results. 

The stippler is always kept pointed toward the deeper 
shadow and is pounced lightly but firmly and moved grad- 
ually. The lighter portions are stippled first before getting 
the brush into the darker paint, until the entire surface 
blends and the texture is fine and firm. Care must be taken 
to hold the drawing in all places. Light hair is painted with 
Ochre mixed with Brown, Shadow color or other tints to get 
the desired effect; Finishing Brown is used for dark hair and 
may be mixed with a little Blue or Cool Shadow, if black 
hair is the aim. It must be painted in washes, keeping the 
lights, then stippled about the face and on the high lights, 
softening the hard lines. The effect of hair is then pro- 
duced, by taking out lights with a very little cotton on the 
end of a tooth pick, or a fine needle may be used when the 
paint is dry. These are excellent tools with which to pre- 
serve the high lights on the flesh also. 

If light drapery is painted and this is the most effective 
on china, care must be taken to make one feel that the form 
is still under the drapery. Study of the form will assist in 
placing the shadows in the drapery. The same principle 
is applied in flesh, drapery and background, half tones are 
kept cool and the deep shadows warm in coloring. 

The background, whether of woods or marble or drapery 
effect must be in color scheme suitable to the coloring of the 
figure. If there is a good deal of high light it will have in it 
a suggestion of the light tone in the drapery. The general 
tones of background are put in with broad washes for the 
first fire and the details worked up later. 

It is surprising after the first fire to see how pale the 
painting appears, all the outlines are gone and a good deal 
of the color, some of the important shadows may not be held, 
it may be necessary to place the tracing on again, or even 
to make a second tracing to find just where certain shadows 
and lights should be. In the second and third fires it is 
well to work in a little corresponding color on the high lights 
of the flesh, for instance if the background contains a good 
deal of Yellow this is carried through the high lights of the 
drapery and a thin wash painted on the high lights of the 
flesh and hair, thus the coloring of the work is kept in har- 
mony, shadows having their proper values and the whole 
is blended softly and delicately. The same method of paint- 
ing is repeated each time. At least three fires are needed 
to bring all parts into their proper values and to work up 
the details. 

The difficulty of the work is apparent but the results 
are well worth the effort, since a thing of beauty is a joy 



t- 1 










Vance Phillips' 


Dresden Colors 


Ponder Colors 

Poudir Colors 

Powder Colors 


Flesh No. 1 

Pompadour 1 part. 

Soft Flesh very 

Canary 2 parts 

thinly applied 

Flux } part 


Flesh No. 2 

Pompadour 1 part 
Yellow Ochre 2 parts 
Flux \ part 

Soft Flesh 


Reflected Light 

Pompadour 1 part 

Flesh Shadow 


Yellow Brown 2 parts 


Flux \ part 

Small part Albert 

Cool Shadow 

Cocl Shadow 


Green 1 part small 

Flesh Grey 1 part 

Violet of Iron 1 part 

Flesh Shadow 

Grey for Flesh 1 part 

3 parts 

Flux \ part 


Warm Shadow 

Sepia Brown 2 parts 

Flesh Shadow 


Violet of 

Iron 1 part 



fender Shadow 

Cool shadow 3 parts 

Flesh Grey 


Pearl Grey 1 part 


Green ru part 


Pompadour 1 


Soft Flesh and a 

Pompadour 2 

Superior Pom- 

touch of Rose 

padour Red 


Black hair For lights Turquoise blue 

For shadows Black and a touch c 

f Rose 

Purple and Blue 

Blonde hair For lights Albert Yellow and ^ 

fellow Brown 

For shadows Sepia and Auburn ] 


Brown hair For lights Sepia 

For shadows Auburn, Dark Brow 

n and Black 

Grey or For lights Turquoise Blue 

White hair For shadows Yellow, Brown and 


Neutral Tint Ivory, Yellow Brown, Baby Blue and a j 

;rey made of equal 

parts Apple Green and Rose. 


Blue eyes Turquoise Blue and Dark Blue 

Brown eyes 

Sepia and F 

mishing Brown and add a t 

Duch of Black for 



3 or 4 miniature quill brushes, 1 No. 00 short liner, 

3 small stipplers in quill 4 square shaders, No. 2-4-6-8 

Take court plaster and bind the stipplers half way over the hair, like 
a collar, to make them firm. 

Use a medium of Balsam of Copaiba (six drops) and Oil of Cloves (one 
drop). Use Spirits of Turpentine in the brush in painting. Mix and grind 
colors well. 

o o o 

Second Prize, Nellie F. DuBois Henderson, Herkimer, N. Y. 

TO obtain the best results from the largest number 
of students in figure painting, my experience has 
taught me to shorten and simplify the method, as long 
drawn out and repeated explanations are more or less 
confusing, and are apt to fill the student's mind with more 
data than he or she can make use of at such an early period, 
and thus the student flounders about, accomplishing nothing 

China for figures should be free from all indentations, 
waves, black specks or scratches, and be of a fine highly 
polished surface. 

Figure painting on china requires study and skill, 
with careful attention to detail. One should avoid all 

corrections if possible, and rather erase and begin over 
again, if an error is jnade, so as to insure pure color and 

First make a correct drawing or tracing of the figure 
on tracing paper. Fasten in place on china at the top by 
wax or gummed paper. Slip a piece of fine carbon paper 
between the tracing paper and the china. With a steel 
tracing point, go over every line perfectly. Then remove 
the tracing paper and go over the outline on the china 
with a pen and India ink, making a dotted line. 

Moisten a piece of soft white silk with alcohol and 
wipe the entire surface of china, to remove all lint and dust. 
Then cover the background around the figure, with a wash 
of medium and a little turpentine. Pad lightly with the 
fingers to remove surplus oil. Then take a square shader 
and paint in the background in neutral tint. 

Never use quick short strokes, or dabble in the color, 
as it will destroy the glaze. Paint the background in 
broken lights to secure an atmospheric effect, avoiding a 
solid appearance. Remember that light falls in angles 
and this will assist you in getting the right places for the 
high lights and shadows throughout the figure and the 

Now treat the figure with medium, same as the back- 
ground, and pad evenly with the finger. Take a square 
shader and apply the flesh tint in all the light parts, in 
broad flat delicate washes. In shadow parts apply Re- 
flected Light and in half tones, between light and shadow, 
apply Tender Shadow. Put Pompadour No. i in the cheeks, 
lips, nostrils, ears, tip of chin and all rosy parts, and work 
rapidly with a clean brush, moistened with oil and wiped 
with the fingers, keeping the brush square on the end. 
Blend and model lightly. Put Tender Shadow on eyebrows 
and where the flesh and hair meet. Take a small stipler 
and blend lightest parts, gradually blending (where needed) 
to darkest parts. If the color comes off too freely, let dry 
somewhat. Now remove flesh color from eyes by using a 
pointed stick wrapped with cotton. 

With No. oo short liner, or miniature brush, paint in 
the eyes, adding a touch of Black in the pupils, wiping out 
the high light, also the reflection opposite. Place a touch 
of Pompadour in the corner near the nose, and a little Cool 
Shadow on the eye balls, and Warm Shadow over the lids. 
Blend softly with small stippler. 

Work up the mouth with Pompadour No. 2 working 
towards the center where the fullness lies. Place a touch 
of Tender Shadow on the edges, and corners of the mouth. 
Use Pompadour No. 2 in the shadow under the lips, in the 
nostrils and ears. Paint the hair in masses, being careful 
of values and lights, keeping all lines soft, and blending 
to prevent a wiry appearance. Touch up the eyebrows 
same as hair, also the lashes. 

In painting the drapery, bear in mind the figure con- 
cealed and model accordingly. Paint in broad washes. 
When thoroughly dry, remove all roughness with a curved 
knife and correct and soften lights and lines with an erasing 
pin. Scrape lightly where edges have overlapped and ex- 
amine all carefully. 

The china is now ready for the first fire, which should 
be a white hazy heat. Let cool very slowly. If the figure 
is properly painted, the flesh tone should be delicate and 
clear; Tender Shadow parts a bluish tint, and the Re- 
flected Lights warm. Proceed as for first painting. Cover 
the figure with the medium, padding lightly. If the flesh 
tones are weak, go over again with Flesh jNo. i. ^ If "the 
Reflected Lights are too cool go over with Reflected Light or 






Warm Shadow. Touch up the cheeks, lips, ears and nose, 
or all rosy parts with Pompadour No. 2 adding a little 
Rose to Pompadour. Now model the light side of face or 
figure, where needed, with Tender Shadow. On shadow 
side, model with Cool Shadow. Use small stippler or brush 
and blend from clear Flesh to Tender Shadow and Tender 
Shadow into Reflected tone. Strengthen the shadows if 
needed with Warm Shadow, blending smoothly and grad- 
ually, allowing no brush marks to show. Touch up the 
eyes and mouth softly and strengthen where needed. 
Cover the background and hair with medium and work 
up with same color or washes of warmer color, blending all 
edges softly. Be careful of lights and shadows, avoiding 
all hard lines in the hair and keeping an atmospheric effect 
in background. Go over the drapery, keeping it soft and 
dainty. The china is now ready for the second fire, which 
should be rather hard so as to produce a good glaze. 

In the third painting go over the whole surface with 
the medium and strengthen where needed, with a touch 
to give a warmer or cooler tone. To give softness four or 
five fires are not too many, and you will always find some 
thing to improve. 

In conclusion, I might add that upward curving 
lines in the mouth give a smiling and pleased appearance, 
and in painting the faces of children, keep the nose short 
and the face round and chubby. 


Frederick A . Rhead 

THE practice of underglaze painting is not sufficiently 
pursued. Not on account of its difficulties, for it 
is easier for a capable worker in water colors to do success- 
ful wofk right away in underglaze colors, than in overglaze 
mineral colors. The method of work is indeed somewhat 
akin. Transparent effects may be obtained on white bis- 
cuit in exactly the same way as one paints on white paper, 
while the water colorist who is fond of effects on tinted 
paper may obtain similar results on tinted bodies with 
the assistance of opaque underglaze white. Enamel paint- 
ing on glaze is really not true ceramics. In its highest 
form — the enamel painting of Sevres, — it was applied to 
the pate tendre which was actually not a porcelain at all, 
but a kind of hard, semi opaque glass. But underglaze 
painting is true ceramics. The colors, being fused under 
the glaze, are impermeable to atmospheric effects; to 
which all overglaze painting is subject. Besides, the best 
underglaze painting has a limpidity and freshness which 
may be compared (to use a charming simile which the 
writer heard Mr. Godfrey Wedgwood use) to the effect of 
a "pebble under water." 

The historical and supremely artistic wares of Faewga, 
Castel Durante, Urbino and Galbio w T ere painted under 
glaze. It will be our business to describe in detail the 
many ways of using under glaze colors together with the 
various technical devices adopted by masters in the art. 

It is best at the outset, to use a simple palette. The 
complete underglaze palette is restricted for chemical 
reasons, but it is sufficient, properly employed, to yield 
almost any color effect. It is less garish than the overglaze 
palette, and the dubious colorist may have the consola- 
tion of knowing that harmonies are more easily obtained 
in under glaze colors; in fact it is difficult to get discords. 
All the colors necessary to get at the outset are : two 
browns — chocolate and red brown; two blues — mazarine 
and matt blue; two carmines — U. G. crimson and pink, 

yellow and orange; three greens — chrome green, Victoria 
or golden green, and French green, violet, and U. G. Black. 

The intermittent tones must be obtained by mixing 
or superimposition. The method of doing this will be 
fully described in the proper place. Of course intermittent 
tones are sold, but until the tyro is able to get his or her 
effects by the colors indicated, additional colors will be 
found confusing. It will be perhaps noted that no red is 
mentioned above. The reason is indentical with the 
reason of the naturalist for neglecting to describe the 
snakes in Iceland. "There are no snakes in Iceland." 
And there is no underglaze red. If red is needed, orange 
must be used, allowed to dry, and a wash of crimson or 
pink put over it. It is possible to mix crimson or pink 
and orange but the result is not so good. The reason is 
that the orange is made from iron, and the crimson and 
pink from tin and bichromate of potash; and these ingre- 
dients do not agree when mixed together. But when the 
pink is superimposed on the orange, it retains its bril- 
liancy (which is dulled by mixture) and the w T arm orange 
glows through, giving the red tone desired The same 
principle applies to the purple tints. There are purples 
supplied by color matters, but they are sometimes un- 
satisfactory and disappointing, on account of the blue and 
the crimson (of which the purple is composed) dividing 
in the fire. The purple may be mixed on the palette, 
but the same risk is present. 

The best way is to put the crimson on first, and wash 
or "glaze" cobalt or mazarine over it. By this method, 
tones of extreme richness may be obtained. The exact 
tone of purple needed may be secured by varying the 
thickness of the crimson or blue. A little practice will 
enable the operator to do this almost automatically. 

Having given a general idea of the colors required, 
we will consider the best method of procedure to be adopted 
by a beginner. The first thing needed, is, of course, a 
piece of biscuit pottery. The design may be sketched 
with lead pencil on the biscuit exactly as one sketches 
on paper. In "repeat" patterns, especially of an elaborate 
order, I use a device, which I think is not generally known, 
as it was my own idea. I measure out the "repeats" in 
their required divisions, and sketch one only. .1 then trace 
it carefully on tracing paper, and outline it carefully on 
the tracing paper with a fine pen in hektograph ink. This 
I print on a sheet of the gelatine sold for the purpose, and 
I cut it with scissors to the shape of the division. The 
gelatine will then print as many repetions of the pattern 
as may be required, and its advantage is, that it will print 
on any surface, fluted or embossed, biscuit or glazed, or 
even on clay. 

Any medium may be used for painting under glaze. 
But perhaps the best for general purposes is water. The 
color should be mixed on a slab with a palette knife, and 
sufficient mucilage (such as gum arabic) added to make 
it work smoothly. Then a few drops of glycerine may 
be added, to prevent the color from drying too quickly on 
the tile. The painting may then be done exactly as if one 
was working in water colors, on paper. But with one 
important difference. Some of the biscuit ware is ex- 
tremely absorbent, almost as much as blotting paper. 
To some this is an advantage, and suggests technical 
"dodges." But to others it is only perplexing and baffling. 
In the latter case, the remedy is very simple. A* thin 
size or mucilage should be made of gum arabic and water, 
with a teaspoonfull of white sugar stirred in (in about a 
teaeupfull) until it is dissolved. This should be brushed 






with a large soft brush, over the surface to be painted, 
and it will be found to partially or totally check the absorb- 
ency according to the desire of the operators, the result 
being regulated, of course by the quantity of size laid on.. 
This can be done before or after the design is transferred. 
Underglaze painting lends itself most readily, and is most 
effective in decorative subjects, although naturalistic 
painting (which we shall deal with later) can be just as 
easily executed as in "on glaze" mineral colors. But 
the beginner should commence at first with subjects, 
preferably, having a firm outline. This outline may be 
done in dark brown, or any strong color, and if any flat 
tones are wanted, they can be added in the same medium 
or in colors mixed with turpentine fat oil, lavender, or 
any china painters medium. The advantage of this is 
that the outline does not wash up. I always prepare my 


painting of naturalistic subjects, or any elaborate work, 
in this way. A landscape or figure subject, for example 
is "washed in" the first painting, in gum and water, and 
finished in oils By this means, it is as easy to paint over 
the first preparation without disturbing it, or "muddying ' 
the color, as it is to execute the second painting "on glaze" 
after the first is fired. Another advantage is, that the 
superimposition of one color over another is always clear 
and brilliant, and not blurred, as is often the case when one 
medium is used. But the double medium is quite un- 
necessary in the case of ordinary work when few colors 
and little shading is employed. 

I give one or two examples of varied treatments of 
the Iris and its seed pods — a charmingly decorative motif, 
and one too rarely used — I refer more especially to the 
seed pods. 

The tall vase No. i is meant to be in a colored body, 
cane, terra-cotta, or sage. 

For a cane body, the outline and the flat, dark parts 
of the pods should be done in dark brown, the light parts 
in white, and the seeds in green (chrome). If a colored 
body cannot be obtained do the light parts with a very 
pale wash of French green. 

For a terra-cotta body, use black in place of dark brown. 
For a sage or drab body, outline the design in chrome green, 
and do the seeds in Victoria green. 

Mazarine blue should be used, for a dark blue, 
but if a delft blue is wanted, add a touch (about i in 20) 
of borate of copper. If a "Globelins" blue is desired add 
to the mazarine about 10 per cent, of chrome green. 

It is imperative that one thing should be borne in 
mind. All underglaze colors (or nearly all) vary in strength 
according to the staining powers of the bases of which they 
are composed. Cobalt — and all colors made from cobalt — 
become stronger and deeper in tone after being fired. The 
mazarines, royal blues, Indian pearls, and neutrals, are 
of this class. Chrome green, and French green remain 
about the strength they appear before firing. Victoria 
or golden green, fires lighter and a little extra strength 
should be allowed in painting. The same thing applies 
to the pinks, crimsons and browns. 

Yellows and oranges vary, i. e., they depend upon the 
make, and their suitability to the glaze. Some yellows 
fire darker, and some lose strength considerably in the fire. 
Generally speaking, the more lead a glaze contains, the 
more friendly it is to yellows and oranges. 

If a glaze contains a small percentage of lead, the 
yellow will appear pale and washed out unless it is applied 
very thickly. This may be remedied by adding a little 
raw white lead — about 2\ per cent, to the color. 

But the firing away of underglaze colors may be due 
to other causes besides lead. Some glazes contain whiting 
— a form of lime — which is a great decolorant. The best 
thing for the beginner to do is to get two plates or slabs, 
and to make duplicate trials of all colors in various thick- 
nesses and shades, numbering them and taking care that 
both plates of trials are exactly similar. One should be 
fired, and the other kept unfired, and it will then be easy, 
by comparison, to tell how much each color gains or loses 
under the particular glaze available. 

The materials and methods of application, are, it is 
hoped, described with sufficient clearness, and it only re- 
mains for the beginner to put them in practice. At the 
outset, it would be well to try a few pieces in monochrome, 
or in two colors at most. A vase or plaque, painted in 
dark blue, with arabesques, ornaments or natural objects, 






and the background in orange, would be easy of achieve- 
ment and the result would be similar to the effect of the 
early Italian majolicas. The majolica Plaque with cupids 
by Mr. G. Wooliscroft Rhead, R. E., (medalled by the science 
and Art Department of Great Britain) is an example of 
work suited to this treatment. Those more ambitiously 
inclined could paint it in colors after the manner of the 
bottegas of Gabbio or Faewga. In this case it should be 
done on ivory or cream colored ware, which could represent 
the local color of the flesh tones. The outline should be 
done firmly in dark brown, and the shading of the figures 
delicately done in pale red brown, relieved here and there 
by very delicate touches of grey. The grey should be a 
mixture of two parts of matt blue and one part of orange. 
The knees, elbows, cheeks and lips, should be treated with 
an almost imperceptible wash of pink, carefully softened 

off so as to leave no edges. It will be found surprising 
how a general appearance of flesh color may be obtained by 
these simple means. The ribbons may be done in pink, 
and the draperies in different tones of green. The hair 
should be done in pale orange, shaded with brown, and the 
wings shaded in grey, — the mixture previously given. 
The Shield has green bars with orange circles, and the 
frame of the shield is done in shaded orange. The borders 
are outlined and shaded in "Indian pearl" — a dark blueish 
grey having something of the quality of the blue of delft, 
but more sober. The backgrounds of the borders can be 
washed in pale yellow, and the background behind the 
figures done in rich dark blue. 

(Placi|iie hoi given, but treatment applies to all figure work.) 


Center, Cafe au lait ; border, three shades of olive green. 



















"V iQJ 






Agnes Austin Anbin 

In Ponta Delgada, the largest city of the Azores, 
clown a narrow street by the wharves is a shop full of 
beautiful Azorean pottery, of all shapes and sizes. 

Plates, flagons, jugs, bowls, cups and pitchers fill the 
shelves, while the floor-space is covered with piles of half- 
unpacked crockery, peeping from its protecting straw. 

This pottery is made at Lagoa, a little place about 
eight miles from the city, and is of two kinds, the terra- 
cotta and the glazed ware. 

The terra-cotta ware is used for water bottles (figure 
i) and for large pitchers, which the island women carry 
on their heads to the fountain, where they fill them with 
water for household uses. Large jars of this ware are 
placed in gardens to hold rain water. These graceful jars 

and pitchers are often decorated with borders pricked into 
the clay before it is baked. 

Of terra-cotta also are the little figures of Azorean 
peasants (Figure 2). In these models the woman wears 
her enveloping capote, while the man's head is surmounted 
by that odd head-piece with its projecting horns known as 
the carapuca. The clothes of this clay couple have been 
painted blue and white, but their faces and hands are of the 
color of their own red soil. 

When the terra-cotta is covered with a pinkish-gray 
glaze and decorated by hand with gay designs it becomes 
the ordinary household w r are of the islanders. 

The patterns are sometimes put on unevenly, for the 
hand of the decorator may sometimes slip, but there is a 
naivete about the designs which is most attractive. Any 
object, from a canary bird to a pear, may be seen on this 
island crockery. 

The prevailing color of the ornamentation is blue — 
the Portuguese national color. This harmonizes with the 
pinkish-gray of the glaze. 

The graceful flagon, for oil or vinegar (Figure 3), is 
decorated with blue bands and wreaths, while the central 
stars are red. 

The plate (Figure 4) with its blue zigzag border, has 
the golden crown and black castles of the Portuguese 
coat-of-arms, surrounded by the blue of its country's 

The large sugar-bowl (Figure 5), seven inches high 
by nine inches wide, is ornamented with blue flowers and 
green leaves. Why the natives use such large sugar- 
bowls I have never been able to ascertain. It is not be- ' 
cause sugar is cheap on the islands, for it retails at fifteen 
cents a pound. 

As for the mugs (Figure 6), one bears a yellow pear 
nestling in its green leaves, while the other is well covered 
with a conventional pattern in green and blues. 

The pear decoration appeared particularly felicitous 

to me, and I was bearing the unwrapped mug proudly 
through the streets when I met one of the English denizens 
of the town. An expression of surprise, mingled with 
horror, overspread his countenance when he beheld me 
and my burden. "Only fancy," said he, "a lady with a 


Photograph by Helen Pattee. 

H. Barclay Paist. 

THE flowers are white, therefore, we have to do with 
nothing but values which may be held with Grey for 
Flowers and Grey Green. The leaves are Glossy Green 
on the face and Grey Green on the backs, and for all the 
lighter values. For the dark green, use Dark Green and 
dry dust or glaze with Moss Green. For the color of the 
background, some suggestion would be Neutral Yellow, 
Apple Green, Grey Green or Olive Green, tinted on flat. 
The study, however, would be quite pleasing in tones of 
green, using Grey Green tint for the background. This 
study could easily be used in place of Wistaria, in which 
case the flowers would be modeled with shades of Violet 
using a pale Ivory Yellow or Copenhagen Grey for back- 
ground. If adapted to a vase, the background, of course, 
could be shaded if desired, but would be quite as effective 
kept flat. 












Western Wild Hawthorn has smaller apples than the ones in the east and the leaves are a smooth 

brilliant green, almost evergreen. 



^atJro) (jrowH\. 

Passion FT 



f^OR first firing the flowers are painted a delicate 
* Violet, deepening toward the center. Fringe of the 
deepest tones of Violet, with markings of richer color 
more of a red Violet. Keep the centers a very delicate 
yellow green and pale creamy tints. Ivory Yellow may 
be used to advantage here, but all must be kept quite 
soft in effect. The under side of flowers is yellow Green, 
use Lemon Yellow with a little Moss Green added. Stems 

of darker shade, fringe of deep purple. Buds are all soft 
greens, the seed pod Moss Green shaded with Dark Green. 
For background beginning in darkest parts with Dark 
Green, shade to Yellow Brown and Egg Yellow, keeping 
all subdued in tone. Work gradually into delicate Violet 
in lightest portion up into Lemon Yellow beneath the 
large leaf and blossom. Deepen all in second firing, color 
can be dusted in darkest parts to give richness of tone. 









1 4-t 



Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 232 East 27th Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions mast be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

around the back less one-eighth inch to allow for stretch- 
ing, and the others to correspond with these, the fifth 
measured by the width of the board, the sixth, three-fourths 
inch from it as shown in Illus. No. . 1 1 

The second horizontal line is three-fourths inch below 
the first, the next the exact length of the board below and 
the next three-fourths inch below that. Cut out this pat- 
tern on the outside lines and draw one just like it on tin- 
leather, making the lines three-fourths inch inside the edge 
very heavy, as these mark the limit of the paring. Cut out 
the leather. Paring should be practiced first on some scraps 
of leather. Illus. No. 12 shows exactly the position to be 
taken. The leather should be very thin on the edges, 
practically feather-edged. It must be quite smooth, when 
it is nearly smooth enough it can be sand-papered to xe- 
pedite matters. The leather being ready to use, take the 
book from the press and prepare it for covering. Put it in 

No. 13— Stretching leather 

r back of book on paring stone 


Mertice Mac Crea Buck 

Now the leather may be prepared. It must be taken, 
if it is .morocco, (the leather most used by amateurs) from 
the side of the skin, as the part directly over the back-bone 
is weak. A sufficiently large piece being found, a paper 
pattern is drawn. This must be very accurate. Draw the 
top line first and all the vertical ones at right angles to it, 
the second one three-fourths inch from the first, the third 
the exact width of the board from this, the fourth the width 

Pd.tty-er;z of , t x/ f >— &o?cr- 

No. II 

07i sfonej~7avm 6 /io/cf_s Ac J ^w- a^ d/ti sA^ ?A >-/', c c(/c.<Age. 

F/n%9r$ 0* r/'%AA* A<f/td to /4- -4/aJe. 0/ Acn^a //£/■/ 7%~ur?i-4 

LcAJAti^ corners oj, /«j//s 77^^/- 7i> i6a< ■/ <•/./>.,„ A; 
fo 4//0W s/ijee for /c37%e/' A ie jAa/v^^. /j'liTo A?* d. 
ctf/vs Cvf on. r/Tt. ifv/'/%- <t .vAdrp /tbv/Be 

No. 12 

the finishing press, back up, sandpaper the back of the 
book, then cut away the four back corners as shown in the 
same illustration, cutting them with a sharp knife on a 
piece of tin. If the back seems still a little rough, paste a 
piece of thin paper over it, let this dry and sand-paper again. 

Before putting on the leather have ready a perfectly 
clean paring stone, a piece of canton flannel, a long thread 
of silk, clean water and a clean sponge. Paste, with a 
large brush, a small brush, and a bone folder. The leather 
is laid flat on the stone and covered all over with the paste 
which must be well rubbed in with a stiff brush. The back 
of the book is then laid on the leather, exactly in the space 
marked for it, the edges of course being upwards. The 
book is then turned over with the leather, so that the fore 
edges rest on the stone, and the leather worked down over 
the back with the palms of the hands as shown in the photo- 
graph, (Illus. No. i3),stretchingitwell,andrubbingit smooth. 
The leather must then be turned in at the head. This is 
done by standing the book up and pushing the boards away 
a little at the back so that the three-fourths inch margin 
can be folded down into the space, with the two thumbs, as 
shown in Illus. No. 14. It should be left a little loose to 
allow free play in the joint. The top margins are then foldei I 
down and well rubbed with a folder. The tail is then treatei I 
the same way — then the two front edges. 

Bach corner is folded down as shown in the sketch, but 
it is better not to try to finish these, as they can be done 



Head C'rj/Oi? ft S/'rc.fldi./nc /ea./Hei'' /7ife~/3c.S//'/'e7z- hr'>f&. 

2?. /op l//khf~ Of AcacJ cap 

e. Tloe A* f/U ^ >v,rt Cot-It}-*/*: 

ff/to/d head caps 3n d yvn /s 
/A, p/ace. ¥■ = Co^d 

later and need only be folded in so as to leave the edges of 
the board clear, and allow them to be rubbed down with 
the bone folder. At the head and tail the loose leather 
forms "head-caps." These are made by standing the book 
on one end, fore-edge in front, and gently tapping it on the 
stone, tipping it a little backwards. The little extra 
leather, where the corners of the book were cut away, is 
pushed into the shape shown in the sketch with a folder, 
and a long silk cord is tied around, after both head-caps 
are made, to keep them in place till dry. The book may 
now be put between tins and put in press with the silk thread 
still on. It is well to leave it thus over night. When about 
to open, moisten the joints on the outside, to prevent the 
leather cracking. The corners must then be slightly wet, 
by slipping a wet folder under each one, the superflous 
leather cut away as shown in Illus. No. 15 and the corners 
neatly pasted down again — and rubbed well — and dried 
between tins in press. The forwarding is now completed. 
The next steps include the removal of the waste or tip and 
the pasting down of the first end-paper. These are known 
as "assistant finishing" and will be described in detail. 

Corners. Cfffrng ayrcty s^perf/o » es /eddksj--- 


df^r-e^cj p ap 

7>As^4 J ovyTl 


vM-n-h' ) 

ss/s-/a 72-r p 

*h/'n£ a frn t 'sAe<£ 

,T 'The waste end paper is torn out and the joint cleaned 
carefully with a wet folder. Then a piece of thick paper 
the size of the board is stuck to the cover, and a line marked 
with the bone folder an equal distance from the edge all 
around, three-eighths inch is a good distance. This being 
cut with a sharp knife through both paper and leather 
leaves a paper exactly corresponding to the inside space, 
and the waste leather inside the margin is taken out with 
a wet folder. The thick paper is then pasted in and well 
rubbed down. The first, end paper must be cut to fit, and 
little corners left as in Illus. No. 15, sketch "A" be pasted 
down with the cover opened back on a wooden board, as 
thick as the book. Paste should be allowed to soak into 
the joint (over which the paper must be rubbed until it is 
perfectly dry) and when the two covers are done they should 
be left open with the book on end. Stand the book on end, 
held in a piece of cardboard cut as in the sketch in Illus. 
No. 16, till the joints are dry. 

This completes the book up to decoration or finishing 
and lettering. Finishing is an art in itself. Many good 

ftppe&rtxTLCce o f aU p<iper- ijzd /<t/ri-r~~ 3po $C fubflned- 
apt -rt fe d 

binders know nothing of it, and the amateur who attempted 
to even letter a title from printed instructions would prob- 
ably come to grief ; in order to get the decoration done proper 
erly it is necessary to have a slight knowledge of the tools 
and processes employed, and of styles of work. Several 
photographs are used in this article which show the beauty 
of gold decoration, as used by the most famous binders of 
the past. Some of them, like Le Gascon, Illus. No. 1 7, estab- 
lished styles still known by their names. Le Gascon revels 
in delicate and intricate design. Contrast his work with 
that of the simply and richly bound volume done to order 
for Louis le Grand Dauphin. (Illus. No. 18.) 

The decoration or "tooling" is done in gold, or in what 
is called "blind", burned darker than the leather. In either 
case the impression is made with a heated tool pressed into 
the leather. This process must be repeated several times. 

To follow this through step by step, a design is first 
planned out on paper, using tools which are at hand, or can 
be procured easily ready made, as any original tool must be 

i 4 4 


pression deepened, and the lines are run with a roulette or 
wheel (see Illus. No. 20) , first going over them with a straight 
edge and sharp wet folder to give a guide for the roulette. 
In gold tooling the design is gone over several times with 
vinegar, and with a substance called "glaire" made from 
white of egg, which makes the gold stick. The gold is lifted 
from a cushion on which it is laid, with a little padded gold 
lifter, and dropped on to a small part of the design, into 
which it is gently pressed with a ball of cotton. The tool 

No. 17— Nouvelles Observations at Conjectures sur 1'Tris. Bound by he Gascon. 
Example of beautiful gold tooling. Courtesy Chas. Scribner's Sons 

cut to order. The design is stamped on the paper with the 
tool moistened with India ink on a pad. The paper with 
the completed design is then attached to the leather with 
a little paste and the first impression made through the paper 
with a hot tool. The paper is then removed and the im- 

No. 19— De Rebus JapOnicis. Bound by Nicholas or Olo.i.s Eve. Example of allover 
pattern in gold tooling. Courtesy Cluis. Scribner's Sons 

is then put on warm, exactly in the former impression, the 
heat makes the gold stick to the design, but it can be rubbed 
off the surrounding part. Sometimes it is necessary to go 
over the design two or three times. 

/f ° o U rt-a " or yv/lcc./ fc,7- 7rt£/i?7i% s/y4/zAf //'rr 

No. ls — Livre Curiieux et Utile, pour les Artistes, Example of rich but simple 
ation. Courtesy Chas. .Scribner's Sons 

No. 20 

Lettering is done in gold in the same way, each letter 
being stamped separately in the best work, although main 
binders set up a "stick" of letters in a frame like type. 



Terra cotta cylinders suggested by the Ancient Peruvian cylinders at the Natural 

History Museum, New York, and the fabric printed from them. 

Second Year Design Class 


EACH year witnesses an advance in the Art School of 
this Association. The Art Embroidery Class, estab- 
lished to create a taste for design in those graduates who 
will find their sphere at home is in its second year and very 
progressive. Each student's work without exception 
showed not only good workmanship, but inventive quality, 
in design and combination of color and textiles. The in- 
structor, Miss M. B. Jones, is a graduate of the school, and 
knows well how to utilize the grounding of historic orna- 
ment, and work in composition taught in the morning 
classes. During the three years course in the school the 
students are trained in design and composition, memory of 
form, and sense of color, and are taught to express them- 
selves in clay, wood, fabric and other mediums. 

Embroidered bags and scarf, by Misses Krackowizer, Leonard, Demareet, Kohlman, 
Jellinghans and Green 

The classes are not large, so that each student gets 
individual attention. 

It was noted with interest that one of the students, 

Pottery by Students, Second Year Design Class 

Miss F. Sutterlin, was the successful competitor in the com- 
petition for a seal to be used by the new National Board of 
Y. W. C. A. 

Embroidered pillc 

irf, by Miss Demarest and Miss Leonard 



Graduates of the three year course, Florence Leonard, 
Sylvia Williams, Mimi Kohlman. 

In the evening classes, the awards were as follows: 

Wood Block Printing, Second Year Design Class 

The exhibit of pottery was smaller than usual, but 
most interesting were the terra cotta cylinders, suggested 
by the Ancient Peruvian ones in Nat. History Museum. 
These really were an experiment and probably fired too 
hard to absorb the proper amount of color necessary for 
printing, though these illustrations are fair examples of 
what can be done. 

A competent jury made the following awards: First 
year scholarship, Rowena Van Woert; honorable mentions, 
Pauline Brainard, Gertrude C. Abbe; second year scholar- 
ship, Genevieve Wilgus; honorable mentions, Gertrude F. 
Minicus and Florence Sutterlin. 

Art embroidery scholarship, Mimi Kohlman; honor- 
able mention, Florence Demarest and Tilly Jellinghaus. 

General Art Course, Gertrude Rudolp; first scholarship 
divided between Ethel Cochrane and Julia A. Percy; honor^ 
able mentions, Dorothy Neisel and L. Bach. 

First year Costume Drawing; Scholarship, Flsie Strat- 
mann; honorable mentions, Margaret Seidenstrick and Mary 
V. Pierce. 


Miss M. Helen E. Montfort will return from her sum- 
mer abroad, in time to open her studio November rst 

Miss Ella A. Fairbanks has given up her studio at 
15 Wellington Street and resumed her classes at Hotel 
Oxford, Copley Square., Boston, Mass. 

Miss Emilie C. Adams, so long associated with the 
Emma Willard School of Troy, N. Y., sends out announce- 
ment of the opening of the Troy School of Arts and Crafts 
under her direction. The associate teachers will be Mrs. 
Viola T. Pope, mineral painting (floral and conventional) ; 
Miss Bessie H. Pine, wood carving, iron work, leather and 
basketry; Miss Mary Agnes Pomeroy, drawing and painting 
from nature in oils and water colors, designing, illustration 
and clay modelling; Miss Ruth Crandall, jewelry, metal 
work and enameling; Miss Helen Jennings Nolan, lace and 
embroidery; Miss Adams herself will continue to teach 
miniature painting on porcelain and ivory, also the carved 
leather work. We wish her every success of which she is 
eminently worthy. 

■f *• 

A. W. — Sorry these answers have been crowded out for lack of space. 
For dusting a deep rich red, dust first lightly with Ruby Purple then in a 
second fire with Pompadour or Blood Red. For a deeper color, use Maroon. 
When the directions for executing a conventional design call for dry dusting 
of several different colors, it is best to dry dust one color at a time. For in- 
stance, on bowl, page 60, July 1906, "dry dust leaves with Brown Green," 
paint the leaves, then when almost dry drop a little powder color on each leaf, 
one at a time, rub gently in with a little surgeon's wool until the paint will 
hold no more color, when all leaves are finished brush off bowl, clean any 
ragged edges. Then proceed to paint apples which are dry dusted with Carna 
tion in the same way. The Carnation will not adhere to the leaves to any ex- 
tent as they will hold no more color. 

G. — Regret delay in replying. You have a right to reproduce by hand- 
work in any medium, any study which is published, although marked "copy- 
right. " The entire contents of Keramic Studio are copyrighted but it is 
expected that all subscribers may copy what they choose; the "copyright" 
prevents any one reproducing a study in quantity commercially, by a mechan- 
ical process or otherwise. 

Curtain by Miss Demarest Chair by Miss Brainard 

G. K. — For pastel work a fine prepared sand paper is used, 
pares his own paper. 

no one pre- 

The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles mast not be reprinted -without special permission 



Editorial Notes 

League Notes 

Editorial and the following Studies and Designs by Jeanne M. Stewart 

Wax Berries 

Plate — Cherries 

I/Art Noveau 

Golden Rod and Dragon Fly [ ^ 

Water Pitcher— Sea Gulls I5I 

Butterflies j c 2 

Grape Study for Vase (Supplement) x c 2 

Plate — Bittersweet 

Stein — Corn Flowers 



Vase — Single Daffodils I54 

Plate— Scotch Heather 

Marine Vase 


Vase — Hops x c c 
Plate— Shells and Sea Weed I5 6 
Jar — Woodbine and Landscape x r 7 
Chop Plate — Sweet Corn x ,-s 
Birthday Cup and Saucer — Chrysanthemums x $g 
Vase— Grapes 160-161, 
Nut Plate in Acorns 162 
Water Pitcher — Roses 163 
Chocolate Pot — Larch Cones is^ 
Plate — Crab-apples 165 
Vase — Milkweed x 66 
Vase — Pond Lilies i^y 
Plate — Wild Rose Apples ^8 
The Crafts- 
Indian Basketry Mertice MacCrea Buck 1 69-1 71 
Exhibition Notes Nat'l Society Craftsmen 1 71-172 
Ans. to Inquiries 172 
Answers to Correspondents 172 


Just a word to caution our friends against giving their subscriptions to strangers. 
We have no agents ; but complaints have recently come to us that swindlers are out 
taking subscriptions for our magazine and pocketing the proceeds. Be sure you know 
the party to whom you give your money. The best plan is to go to your regular 
dealer or send the subscription to us. 

. 108 Pear* St., 

Syracuse, N. T. 


Vol. IX. No. 7 


November, 1907 

HE November Keramic Studio 
presents an old friend to its 
readers. Miss Stewart's flower 
and fruit studies have been so 
popular that we are sure of the 
welcome her number will receive. 

It is not too late to still make 
some studies of flowers for winter 
use. In the garden, the Snap- 
dragon and Salvia, here and there a belated Larkspur, 
Poppy and Hollyhock. The beautiful fall Anemones, the 
Pompon Chrysanthemums, Dahlias and Marigolds, Pansies, 
Gladioli, and even a Foxglove encouraged by a little fall sun- 

Do not forget to make some detail drawings as well as 
your study for general effect, Even if you do not make 
designs from them, you will become better acquainted with 
your subject. 


The editor wishes to correct an error which occurred 
in the October number. The credit for the contribution of 
Tea Tile, "Highbush Cranberry," was given to Miss Carrie 
Williams. It should have read Jessie I. Williams. The 
best plan for contributors is to mark their designs plainly 
on the back of each one. There will then be no chance for 
mistakes being made in authorship. 


We have lately received an interesting letter from the 
St. Louis School of Arts which is attached to the Museum 
of Fine Arts of that city. The success of the applied art 
classes of that institution shows that the people of the 
American West are becoming no less appreciative of beauty 
in the every day things of life than are the people of France 
and Italy, and that our workers are destined to become as 
skilled and successful as any in making their productions 
attractive to the educated eye. The enrollment of new 
pupils this year is one-third larger than last year. St. 
Louis has built up one of the chief art educational institu- 
tions in the country, with imposing public collections and a 
magnificent home in the public park. It is supported by 
twenty-five hundred members paying annual dues of ten 
dollars each, and by a recent popular vote a special tax has 
been levied for the Art Museum, which has yielded $102,000 
thisfyear and will grow with the city. 

Western communities are decidedly setting the pace, 
and it would be well for some of our large Eastern cities to 
wake up and do things. 


Problems one and two which according to instructions 
sent members were due October first, and Problem three 
due November first will be received for criticism up to 
November fifteenth. This extension of time is at the re- 
quest of three clubs whose members wish more time. 
Many good designs have been sent and these will be 

criticised and returned without waiting for the tardy 

At the last Advisory Board meeting the following were 
accepted as individual members : 

Miss Sallie Patchen, Wayland, N. Y. 

Miss Alice B. Sharrard, Louisville, Ky. 

Mrs. C. H. Shattuck, Topeka, Kansas. 

Mrs. R. E. Hurst, Bloomington, 111. 

Three of these have already proved valuable members, 
and the designs sent in by them are of a high order and they 
begin their League work with enthusiasm. One good 
individual member who is a worker is more help to the 
League than a club whose members are uninterested. 

We hope that it will be possible to arrange, by next 
year, an exchange of designs by league members, individ- 
ual, as well as club members, that will prove of great value 
to teachers and students of design. We should be glad to 
receive letters from members concerning this and stating 
whether they would personally work for it. If each work- 
ing member would pledge themselves to send in two designs 
finished after correction we should have a fine collection of 
new and original designs that could not be obtained in any 
other way and each would get inspiration from the study of 
others' work. Some charge could be agreed upon and ar- 
rangements made so that the League members who wish 
to pay it could have the collection a certain length of time. 
It would possibly be a good plan to allow only those mem- 
bers who worked for it to have it. 

All china decorators or designers are invited to join 
the League and take advantage of the opportunities offered 
by the League Study Course. Slips containing cut of the 
shape selected for Problem seven will soon be mailed to 
members. Special arrangements can be made by clubs 
desiring to entertain the exhibit by writing Mrs. Bergen, 
7404 Harvard Ave. There has been no change in the 
League rules concerning this for years. 

Intelligent criticism is always helpful and will be wel- 
comed by the officers of the League. The League only ex- 
ists for the purpose of bringing the affiliated clubs in closer 
relation and raising the standard of the work. If you wish 
to join the League send in your application and initiation 
fee and you can begin work on the Problems at once. If 
you wait until later before joining you miss the criticisms 
on the first three Problems which you can get if you join 
now. Address all communications regarding study course 
to Mary A. Farrington, Pres. N. L. M. P. 

41 12 Perry Ave., Chicago, 111. 


Mrs. Vance Phillips writes from Los Angeles, Cal., that 
she will return to New York for lessons in the spring and 
will also have her Chautauqua summer class as usual. 

A Studio note in the last issue gave the wrong im- 
pression that Mrs. Vance Phillips, who is spending the 
winters in California, would make her home there in the 
future. But she intends to come East every spring and 



(Treatment p. 155) WAX BERRIES 

npHE type of realistic work that is offered this month to 
A the readers of the Keramic Studio, will be found 
void of the theatrical effectiveness which pleases many of 
our artists, and every care has been taken to exclude such 
color and technique, as would diminish the 
natural beauty of the work. The dominant 
-£> J" note * n these realistic studies, is simplicity. 
We all appreciate the fact, that the simplicity 
of nature is infinitely complex, and that her 
beauty is transcribed through a perfect weld- 
ing of many parts, none of which asserts itself unduly. This 
artistic attitude is admirably illustrated in the work of our 
best realistic artists and we offer the following pages to the 
many readers of this Journal, who have mastered the tech- 
nical difficulties of our art, hoping they may aid in pro- 
moting the best interests of an art, that has suffered and is 
still suffering from a want of proper standards. The work 
has been chosen as a pursuit by many persons who have no 
real artistic feeling, or understanding, and rather an indiffer- 
ent acquaintance with the technical side of their work. 
Reviewing the pages of the Keramic Studio during the past 
five years, there is ample evidence of sound and serious study 
among our young workers, and a desire for creative effort, 
with due regard for modern feeling. It is somewhat the 
fashion to depreciate realistic work, but its influence is still 
with us, reflecting the thought and earnest effort of many of 
the best artists in ceramics. 

We have read in some out of the way place, that orna- 
ment on pottery had its origin in the ages gone by, in an 
attempt of men to escape from the weariness of hard labor. 
It is more reasonable to believe that it was an expression of 
pleasure, in the hope of power and usefulness, which pleasure 
did not fail the artist. Things grew beautiful under the 
workman's hands in those days, and they did not know how 
to make things ugly. A piece of work of that period will 
bring a vast sum of money now, work done by some one 
who believed the earth to be like a flat dish, and that the 
sun went around the rim, with the city of Jerusalem exactly 
in the center. The workers were not the toilers of the 
present day, carrying the brush as a grievous burden, with 
which a great amount of work must be done, the money 
collected to pay Studio rent at $10.00 per square foot, and 
other essentials to modern existence, too numerous to men- 
tion here. On these terms, and under these conditions, it 
is hardly possible for an artist to express in her work great 
beauty and intelligence. The essence of beautiful work 
is the delight and pleasure felt by the worker which the 
artist feels and gives expression to. It is really a question 
of art and the joy of the artist in the work, or a tired worker 
and a lack of artistic expression. The sordid weariness 
inspired by' fear of a want of supply for every need, destroys 
the imagination, and the creative force is dulled. Let us 
take time for rest,*and recreation for the mind. Let us 
produce beauty only, and while our surroundings must be 
clean, orderly and artistic, it is easy to find someone who 
takes pleasure in doing what to us is drudgery, and who is 
not likely to ever enter the field of art. Free the mind of 
worry, fear, and the effect of toil. Fill it with joy, and the 
effect that freedom, culture, and pleasure in existence offers. 
We do not intend to say that all of our work is accomplished 
through anxiety, but the pleasure rather consists in making 
the work subservient to time, which must be made to turn 
in money at so much per day. This is no doubt business- 
like and commendable, if out of the fullness of the heart 
we can impress upon the work itself the token of our love 
for it. Jeanne M. Stewart 




Cherries — Lemon Yellow, Yellow Red, Pompeian, 
Pompadour 23 and Ruby Purple. 

Leaves — Lemon Yellow, Turquoise, Olive Brown and 
Shading Greens; Yellow Brown and Chestnut Brown. 

Stems — Brown Green, Yellow Brown, Chestnut Brown 
and Pompeian. 

Background — Ivory Yellow, Turquoise, Yellow and 
Shading Greens, Grey and Pompeian. 



"ItTAN Y authors begin their manuscript with some reference 
■W*- to the weather, which is often an indication that they 
hardly know how to begin. Some such feeling pervades 
the mind of the writer of this article, in her attempt to re- 
spond to a request for a few expressions concerning I/Art 
Nouveau; the need of the accessories of thunder, lightning, 
and moaning wind, is felt strongly, the term, after turning 
page after page of authorities upon the subject, seeming 
to require a few uncanny adjuncts to give it proper expres- 
sion. The people who sustain and assail the new art, 
are about equally divided in number, and intensity of ex- 
pression, and purpose. It is apparently not easy to frame 
any definition, or statement of the principles or the char- 
acteristics of the movement, for it is a movement and not 
a style. It certainly designates a great variety of forms 
and developements of decorative design, with a character 
of protest against the traditional and common-place. A 
great authority on the negative side has described our 
graceful LArt Nouveau, as "the concentrated essence of a 
wriggle," and he also speaks of "squirming lines and blobs," 
in connection with the new work. 

LArt nouveau is certainly a dangerous thing to the 
designer in china painting, who is not blessed with good 
taste. In its best rendering it is reposeful, and essentially 
original, but in the hand of an amateur the wandering, 
snakey lines, squirming over everything, are all but artistic 
and have no correspondence to anything in nature. They 
are, in fact, a terrible nightmare, and have ruined much 
good work. 

When lines for decorative purpose are set out to ignore 
the instincts and preferences that have guided artists in 
expression for centuries, those instincts being the facts and 
forms in nature, let us hope that the strolling pencil may 
be handled always by the trained artist, and one possess- 
ing practical knowledge, distinct artistic aim, and definite 

If we are really to have an entirely new method of 
artistic expression, which shall be different from anything 
that has ever gone before, let us hope that on every oc- 
casion the inventors of the strolling lines may be skilled 
in the work, before any application of them to an exquisite 
piece of china is "fired in." Originality is valuable only 
when combined with beauty and fitness. Unless these 
qualities are strictly observed, excentricity, rather than 
originality, should be the term used. We live in an age of 
progression, an age when a thing is welcome simply 
because it is new, nor will it be rejected because it is an 
innovation. An innovation in art will not be tolerated 
long if it violates the teaching of nature. L Art Nouveau 
has been tried by certain standards, essential to its appli- 
cation, and has not been found wanting. It has made an 
influence felt which is stamped upon many of our industries, 
and has given ample proof of its valuable means of artistic 
expression, in the hands of skilled artists. In its charm of 
simplicity and graceful lines is the tremendous advance 
made by LArt nouveau, during only a few years. It has 
been the means of reviving several branches of decorative 
art, and is in fact a general revival showing it not to be a 
fictitious movement. It is based upon excellent and 
positive principles. It attempts to create, and does not 
copy, and creation is the life of decorative art. In the 
work-shops of artists who lead the movement, art-crafts- 
men are trained, looking to flowers, foliage, grasses, and an 
infinite variety of living forms for new beauty, rather than 
copying antique ornament, and it is really better to fall into 

some error trying to create, than to become sterile, copying. 
Let us encourage and acknowledge LArt Nouveau, 
remembering that imitators are condemned to an impulse 
of exageration, which may produce shocking results, in our 
line of work especially. Every true expression of art is 
founded upon the patient study of nature, and LArt Nou- 
veau can never give results, without the work that precedes 
every accomplishment in any branch of art. 

Jeanne M. Stewart 

GOLDENROD AND DRAGON-FLY (Treatment page 154) 





color. The reflected lights in the green grapes are Gamboge 
or Lemon Yellow, with very light Sap Green in the lights. 

The shadows are Sap Green and Burnt Sienna. A thin 

wash of lightest tone should be washed over leaves, and 

allowed to dry, before the shadows are put in. The largest 

leaf may be painted in autumn colorings, to represent one 

touched by the frost. It may be tipped with browns, 

Burnt Sienna, and Payne's Grey, with brilliant spots of 

Gamboge, and Cadmium Orange running into occasional 

touches of Vermilion. The rest of the leaves may 

be kept in Green and Blue Grey tones. A light 

sketchy background may be applied, using Gamboge, 

New Blue, Light Red, and Payne's Grey. 

After the whole study is laid in, touch up the 
high lights, and represent the bloom of the grape 
with Chinese White, to which a bit of New Blue has 
been added. 


AN old truism, which no- 
body denies, is "learning 
to draw is learning to see. "Its 
antithesis is also true — learn- 
ing to see, is learning to draw. 
While much depends for the 
treatment of the designs giv- 
en in these pages, upon a per- 
fect harmony of color, it will 
be found no easy matter to pro- 
duce beautiful pieces from 
these studies, if the drawing 
does not express the design 
with some degree of accuracy ; 
therefore, first in order is your 
drawing, which must be cor- 
rect before the color is ap- 
plied. It is most difficult to 
explain, in words only, the 
artistic method of applying 
the color to these designs, and 

especially in the background. No directions can carry 
with them the eye trained to accuracy and to delicate dis- 
cernment of subtleties of line and color. Most students 
who will attempt to carry out the suggestions given in the 
following pages have this training, and we therefore give the 
palette of colors used , leaving the rest to the good taste of 
the artist. 

GRAPES (Supplement) 


FRUITS of any kind present more difficulties, and involve 
more modeling than most flowers, and are therefore 
rather to be avoided by the actual beginner, who usually 
commences work upon an elaborate piece in grapes, a most 
difficult accomplishment for an amateur. 

Keep tones clear and crisp, leaving the fights very deli- 
cate. The dark tone in the purple grapes is made of Indigo 
and Crimson Take and should be applied as dark as possible 
in first wash. The light tone is a thin wash of the same 


VASE-GRAPES (Pages 160-161) 

HIS vase is to be worked up in purple and green 
grapes. Purple grapes — Banding Blue, Ruby 
Purple and Black. Green grapes— Yellow and 
Turquoise Green, Lemon and Egg Yellow, 
Yellow Brown, Yellow Red, Pompeian and 
Brown Green. Shadows for green grapes 
— Egg Yellow and Brown Green. 
Leaves — Yellow, Turquoise, Shad- 
ing, Olive and Brown Greens, 
Lemon and Egg Yellow, Yellow 
Brown, Yellow Red, Pompeian, 
and Chestnut Brown. 

Background — Ivory Yellow, 
Grey, Banding Blue, Ruby Pur- 
ple, Turquoise Green, Shading 
Green, and Brown Green. 

*• -f 

SCAPE (Page 157) 

THE bands are in Grey or 
Black, done with the wheel. 

The landscape and tint of 
the vase is in Grey. 

The leaves are done in Yel- 
low Brown, Wood Brown, Chest 
nut Brown, Pompeian, Ruby 
Purple, Brown Green and Yel- 
low Red. 

The berries are painted in 
Banding Blue, Ruby Purple and 

AND SAUCER (Page 159) 

Lines — Shading Green. Flowers — Rose, Ruby Purple, 
Lemon Yellow, Egg Yellow, Yellow Red, Yellow Brown, 
Pompeian and Wood Brown. Background — Turquoise 
Green, Ivory Yellow and Stewart's Grey. 

Tint above L'Art Nouveau lines, light tone of Shading 

PURPLE AND GREEN GRAPES — jeanne m. stewart 








THIS plate is charming if carefully clone. The lines 
should be placed in Black with a banding wheel. After 
the lines are drawn, paint the design in Yellow Brown, Yel- 
low Red, Pompeian and Ruby Purple. The greens are 

Yellow, Turquoise and Brown Greens. The dark band is 
Stewart's Brown Green; the outside and lighter band is a 
light tint of the same color. 

The center of the plate is tinted Ivory Yellow. 




LINES Grey with Grey tinting. Heather — Rose, Ruby 
Purple, Banding Blue, Brown Green, Shading Green, 
and Wood Brown. Background — Ivory Yellow, Turquoise 
Green and Grey. 


FLOWERS — Turquoise Green, Banding Blue, Ruby Pur- 
ple and Black. Tint at base — Banding Blue and Tur- 
quoise Green in first fire, Stewart's Special Blue in second 
fire, and the same dusted in the third. Tint at the top 
of stein — Turquoise Green and Banding Blue. 


FLOWERS^-Lemon Yellow, Egg Yellow, Yellow Red and 
Yellow Brown. Leaves — Turquoise Green, Yellow 
Green and Shading Green. Tint — Black at the top, shad- 
ing into Shading Green. 




THE palette for the golden rod is Lemon Yellow, Egg 
Yellow, Yellow Red, Yellow Brown, and Brown Green. 
Dragon fly, body — Yellow Brown, Wood Brown and 
Ruby Purple. Wings — Turquoise Green, Yellow Green, in 
very thin washes, with a few strong touches of Ruby Purple. 
Veins — Brown Green. 


THE vase is banded in Black with the banding wheel. 
The dark band is dusted on with Black and Shading 
Green. Hops are painted in Yellow, Turquoise, Olive and 
Shading Greens . The tint of vase is Ivory Yellow and Yellow 


THE Marine Vase is best carried out in warm grey tones. 
Stewarts' Grey and Pompeian, — one- third of the latter 
— is used in a very light tone in sky, while the same is used in 
water, applied somewhat heavier. Light clouds in delicate 
tones of Pompeian and Yellow Brown for first fire, toning 
down in second fire, with light wash of Grey. A touch of 
Pompeian should also be used in lighter parts of the water. 
Sails are white shaded with grey, and boat is a very dark 


THE background should be applied first, and the berries 
carefully wiped out and shaded with. Grey and Lemon 
Yellow with Brown Green touches in blossom ends. Stems 
are a dark red brown and leaves a delicate green with 
dark shadings. 


i 5 6 



PALETTE — Ivory Yellow, Lemon Yellow, Yellow Brown, 
Chestnut Brown, Wood Brown, Yellow Green, Turquoise 
Green, Brown Green, Shading Green, Pompeian, and Ruby 
Purple. Inside of shells a very light wash of Pompeian is 
used, and the outside of the shell is painted in Yellow Brown 
shaded with Wood Brown and Chestnut. Star fish is Yel- 
low Brown shaded with coral, made of Pompeian and Ruby 

Sea urchins — a cool green with stripes of Laven- 

der made with Ruby Purple and Turquoise Green. 
Heavy sea weed is Yellow and Brown Green with lighter 
weeds in pink, Pompeian being used. Background — On 
rim of plate should be applied to represent water, strokes 
following the shape of plate and high lights picked out. 
Ivory Yellow, Turquoise Green, Shading Green, and Pom- 
peian may be used in the background. Bands are done in 
Black. Center of plate is tinted in a very light tone of 
Ivory Yellow. 





JAR-WOODBINE AND LANDSCAPE (Treatment page 152) 

i 5 8 



Corn and leaves — Yellow Green, Turquoise Green, Brown Green, Lemon Yellow, Egg Yellow, Yellow Red, Yellow- 
Brown, Wood Brown, Chestnut Brown and Ruby Purple. Background — Ivory Yellow 
shading into Yellow Brown and Wood Brown on the rim. 





(Treatment page 152) 





THIS plate decoration may be given with pleasing effect 
in the brown tones. The Art Nouveau lines should be 
traced in Chestnut Brown with a finer line or pen. It is 
very important that the lines be clear cut and fine. After 
the lines are finished, the design in acorns should be laid in, 
using Yellow and Brown for the general color scheme, run- 
ning into a dull warm green on lighter bunches. 

Palette for nuts and leaves — Lemon Yellow, Yellow 
Brown, Chestnut Brown, Brown Green, Yellow Green, Tur- 

quoise Green and Shading Green. Palette for background 
— Ivory Yellow, Yellow Brown, Wood Brown and Chestnut 
Brown. The background should not be applied until the 
second fire. Shade it from the pale yellow to darker browns. 
For third fire, strengthen, add detail and shadows, and 
dust darkest background with Chestnut Brown, drawing it 
over the edges of the leaves to soften them. This how- 
ever should not be done until the tint is almost dry, and 
only in the darkest part. 





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Place the bands with a banding wheel in Chestnut 
Brown. Cones — Yellow Brown, Wood Brown, Chestnut 
Brown, Pompeian, and Brown Green. Leaves — Brown 

Green, Shading Green, and Wood Brown. Pitcher tinted 
with Wood Brown. Band between lines tinted with a very 
light tone of Yellow Brown. 




Apples — Lemon Yellow, Yellow Red, Pompadour 23, 
Pompeian, Ruby Purple and Banding Blue. Leaves and 
stems — Turquoise Green, Yellow Green, Olive Green, Shad- 

ing Green, Pompeian and Chestnut Brown. Background — 
Ivory Yellow, Yellow Green, Grey, Shading Green, and 
Brown Green. 

1 66 



UNDERGLAZE effects in browns. 
Yellow Brown, Wood Brown, Chestnut Brown in the 

A principal source'of brilliant effect in the backgrounds 
is the contrast of softly shaded and graduated color, with 
flat rich ground produced by applying color, and dusting 
over it, after standing over night to dry. This dusting is 
done in the last painting, and the color must be almost dry, 
before applying the powder. 

K ; ; The pods are painted in Turquoise Green, Yellow Green 
and Brown Green. 

The clown must be wiped out of the background. This 
vase is particularly attractive, and will repay one for care- 
ful handling. 


THE yellow flowers are done in Lemon and Egg Yellow, 
with stamens of Yellow Brown and Yellow Red shaded 
with Chestnut Brown. The leaves are painted in blue 
green tones of Turquoise and Yellow Green shaded with 
Brown Green. The body of the vase is tinted with Ivory 
Yellow and Brown Green shaded into a darker tone at the 
base. The dark band back of the flowers is a Brown Green 
and Black with outlines of the same. 









The colors used in this decoration are the same as for crab apples, although some of them may be painted with Yellow- 
Brown, shaded with Chestnut Brown. The leaves are a dull green, running 
into brown. Background in cool greys and greens. 


Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 232 East 2jth Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 


Mertice MacCrea Buck 

AS this paper aims to give a brief, but definite, descrip- 
tion of a few ways of applying Indian basket-makers' 
methods to our own materials, it may not be amiss to call 
to mind the two great classes under which all baskets — 
diverse as they seem — may be grouped : 

(1) Those which are twined or woven. 

(2) Those which are sewed or coiled. 

Under the first head are included all such as are made 
by twining a flexible material around spokes, usually cross- 
ing at the centre in a wheel-like arrangement, but some- 
times forming an ellipse or an oblong. 

The methods of weaving are infinite. Three typical 
Indian styles are shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4 in Illustra- 
tion No. 1. Ordinary reed and willow baskets are also 
classed under this head. 

There are many varieties of coiled baskets. Some of 
the familiar stitches used in them are the "lazy squaw," 
"the pine-apple," the "Mariposa" or "knot stitch," and the 
"Navajo" or "figure eight" stitch. The "Navajo" is an 
excellent stitch, as it produces a basket practically water- 
tight and as firm as a rock. It is not confined to the tribe 
of Navajos, but is used with slight variations by the 
Apaches, Washoes of Nevada, Tulares, and others. 

The basket marked 1 in Illustration No. 1 is an ex- 
cellent example of this stitch. One of the most famous 
basket makers in the world is an old Indian woman of the 
Washoe tribe named Dat-So-La-Le. Her work commands 
fabulous prices. The basket in 111. No. 2 contains 50,000 
stitches, about thirty to the inch, although it is only seven 
and one-half inches high and ten across. It sold for $1,500. 
Her baskets are wonderfully beautiful in form, they also 
excel in strength, and smoothness of execution. She uses 
very simple designs, and very few- colors, depending on per- 
fection of craftsmanship rather than on elaborate orna- 
mentation. All Indian workers use such materials as are 
native to the regions where they live, simple grasses and 
barks and sometimes twigs. Usually these are of the colors 
of the desert from which they were gathered, dull browns and 
blues, and the creamy yellow of the willow twigs from the 
springs, the reddish brown of red-bud bark, and glossy 
black of maiden-hair fern. Such as must be dyed are pre- 

pared with vegetable dyes, which only deepen with age, 
but these, too, are of the same scheme of brown, worked 
into a ground work of cream color. 

In the East there are a few native materials in the 
shape of meadow grasses, corn-husks and rushes, but unless 
prepared at just the right time, they are not satisfactory. 

Raffia is perhaps the best material for the outer cover- 
ing in coiled baskets, but it should be confined more or 
less to the color scheme of the Indians, the natural color 
for a basis, with touches of tan, brownish red, golden brown 
and a little black. Olive in a dull tone can also be used. 
Natural raffia can be obtained from a florist at about 
twenty cents a pound. It should be washed with soap, 
well rinsed, and hung in the sunshine to dry. Excellent 
colored raffia may be procured from Old Deerfield, Mass., 
prepared with vegetable dyes. A cheaper grade, and fairly 
reliable, can be bought from Milton Bradley Co., Kinder- 
garten supply dealers, who also handle reeds, or as it is some- 
times called, rattan. 

No. 2 reed is a good average size. A basket made in 
this number in Navaho stitch should be practically water- 
tight. A very simple design is given of a Tulare bowl- 
basket in illustration 5. The reed used must be soaked for 
ten minutes in warm water, then sharpened to a point as 
in Fig. 1, Illus. No. 3. 

Thread a needle with the large end of a strand of raffia 
to prevent fraying. Fig. 2, Illus. No. 3, shows just how the 
raffia is wound round the end of the reed for about an inch. 
This end of the reed is coiled with the fingers into a small 
spiral as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. 

The centre is sewed over and over, the end of the reed 
always extending to the left. The real figure eight stitch 
begins at the third row. This stitch is so named because it 
crosses between two reeds, forming a loop over each, in a 
perfect figure eight. 

The part of the basket sewn is called the coil. It is not 
always made of reed. Some workers prefer a flexible coil 
of raffia, corn-husks, or even cord. However, when a'new 
thread is started the ends should be secured by sewing them 
into the coil. The last row of the coil is called the lower 
reed and the reed which is being sewed in, the upper reed. 

In the figure eight stitch, the thread comes out toward 

No. 2 — This basket is 01 
contains 50,000 stitches, 29 c 

; of the be; 
■ 30 to the 

made by Dat-So-La-Le. It is 71" high, i 



No. 3 — Navaho or "Figure eight" stitch. — 1. Reed sharpened to make coil. — 
2. Winding reed with raffia to make a tight centre.— 3. Centre.— 4. Method of mak 
ing stitch, thread in front of lower reed and around back of it, out between upper and 
lower, in front of and around upper, out between the reeds. 

No. 4 — Bottom of sewed basket. Method of marking off design with thread. 

■£/3ci/r<?rz<: - 

Ti *■>- "fee. Ml X if c 

y/rLre. ~/Boh'/ 75Vs 

No. 8 — Suggestions for designs. 



the workers between the two reeds and is earried down in 
front of, under, and behind the lower reed, eoming out 
again between the two, which completes the first half of 
the figure eight. It then goes in front of, over, and behind the 
upper reed, and comes out again between the two reeds. 

The thread must be pulled taut, or the surface will be 

To make the Tulare bowl-basket shown in Illus. 4 and 
5, make a bottom four inches across. Then fill a needle 
with coarse black cotton and sew two lines of stitches 
across through the centre, at right angles to each other, as 
shown in the illustration, leaving the needle with natural 
raffia attached to the basket. Take a thread of dark 
raffia and sew from the end of one of these guide lines, carry- 
ing the light raffia in the coil, to within an inch of the next 
guide line. Then sew this one inch with the light, carrying 
the dark in the coil, then again with dark to within one 
inch of the next guide line. Finish this now to correspond. 
Start the turn-up of the basket by pulling on the reed. It 
must turn gradually like a bowl, so do not pull too hard, 
and hold the reed in position in working the following rows. 

To start the oblong figures work over each light space 
with dark, and fill in between with light. Make five rows 
like this, the fifth row will be covered, as each row is gone 
over twice. To start the next figure carry the black one 
inch to the left of the last figure and go around in this way, 
one inch to the left up each figure. Make five rows like 

Make the other oblongs in the same way. Four rows 
from the top begin to pull the reed to make the upper edge 
curve in. 

Sometimes Indians sew in the new threads but leave 
the ends on the inside to be cut off afterwards, as in Illus. 
No. 9. This basket could be-worked in black, yellow and 
natural raffia. 

The Porno twined baskets are famous for their light- 
ness and flexibility. They are made with spokes of the 
wild grape vine and very close-woven as they are often 
conical, they are easily carried in a net and form a kind of 
portable granary. The principle of weaving is always the 
same, very few spokes are used at the centre, and to these 

are constantly added new ones as the basket grows in size. 

Very small reed, number one or what is called "double 
nought", would answer very well. Cut eight pieces fourteen 
inches long and about fifty pieces seven inches long. Take 
four of the long pieces and weave a strip of raffia near the 
centre as shown in Illus. No. 6, Fig. 1, weave another piece 
like this and put the two together as shown in same Illus. 
Fig. 2, so that the two ends of raffia come to the same cor- 
ner. Weave these two ends around and around, crossing 
them over each spoke as shown in Fig. 3. Whenever there 
is an open space stick a sharpened spoke through the last, as shown in Fig. 5. 

After about an inch of weaving, the bottom may be 
stiffened by putting an extra reed called a ti or tee on the 
outside, including it in the weaving as shown in Fig. 4. Go 
two or three times around \yith this band, as it makes a 
foothold into which to stick spokes. 

To turn up the basket put in another ti band of three 
or four rows. This style of weaving can be done to ad- 
vantage bottom-side up. The Indians do it, by fitting the 
basket on the bottom of a stone jar. 

It is better not to attempt a regular pattern or a large 
basket at first, rather make a small one and weave in bands 
of color. 

No.. 7 — Pomo basket in Ti or Tee we 

No. 9 — A coiled basket which could easily be copied in raffia, using natural < 
for the light part and brown for the dark. 


The National Society of Craftsmen will hold an ex- 
hibition in the studio of the Society and the galleries of the 
National Arts Club, 119 East 19th St., New York City, from 
November the 19th until December nth. It is expected 
that this exhibition of Arts and Crafts will be the most im- 
portant one ever held in New York. The vice-president of 
the Society has been in Europe during the Summer making 
careful search for modern examples of work there for the 
exhibition. A full and complete exhibit is expected from 
the craft workers in this country. It is promised that each 
craft will be carefully placed and as far as possible together. 

This exhibition will differ from those previously held 
in the fact that there will be examples of antique craft work 
representing as far as possible their development during 
different centuries till the present day. Many interesting 
examples have been promised. Lectures will be given by 
prominent craftsmen during the exhibition in the galleries 
of the Society. 

The Handicraft Guild of Minneapolis announce an im- 



portant exhibition in their new Handicraft Guild Building, 
926 Second Ave., South, Minneapolis, from November 25th 
until December 6th. The Handicraft Guild Building has 
been specially designed for them and in addition to the 
attractive salesrooms and well equipped shops, the build- 
ing contains a number of studios. These will be occupied 
permanently by craftsmen making an unusually- interesting 
centre of more than local importance in the city. 

The Craftsmen in the East would do well to take a 
leaf from the note book of their Western brothers. Why 
haven't they buildings specially designed for them, with well 
equipped shops and comfortable studios? 

The Society of Arts and Crafts, Detroit, Mich., are to 
have a comparative exhibition of jewelry enamels, and metal 
work, in their rooms, 1 Knowlson Building, 122 Farmer St., 
Detroit, from November 5th until November 25th. 

A member of the Society is in Europe collecting the 
work with the aid of Mr. Alex. Fisher, whose enamels will 
form a large part of the exhibition. 

The Hartford Arts and Crafts Club, Hartford, Conn., 
will open a permanent salesroom in the Ballerstein Building 
904 Main St., September 3d. Craftsmen are invited to sub- 
mit their work. 


S. M. G.— Raffia can be bought from S. O. Burnett, 288 Fulton St., 
Brooklyn. We shall try to publish other addresses later. 


F. L. P. — For background to border of Posteresque Placque, page 30, 
Fruit Book, use Gold on inner band with Black outlines. On the outer band 
use a Matt Brown or Bronze, a golden brown shade if possible, with Black 
outlines, also Bronze 21 which is an Olive Green is effective or a Matt 

A. R. — We certainly will give methods of doing figure painting in water 
color if we start the new department of Keramic Studio. For flesh painting 
use Yellow Ochre and Rose Madder for flesh tint, more Yellow for brunette, 
Cobalt Blue for tender shadows, for heavy shadows add to Blue, Indian Red 
for blonde, Burnt Sienna for brunette. For hair, use the same colors, adding 
New Blue and Brown Madder, for darker hair, you will have to select and mix 
the proper colors for the desired shade. 

Mrs. S. B. P. — To make colored enamels, as a rule use from one-fifth to 
one-eighth color according to depth of color desired, the flux, about one- 
eighth, is added only for fiat enamels. Only the delicate or transparent 
colors should be padded, the heavier colors give a better effect when allowed 
to stay as they flow from the brush. The High Bush Cranberry design can be 
carried out in two shades of green and pink on a white ground or the colors 
can be changed to any desired color scheme, for instance, brown leaves and 
pink flowers on gold ground, black outlines. 

The Barberry design can be executed in the same colors as used for the 
Red Haw given in Keramic Studio, 

Mrs. C. L. O. — The cracking at base of German china jugs which were 
fired on platten was probably due to unequal expansion as usually such pieces 
are made heavier a} base than at top. Fire upside down or use large stilts 
underneath to give good circulation of air. 

M. C. A. — You will find studies of Golden Rod in Keramic Studio, 
August, 1904. Another study by Miss Stewart will be found in this number. 
Lemons and blossom border in December 1903 Keramic Studio could easily 
be adapted to a tray. We expect to publish a study of the Purple Bean after 
the January issue. You can use any grade of china in an overglaze kiln. We 
would advise trying one piece of the kind you wish to decorate, in the ordin- 
ary firing. We-have never heard of injury being done to other china by fir- 
ing the lower grades with them. Keep the spy-hole open until a good red 
heat and any moisture will be evaporated. However, if there is any doubt 
do not put valuable pieces in with your first firing of the experimental piece. 
Why not try the method of affixing jewels on a broken bit in some firing. 
Put on your fiat dot of- enamel with a setting of paste dots and fire. Then 

affix the jewels and fire the piece in an upright position to see if it will drop 
off. The method used on glass should be satisfactory for china also. A dot 
of the paste is made and the jewel pressed firmly into it, so that a little ring 
of paste comes up around it. The setting is then added and when thoroughly 
dry the paste is covered with the Roman gold and fired. For china, fire the 
setting first and gild it. Then put a dot of soft enamel and press the jewel 
into it and fire lightly at rose or glass heat. Haviland china is very hard for 
enamels, always add one-fifth to one-eighth flux. English china is best for 
enamels but is risky to fire. German china is fairly satisfactory. 


Chicago, 9832 Charles St., August 27, 1907- 
Editor of the Keramic Studio : 

I received your notice that my subscription had expired with the August 
number, and renewed it for one year through the McClurg Publishing Co.,- 
about July 28th. I have always sent it in myself, before, but as I had several 
renewals to make I gave them the order. I will stir them up as the other 
books have come and I can't raise the family properly without the Studio 
in the house. Very respectfully, 

Jean Mills Foster. 

370 E. 2d St., Corning, August 9, 1907. 
TIw Keramic Studio, Syracuse, N. Y ., 

Enclosed please find check for $4.00 for the "Studio" for one year, be- 
ginning, with the July number. 

I consider it invaluable to a person who paints china at all, but especially 
is it necessary to the average teacher. 

Yours very truly, 

Mrs. A. B. Holmes. 

Chicago, 111., July 29, 1907. 
Keramic Studio Publishing Co., Syracuse, N. Y ., 

We are "Delighted" with results from Ad. Last inquiry was from New 

The Artists' Supply Co. 

H. E. R. 

309 S. Spring St., Springfield, 111., August 29, 1907. 
Keramic Studio, Pub. Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Dear Sirs: Your communication of the 27th arrived this morning, also 
the September number of Keramic Studio. Yes, the August number you 
sent to replace the one I did not receive came safely to hand. You are quite 
welcome to use the postal card you refer to, in advertising. It is always a 
pleasure to further the interests of Keramic Studio. 

Very sincerely, 

Louise M. Jefferson. 

Eagle Pass, Texas, Sept. 16, 1907. 
Keramic Studio Publishing Co., Syracuse, N . Y . 

Enclosed find Post Office Money Order for $4.00 for the renewal of K.ER- 
amic Studio beginning with October number. I can't tell you how much 
good your magazine has done me. I am only an amateur living away out mi 
the border of Mexico, but I cannot thank the editors enough for the good the 
magazine has done me. 

Very sincerely, 

Mrs. C. L. Ostrom. 


Have recently been received that amounts in currency sent to us 
for subsriptions and books have been lost in the mails. 

The safest plan is 
either post office 
or express 

If check is used, add 10 cents for exchange. 

The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles mast not be reprinted without special permission 



Editorial t7 - 

Anemone and the following Studies and Designs by Adelaide Alsop-Robineau 174 

The Color Supplement ,7. 

Wistaria, Seed Pods and Flower Clusters j 75 

Suggestions for decorative treatment of Wistaria and Anemone 

motifs j 7 , 

Studies for Fans — Wistaria, Wild Carrot and Sunflower J77 

Robineau Porcelains 178-180 

Study of Purple Clematis <gj 

Studies in Phlox J09 

Decorative Panel for Sconce in Phlox J33 

Wild Phlox and Wistaria ioa 

Answers to Correspondents jg4 

Freezia Design for Bowl jgg 

The Freezia as a decorative motif 186-187 

Foam Flower in decoration 188-190 

Studies of Daisies j9j 

Study of Moths arranged for decoration j9j 

All-over designs <92 

Utilization of designs for various crafts j 92 

The Crafts — 

Finger Rings Emily F. Peacock 194-195 

Answers to Inquiries J 94 

Art in Pewter (continued) Jules Brateau 194-197 

Metal Work by students of Pratt Institute 198 

League Notes 197 

Exhibition Notes 198 

Look Out for Swindlers 


Just a word to caution our friends against giving their subscriptions to strangers. 
We have no agents ; but complaints have recently come to us that swindlers are out 
taking subscriptions for our magazine and pocketing the proceeds. Be sure you know 
the party to whom you give your money. The best plan is to go to your regular 
dealer or send the subscription to us. 

108 Pearl' St., 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

Kjiow to whom you pay money ! 

Vol. IX, No. 8. SYRACUSE, N. Y. December, 1907 


A^XTENDS best wishes for a Merry Xmas 
^4 to its many friends and offers as a Christmas 
gift drawings and suggestions by the Editor in 
the hope and belief that they may be of benefit 
to those who do not understand quite how to 
utilize their summer sketches and studies. 
•lit has been the Editor's endeavor to present 
such subjects as are not too hackneyed and to 
present them in such a way that they may be 
especially helpful to those who have not yet 
mastered the principles of design and decora- 
tion, while furnishing suggestive material for 
the use of the more advanced workers. 
•Jit has also been the endeavor to follow in some 
degree the line of study indicated in the series of 
articles on design by Mr, Hugo Froehlich in 
Keramic Studios 1903 to 1904 in order that 
those who followed that course with the Mag- 
azine may have their memory jogged with 
fresh examples. 




THE white and pink Fall anemones are among the most 
beautiful and decorative of the latest blossoms of the 
year. The only noticeable difference between the white 
and pink varieties is the color and the larger size of the 
white flower. Perhaps the white anemone japonica is the 
more beautiful, but the pink is more rare and is of a soft 
and sympathetic tone which makes a delicious combination 
with the whitish green of bronze. 

First, the drawing was made in pencil directly from 
the growing flower, then the lines were traced in India ink 
to preserve the study. The next step was to rearrange the 
drawing so that it would compose well in a rectangular 
frame. Whether one wishes to make a naturalistic arrange- 
ment or a purely decorative one, this will be the order of 
work giving thought to the "spotting." The balancing of 
larger areas by smaller ones both in the design and the 
background, seeking an harmonious flow of line, an agree- 
able and unusual arrangement of the motif, noting that the 
shapes of background spaces should be as interesting as the 
study itself. 

The crowning problem is that of color ; to suggest suf- 
ficient contrast of color without making spots which catch 
the eye and prevent seeing the study in its entirety, to keep 
every part in harmony and to give due importance to 
principal and subordinate motifs by a judicious toning of 
the color, and balancing of light and dark. 

PINK ANEMONE (Color Supplement) 

r I A HE color study is of the pink anemone. The arrange- 
■*■ ment is suggestive of stained glass although the 
study is not sufficiently simplified for such a purpose, being 
a sort of "compromise" between the naturalistic and the 
purely decorative. It would be difficult to translate the 
color effect exactly into the mineral palette. To apply the 
study, first tone the piece to be decorated with a deep buff 
tint, using Yellow Brown and firing. Then paint the flowers 
with Pompadour and Albert Yellow, the leaves with Moss, 
Brown Green, and Dark Green 7. Outline with Pompadour 
and Banding Blue, about one-eighth of the Blue. If the 
colors are sufficiently strong after this fire, dust with Pearl 
Grey. If a deeper yellow undertone is desired tint with 
the Yellow Brown for the third fire and dry dust with the 
Pearl Grey. For a darker tone in background, tint with 
Pompadour for last fire and dry dust with Blue Green. 
*• -f 

Having arranged the study to our satisfaction, the next 
thought is the conventionalization of the motif (page 1 76) and 
suggestions for application to ceramic forms considering 
whether the flower is best adapted to a border arrangement 
or to a vertical decorative scheme. 

The very act of conventionalizing a form will often 
suggest a pleasing arrangement. In this case, the pre- 
arranged idea was to make a border for the editorial page 
which could also be adapted to other purposes. In the 
suggestions at the top of page 176 will be found some adapta- 
tions of this border to both tall and low forms. The piece 
to be decorated will often decide certain necessary changes 
in the arrangement. Work until the mind will furnish no 
further suggestion on the simple conventionalization of the 
motif itself, then exhaust your ideas as to the arrangement 
of the motifs in borders and vertical decorations. Then 
try the adaptation of these decorations to various ceramic 
forms which will suggest other changes in the designs. 
This practise with every flower or other motif will be of the 
greatest benefit in making these borders and designs, do not 
forget to apply all of the principles which underlie the ar- 
rangement of the study itself: spacing, harmony of line, 
dark and light, color, etc. Also keep in mind that simplic- 
ity is the greatest art and requires the most thought and 
work. Go over every design with the intention of eliminat- 
ing every unnecessary feature; every detail which can pos- 
sibly be spared should be omitted, and do not forget that 
there should not be too many different forms in one design , 
nor should the lines run in too many directions. The 
result in such a case is distracting. 

Color suggestions for designs — Milk pitcher, Dark Blue 
on Pearl Grey, white outlines and panels; water pitcher, 
Ivory tint, two shades of Grey Green; first salad bowl, Ivory 
tint and outlines, Yellow Brown lustre bands, design in 
gold with Brown outlines; first cup and saucer, gold and 
white; second salad bowl, Ivory tint, Apple Green tinted 
border, flowers white with Apple Green leaves and stems, 
centers Albert Yellow, outlines in Apple and Moss Green; 
second cup and saucer, gold border, flowers, white, leaves 
Yellow Green, Black outlines; vase, tint of Neutral Yellow, 
flowers, Yellow Brown, leaves of Olive green on darker 
Olive ground, Deep Olive top and outlines; third salad bowl 
tint first with Ivory, when all is finished, with Pearl Grey 
over all, division lines of gold and gold lines on white inside 
flower panels in darker shades of Ivory and Olive Browns. 
























THE editor presents two page illustrations of her own 
latest porcelains that she may be justified in claim- 
ing place with keramic workers. 

The first page is of pieces thrown and carved, and ready 
to be "biscuited" before glazing. The little covered tea cup, 
Japanese style, is of egg shell porcelain, of which delicate 
material only a few pieces have yet been attempted, this 
work still being in the experimental stage. It is carved 
with a little border of plum blossoms, the background being 
cut back so. thin that even before firing the light shines 
through the clay. The large jar with the moose decoration 
is unusually large for a porcelain thrown on the wheel in one 
piece, being eleven inches high and ten inches diameter, yet 
the light shines through the cut back portions almost as 
much as in the tea cup. 

The rims at the bases of many of the pieces are ground 
off after glazing. They are necessary for safe placing in the 

To show the vicissitudes of firing at high temperatures, 
which explains somewhat the difference in technical and 
money value between porcelain decorated with colored glazes, 
and pottery, it must be explained that of the eighteen 
pieces illustrated only seven came out of the kiln perfect 
and four were spoiled beyond redemption. However this 
was a very unfortunate firing. Ordinarily from thirty to 
fifty per cent are injured but rarely more than ten per cent 
are spoiled utterly. 

The bowl with the viking ship decoration and large 
handles is a thrown piece eleven inches in diameter after 
firing, but, alas! at the moment of placing in the kiln a 
handle was broken, so that both handles had to be removed 
before firing. The tall gourd shaped vase was suggested by 
the summer squash and is a very difficult piece both to 

throw and burn. It is twelve and one-half inches tall, (four- 
teen and one-half inches with stand and stopper) and in fir- 
ing a vase of this slender shape, there is a great risk that 
the neck will be bent to one side; occasionally it will come 
out twisted in corkscrew shape. But this one was drawn 
from the kiln perfect. 

The wistaria vase supported by modelled snails is 
given on the second page enlarged as a suggestion for 
overglaze decoration. 

It is a curious fact that when the editor had misfortune 
with one design she continued to have misfortune with it, 
or if she had luck the luck repeated itself. The vase carved 
in relief with crabs and seaweed, and which has an open 
work ring of the same motif to prevent tipping, is the fourth 
of this design, and the first two were broken. The tall rose 
vase is the second of this design and both have been injured 
in firing. Naturally these vases with duplicated designs 
were not identical in size, form or color, but were as similar 
as one piece may be to another when made by hand. 

It seems natural for a potter to run to certain forms and 
curves, so that one has to keep oneself well in hand to pre- 
vent continual repetition. It is the editor's aim to con- 
stantly improve her shapes, and as much as possible to 
have variety both in form and decoration. But this can 
be done only at the cost of a greater percentage of loss in 
the kiln, and a great deal of time spent in experiments. In 
pottery, more perhaps than in any other craft, the more one 
strives for artistic and varied work, the quicker profits go 
to smoke in the kiln. 


f i> 

You don't know what persistent effort is! Think of the 
violin student in the Paris Conservatoire, who was more 
than a year trying to bend his thumb as he had not been 
taught to do in the provinces ! — W. D. Hunt. 












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THE wild phlox, as well as the cultivated varieties, is a 
flower well adapted for decoration although little 
used. The color, white or a pale lilac, is of little moment as 
in design one can take liberties with this attribute. Of the 
cultivated varieties, the coloring is infinite, the individual 
flowers are more beautiful, but the clusters are not so easily 
managed as in the wild flower, when they ordinarily take 
the general outline of a loose ball or hollow hemisphere. A 
good plan, in looking for general characteristics of a flower, is 
to make a pencil drawing, fill in the background with black 
and then erase all the pencil details. This gives a silhouette 
and perforce you are confined to the large forms and main 
distinguishing points. 

In order to avoid the scattering effect of the loose 
cluster, a good idea in arranging a design is to enclose the 
cluster in an outline making a compound motif as in the 
panel (page 182) which can be easily adapted to overglaze 
decoration. On this page will be found suggestions for ap- 

plication to ceramics together with some simple borders 

made from the single flower unit. These can be executed 

in flat color, gold, or enamels with or without outlines. 

*• & 


RANGING in color from white to purple through vari- 
ous shades of lavender and blue, the long drooping 
clusters of the wistaria have always been a favorite subject 
with Japanese artists. Western decorators have not seemed 
generally to appreciate the possibilities of the flower, though 
here and there one finds it in design. The wistaria lends 
itself most easily to conventionalization. The flower is well 
balanced as well as the cluster, while the leaves, which vary 
in color from green to tender pink, lie generally open and 
flat, the pinnate divisions being opposite and balanced. 
The ends of the leaves never curl, though occasionally, and 
especially in young leaves, one will find them folded to- 
gether, two and two, closed like the leaves of a book and 
hanging down. 

Some suggestions for adaptations to ceramic forms will 
be found on page 176. Many of the best effects, however, are 
made by a strict conventionalization into borders, etc. The 
fan, top of page 177, is also an arrangement of this motif. At 
the right end of the top group of vases on page 178 will be 
seen a more conventional arrangement of this motif carved 
in relief. This is shown before glazing. On page 179 will be 
found two views of the same vase after glazing. This ar- 
rangement could easily be adapted to overglaze decora- 
tion. To approximate the color scheme paint the leaves 
Grey Green, the flowers a light yellowish brown, using 
Yellow Ochre and letting the color vary from light to dark. 
Outline in darker shades of the same colors or gold. This 
design would be very effective in blue and white. 


We acknowledge receipt of the catalogue of the Mae 
Benson School of Applied Design, New York City. One of 
the features of the school is teaching by correspondence. 
The eighth annual exhibition of the pupils' work will be 
given at Mrs. Benson's studio, December 6th and 7th, days 
and evenings. 


A. S. — None of the prominent water color flower painters have written 
instructions as to their methods. De Longpre is one of the best known painters 
of flowers which are botanically correct. Katherine Klein is also well known 
and safe to copy. Write to our advertisers for safflower or to Mrs. McLennon 
Hinman who uses it. 

F. H. — Designs done in silver, gold or gold bronzes, as a rule look better 
outlined with black or red. The outline straightens up any ragged edges. 
When designs are made in metal * without outline, the edges must be very 
clean cut. Mrs. Safford's breakfast and lunch sets, illustrated in the last 
account of the exhibition of the N. S. K. A. were executed in silver without 
outlines on white and on celadon. 

V. — A vase such as you describe could be made by dusting about two- 
thirds of the vase with Matt Blue such as is sold by Miss M. Mason and other 
dealers in color; then dusting bronze powder from the top down letting 
bronze dust into color. The bronze may need to be put on for a second fire 
also. Draw design with a sharp wooden point. Clean out design and paint 
in golds of various tints or in flat gold using lustres over different portions for 
a second fire when the outlining would be put on in Black. Instead of bronze 
for the upper third of the background gold could be used and lustre put over 
for a second fire. Dark Green and Ruby lustres are especially fine over gold 
but other lustres may be used. 

There is an orange lustre sold by that name. For lining cups, use Mother- 
of Pearl lustre, Rose lustre over Yellow lustre or Yellow lustre alone. There 
is no lustre called "lining." 



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FOUR different manners of treating this delicate white 
wild flower are given on pages 188, 189 and 190: the 
outline drawing from nature and beside it, a strict conven- 
tionalization; a semi-conventional arrangement for a title 
page and a silhouette. It was the silhouette which sug- 
gested the strict conventionalization. The naturalistic 
drawing suggested the title page. The attempt has not 

been made in any of these studies or those of other flowers, 
to exhaust the possibilities in the line of conventional design 
or arrangement. 

A few only of the first thoughts have been given in 
each case as a stimulus to the imagination. The designer 
can go on from this beginning and improve on both the artist 
and nature. 








THESE four all-over patterns are given as food for 
thought. See how many suggestions for decoration 
you can draw from each. Utilize them for borders, for all- 
over patterns on the necks of vases, or the bodies, or take 
the Units and change to vertical ornaments. Send your 
results to Keramic Studio for criticism, if you wish; we will 
attend to them promptly. 

# ■? 

EVERYTHING is fish that comes to your net." Never 
let a design slip past you, whatever your line of work, 
without first extracting all the ideas you can. If you are not 
naturally original, you can by practice learn to adapt and 
that leads surely to more and more selection and finally 'orig- 

inal thought. Do not ask to have everything shown you. 
You learn better what you draw up for yourself out of the 
well of truth. 

According to your medium, the design must be changed 
to suit. For instance, the anemone border on the editorial 
page, by translating into color may be adapted to ceramic 
decoration; by carving back the outlines, or the design, 
leaving raised outlines, it may be adapted to wood work 
such as the ends of a book rack, panels for cabinet work, etc., 
by etching or repousse" it can be adapted to metal work as in 
a sconce. It can be adapted to needlework by embroider- 
ing the design and darning the background or by any other 
needle work method it may be arranged for scarf ends, cur- 
tains, and so on, through all the crafts. So every motif, 
arrangement, and design should have some suggestion for 


Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 232 East 27th Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions mast be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries'" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

Egyptian porcelain ring. 

111. No. 1 — Several of these illustrations i 

Egyptian gold signet ring. 
1 from Jones' Finger Ring Lore, ; 

rid others from Davenport's Book on Jewelry. 


THE custom of wearing rings on the fingers is a very old 
one, and has been followed by the people of most 
countries. They are more particularly the outcome of 
civilization than necklaces, bracelets, or earrings, probably 
because primitive man was essentially a workman and a 
tiller of the soil. And while savage tribes covered them- 
selves with jewelry of either colored stones or metal rudely 
worked, their only rings were of bone, plaited grass, or tor- 
toise shell. 

For so many reasons finger rings are the most interest- 
ing of all jewels. They may be divided into two classes, 
official and personal; the official including ecclesiastical, 
civil, and military; the personal, marriage, betrothal, 
symbolic and heraldic, besides a number with miscellaneous 
meanings, such as the mourning, poison, portrait, key, 
charm and the old fashioned poesie ring. 

It was to fulfill a need that rings were invented. The 
Babylonians and Egyptians used seals which for convenience 
sake were attached to a ring of gold and worn on the finger. 
Illus. No. 1. The less wealthy had rings of ivory and blue 
porcelain, they also had simple bands of silver set with 
scarabs on a pivot. The scarab ring was valuable then as an 
amulet and signified long life; it was also the emblem of the 
sun and of immortality. Later precious stones were used, 
so by degrees the rings passed from an article of use into the 
category of ornament and their use was extended to women. 
People were no longer satisfied with one but wore several, 
and sometimes a single ring was constructed to appear like 
a group of two or three upon the finger, as in Illus. No. 2. 

Key rings were used by Roman housewives when a wax 
seal was not sufficient security. 

century, A. D. 

111. No. 2. 
ring of gold about, 1st 
century A. D. 

Papal rings were very large, the shoulders and sides 
were often ornamented with emblems and designs in relief, 
Illus. No. 3. 

Jewish betrothal and marriage rings of the XVI century 
were remarkable for their size and elaborate decoration. 
They represented often the model of a Jewish temple and 
were engraved inside with Hebrew inscription. Illus. Nos. 
4 and 5. 

Decade rings were made of gold, silver and bronze, they 
had ten projections on the outer side and were worn by the 
monks in the XIV century for repeating Aves, and probably 
as a penance, as they must have been most uncomfortable. 

Interesting for decorative beauty were the later Italian 
rings made in Venice, usually in the realistic form of bas- 
kets or bouquets of flowers wrought in gold, precious stones, 
and pearls, though the Venetian" rings illustrated are more 
simple in style. 

Anglo-Saxon rings. Illus. No. 5. 

The Allistan ring which was found in Carnarvonshire, 
is a very important specimen of Anglo-Saxon jewelry. It 
is of gold with the inscription Allistan and devices, inlaid in 
black alloy or niello. There is every reason to believe that 
the ring belonged to a Bishop of Sherborne of this name, 
who lived in the IX century. History speaks of him as a 
man as much at home on the battlefield as in the church 
and this ring was probably lost when he was on an expedi- 
tion with King Egbert in North Wales. The Darnley ring 
is a gold signet and a record of the marriage of Mary Queen 
of Scots with her cousin Tord Darnley. On the ring are 
the initials M. and H. entwined with lovers knots and in- 
side is engraved the name Henry L. Darnley, the lion of 
Scotland and the date 1563. 


Ancient Egyptia 

111. No. 3. 

Papal jewelry ring of gold, 15th 

' century. 

111. No. 4 
n Jewish gold and enamelled 
ring, 16th century .J 



Charm Rings. 

Jewish wedding ring. Egyptian 


Decade Signet-ring. 
111. No. 5. 

During the XVI century in Europe poison rings were 
used, the poison was in or under the setting. Illus. No. 5. 

Mourning rings were worn in the XVII century, espe- 
cially in England. A number of the earlier ones have small 
skulls enamelled on them and many are set with black 
enamel and diamonds. 

Poesie rings were so called because of the poetical words 
inscribed on them, these however conveying more sentiment 
than art, as the following rhymes show : 

In thee my choice I do rejoice. 
True is the love that I O U. 

From studying the history of rings we find they have 
taken an important part in the every day life of many people. 
In these days, excepting for weddings and betrothal rings 
they have lost much of their meaning and are worn mostly 
for. adornment. 

Modern rings and some problems in making them will 
be given in a later article. 


The Allistan Ring. 

The Darnley.Riiig. 


R. D. — You can get tools for metal work from W. Dixon, 39 John St. 
The book on silver work and jewelry by H. Wilson published by D. Appleton, 
New York, might help you. 

M. E. S. — The Davis Press, Worcester, Mass., have lately published, a 
book on copper work by A. F. Rose. 

A. O. — You can get leather for all kinds of work from M. B. Willcox, 21 
Spruce St., New York. 

L. W. — The leather must be kept quite damp while the modeling is being 
done. Wet the underside with a sponge carefully, using very little water, so 
that it will not soak through to the other side. 



/. Brateau 

Moulds Adapted to the Casting of Pewter 

These moulds can be made of various materials, and of 
different degrees of resistance; thus allowing greater or less 
delicacy and finish in the objects produced. 

Of these materials we shall first consider copper, and 
explain its technical treatment in detail; since we place it in 
the highest rank, as a metal giving the best results in solidity 
as also in the perfect accuracy with which it renders all 
details of engraving and chasing. 

For such moulds iron, steel, lithographic stone, or similar 
substances, such as slate, or dried clay, and even wood, may 
be employed. But it is evident that a wooden mould can 
produce only a rude object, which is in no wise comparable 
with the results to be obtained from the use of a copper 

If the object be a tray, or a plate (these articles being 
the easiest ones to execute from a practical point of view, 
since the moulds do not require complicated construction), 
the craftsman having made his preliminary sketch, must cut 
or model a general form, either in wood, or plaster; the latter 
material being preferable. Upon the edge of the plaster 
he leaves a margin of a few centimeters lower than the height 
of the relief to be given to the object. (Fig. i A) 

Fig. 1. — Tray turned in plaster. A, margin; B, cut. 

Next, having coated with shellac the plaster form, 
he models the decoration upon it; using for this pur- 
pose wax, plastiline, or other sufficiently adhesive mate- 
rial. Proceeding thus, and arrived at a somewhat advanced 
point of his work, he must examine carefully all parts 
of his piece, down to the points in the slightest relief, 
in order to provide that the mould may "draw"; the term 
just used and the principle involved being easily under- 
stood, if we assume the piece to be a sphere, any point of 
relief upon whose surface must not exceed its greatest con- 
vexity. (Fig. 2.) 

Upon the same principle a small figure, a flower, or a 
conventional ornament must not be sunken below the level 
of the general outline, as with this undercutting, it would 
be impossible to make a cast without spoiling the modeling 
of the piece. 

Various Plaster Moulds. 

After having applied with a brush a thin coating of oil 
to the modeling, so that the plaster about to be poured on 
may not adhere, the workman makes a first cast. He thus 
obtains a mould which he examines with extreme care, to 



No. 52. Two slate molds, die cut. XIV.-XV. centuries. Cluny Museum, Paris. 

discover any accidents ; such as air bubbles which may have 
formed during the flow of the plaster, or fractures made 
when the plaster was loosened. 

To prepare the plaster, the operator puts into a vessel 
whose inside surface is perfectly smooth, the quantity of 
water which he judges necessary. To whatever the quan- 
tity of water, he adds three-fourths the same amount of 

plaster ; : proceeding slowly until it nearly reaches the level 
of the water. He allows it to stand a few minutes, then he 
stirs it with the spatula (Fig. 3) without beating, until the 
mixture begins to thicken; next, with the spatula or soft 
brush, he spreads the plaster, while still liquid, thoroughly 
over the modeling; finally pouring the remainder over 
the piece. This process should be finished in one casting 
if possible. 

If, accidentally, certain details of the modeling do not 
"draw," an iron tool will remove the plaster which tore 
away the wax, and, by this means, the removal of the cast 
in relief about to be taken from this plaster mould, will be 
made much easier. 

Second Casting. 

The workman now coats his mould regularly and plenti- 
fully with a mixture of common soap melted in water, hav- 
ing the consistency of a thin sauce; after the plaster has 
absorbed the soap, he brushes it lightly with oil, so as to 
form a glaze which will render the plaster to be moulded 

Now again he carefully prepares fresh plaster, neither 
too thick nor too thin, and pours it into the mould, provid- 
ing against air-bubbles and lumps, and covering with ex- 
treme care every detail of the modeling; to this end, remov- 
ing, if necessary, and repacking the plaster. The mould 
being filled, the workman waits until the plaster has thick- 
ened. When it feels hard beneath his finger-nail he care- 
fully loosens it from the mould. 

If the proof be successful, he repairs this cast in relief, 

taking care to weaken the low details, which are very liable 
to be exaggerated when worked out because they differ in 
tone from the plaster background, and, when chased, are 
always accentuated. 

This series of special operations ended, the plaster cast 
in relief must be subject to a new experiment; care being 
taken to preserve intact the margin around the contour, to 
which reference has already been made. 

The workman now places upon this margin an addition 
technically termed neck (Fig. 4, 5, 6, A), in order that he 
may begin to construct the mould which he wishes to per- 

Whether this neck be added in plaster, or in wax, it 
is imperative that it be made before a hollow cast is taken 
from the cast in relief above described. 

Third Casting. 

The cast in relief must be rubbed with soap ; care being 
taken not to dull the modeling by the use of a hard brush ; 
next, it should be lightly oiled; then, the margin and the 
neck must be surrounded by a thin and very even band 
of wax, or plastiline, which will serve as a wall for the liquid 

The height of this band, which should not vary a hair's 
breadth, must be from one to two centimeters above the 
margin, according to the thickness to be given to the cop- 
per mould, and the degree of resistance required. 

Care must be taken to make the plaster adhere to the 
margin and the neck, so that the plaster does not injure 
the casting by flooding, and that it remains within the 
limits prepared for it. 

The plaster must again be prepared, stirred very lightly 
with the spatula, and poured on quite gradually, so that it 
enters every small detail of the modeling, and does not 
give rise to air-bubbles. To effect this purpose a brush 
could be used in case of necessity. 

In order to give the cast its proper thickness, when the 
plaster begins to "set", the workman follows the general 
outlines of the piece. With a wide spatula and a light 
touch, he spreads the liquid over the less covered parts, so 
as to obtain a well distributed and even layer. 

When the plaster is set, (this is evident by its tempera- 



ture, which, after having risen to the point of warming the 
hand, has again fallen), the mould is removed; the band of 
plastiline having been first taken away. 

To remove the mould, the workman uses a tool suffi- 
ciently sharp to penetrate the point of contact of the two 
plaster bodies; he presses lightly at various points, being 
careful to fracture nothing, and, as a result of skillful hand- 
ling, he obtains a superb hollow cast, perfect in every detail. 
But however complete it appears, it must again be treated, 
in order that it may fully meet all requirements. 

The outlines of the hollow mould must be cut by a knife 
or rasp, in order to regulate the thickness according to the 
dimensions. For example, if the mould have a diameter of 
from thirty to thirty-five centimeters, it should be given a 
thickness approximating one centimeter. 

An even thickness having been assured, if the mould 
requires greater solidity, it can be strengthened by cast- 
ing plaster braces one centimeter in height by a half centi- 
meter in width. (Fig. 4, B. B.). One of these braces must 
run from the neck through the center; the second 
crosses the first at right angles; while, at the point of junc- 
tion of the two lines, which corresponds to the center of the 
tray, a stem of plaster is fastened (Fig. 4-6, C), as a nec- 
essary device for the future handling of the mould. For a 
mould thirty or thirty-five centimeters in diameter, this 
stem, or handle, should be ten centimeters long, three centi- 
meters thick at the point of contact with the braces, and 
two at the upper end. 

Fig. 4.— Closed mould. A, neck: 
B. braces; C stem; D, feet. 

Fig. 5. — Inside of mould, graved side. 
E, opening of neck; F, cut for bolt. 

Fig. 6.— Half opened mould. G\ bolt; H, 

terpart of mould. 

On the back of the mould, and at the base, two small 
feet are indispensable. These must be fixed six centimeters 
apart. Set in position, they form inverted cones which 
support the mould, and prevent it from slipping when in use. 
(Fig. 4,5, 6, DD). 

This important work being finished, it is necessary to 

obtain the counter part of the hollow mould. To do this it 
would suffice to scrape the modeling from the plaster cast; 
a process which would give a complete and perfect reverse. 
But the workman refrains from such action; reserving the 
cast carefully, since, in case of accident, he might make from 
it another hollow mould. 

Fourth Casting. 

The operator, with less care than before, casts a plaster 
proof in his first hollow mould, which has been thor- 
oughly soaped. From this proof he detaches the modeling, 
so that the space between the two moulds is wide enough to 
allow the pewter to flow in. The background will be cared 
for later by the turner, who, when the copper proof is made, 
will provide space for the metal. To this reverse, or counter 
part, the same accessories, braces, stem, and feet, must be 

Enlightened by the foregoing explanation, we shall 
now readily understand the making of a piece-mould serv- 
ing for an object of cylindrical form. It is useless to repeat 
what has been said regarding the designing and the model- 
ing of a tray. But the reader should refer to it, and remem- 
ber that he must support his modeling upon a resisting sur- 
face. He must employ the same processes for the cylin- 
drical piece as for the tray, and have his required forms 
built, or turned, in plaster. 

No. 54. — Workshop of a pewter turner, turning goblets. From the tic 
by Salmon, 1788. 

All profiles are not permissible, as all exterior lines lead- 
ing from the top of the object must be at least vertical, or 
inclined outward, rather than inward, so as to allow a proof 
to be obtained in a single piece. For, if the edges inclined 
inward, the orifice at the top would be narrower than at the 
base, and the core could not be loosened from the mould. 

For example, let us take a goblet of modern design, 
recalling the work of the eighteenth century. The goblet 
to be decorated must be divided from top to bottom into 
three or four geometrical sections; care being taken to in- 
troduce into the composition decorative motifs, architec- 
tural lines, or smooth, plain sections which may be well and 
easily joined together in the pewter proof. 

We decide to divide the goblet into three sections, and 
after having modeled the decoration, in order to cast it in 



No. 55. — Pewter goblet, shape XVIII. century, illustrating technical instruction 
in text. Composition and execution by J. Brateau. 

plaster, we mark off one section with a band of plastiline 
softer than the wax used for the modeling. 

The band of plastiline must follow exactly the dividing 
line, and adhere closely so as to prevent the plaster from 
flowing upon the neighboring section. 

When the plaster is set and separated from the model, 
the line of division must be leveled from top to bottom with 
a knife. This makes the thickness of the mould. Upon the 
side of the cast and in the thickness, bench-marks should be 
hollowed out, so that the following section may fit precisely 
(Fig. 7 A.) 

Fig. 7.— A, bench 

The sides thus joined must be thoroughly soaped and 
oiled. The first section is placed anew upon the model, 
and attached firmly enough, to prevent the casting of the 
following section from moving it; for plaster in "setting", 
has a tendency to expand and thrust outward. 

A wall of plastiline is placed on the side opposite the 
marked plaster section, and this second part is cast in the 
same way as the first; the third also, except that the plas- 
tiline partition is omitted, since the last section is enclosed 
by the walls of the other two. 

The three sections being fastened neither at the top nor 
the bottom of the vase, are tied with a cord drawn so as to 
form the whole into a solid block upon the plaster model. 
The exterior of the modeling is then rounded with a com- 
pass ; a margin of scarcely a centimeter being left at the base 
and the top, and the surplus cut away. To the thickness of 
the edges which are marked off by compass, is given a slight 
outward inclination of about one centimeter. (Fig. 8 B). 

Fig. 8.— A, pla 

, slope. Fig. 9. — C, shape; D, cap; E ste. 

These parts must be soaped, as well as the plane surface 
(Fig. 8 A A) which forms the top and the bottom of the 
model of the goblet. A band of wax, or plastiline, is at- 
tached to the bottom of the inclined edges, in order to con- 
fine the plaster which is alternately run from the top and 
the bottom of the goblet, so as to form the bands, or caps, 
which will hold together the three pieces of the model. 
(To be continued) 


IF members sending money to the League will kindly 
send it to the Treasurer of the League, Miss Minnie 
C. Childs, 4742 Evans Ave., Chicago, it will simplify matters 
and assist the officers in their work. 

The League welcomes the return of two of the older 
Clubs this month, The Springfield, Mass. Keramic Club, Miss 
Effie G. Shaw, President, whom we gladly place on our 
council list, and also the Denver Mineral Art Club, Miss Ida 
Miller Warren, President. Our ex- Vice-President, Miss 
Ida C. Failing, has long been a member of this Club and has 
worked always in a thoroughly unselfish way for the good 
of her own Club as well as that of the League and we now 
number its best working members as co-workers in the 
League. This Club is progressive and on account of its 
methods of creating interest in its work would be helpful to 
other clubs. The President has held office for a long time, 
and has maintained a spirit of harmony among them that is 

Several encouraging letters have been received from 
the following members of the Council: Miss Ella A. Fair- 
banks, President of Boston Mineral Art League; Miss Percis 
Martini, President of Augusta China Club; Mrs. Sara Stevens, 
President of Portland China Decorators Club. These letters 
are not only encouraging but promise financial support to 
the League and although not taking an active part in the 
work at present they entertain the League exhibit and keep 
their members interested in the League. It is a pleasant 
thing to feel there is such a genuine feeling of helpfulness 
among the china decorators, here are three loyal clubs whose 
financial support makes it possible for the League to do so 
much for its smaller clubs and individual members, and 
while welcoming the newer members we remember it is 
these stanch friends of the League among others that we 
depend on so largely to help us raise the standard of the 
work in United States. 

A charming letter this month from Mrs. J. Brown, the 
Secretary of Oregon Keramic Club, Portland, Oregon, con- 
tains names for League membership and a desire to enter- 



Miss Mumford 

Mr. Cheney Miss Neble Mr. Gardiner 

tain the exhibit. We hope it will be possible to send it to 
the far West but the cost of the transportation is great and 
unless enough Clubs respond to warrant the expense some 
must be disappointed. 

I — • All who sent in designs for Problems one and two on 
time had them corrected and returned the first of November. 
Those who sent later will have theirs corrected with Prob- 
lem three due November 15th and cannot expect them be- 
fore the last of December. Promptness in sending in 
designs helps the League and also the student as they have 
the benefit of the criticisms to help with the next Problem 
Address all communications in regard to the study course 
to the President of the League. 

Mary A. Farrington, 
41 12 Perry Ave., Chicago. 


THE illustrations on this page are of jewelry and metal 
work done by the students at Pratt Institute, Brook- 
lyn. The work done by this class is always interesting and 
of excellent workmanship. The workshop and equipment 
have lately been enlarged and students will find great pos- 
sibilities afforded by these surroundings. 

/• *• 


THE [National* Art and^Craft Institute, 11 70 19th St., 
N. W., Washington, D. C, began the first term of 
the school year, October 1st, when the instructors in the 
different departments gave an exhibition of their work. 
The object of the school is to train men and women in the 
useful arts and to afford these students an opportunity to 
turn their knowledge into practical results. The Teachers' 
and Craftsmen's agency is connected with the school. 

There will be an exhibition of the students' work at 
the close of each school term, and all possible encourage- 
ment will be given to earnest students. 

The Society of Arts and Crafts, 9 Park St, Boston, will 
have a special exhibition of silver work, from November 
nth to the 23rd, and of jewelry and small enamels from 
December 2d to December 14th. 

Miss Knapp 

Miss Sherwood 
Mrs. Pilcher _ : 

Miss Pilcher 
Miss Soule 
Mr. Jeffery 
Miss Soule | 
Mr.' Jeffery 

Mr. Bieberbackei 

The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted without special permission 


A New Year Greeting 

Rosebud Border 

M. Fry's Exhibition at Southampton 

League Notes 


Underglaze Painting — Continued 

Study of Japanese Orange 

Tea Pattern for Underglaze 


Lady's Slipper 

Cosmos (Supplement) 

Lady's Slipper (Treatment by H. B. Paist) 

Facts from "Wild Rose 

Violet Bowl 

Design for the decoration of China 

Tiles in Monochrome 

Apple Stein — Landscape Stein 


Terrapin Set 

Plate and Bowl 

Answers to Correspondents 


Cider Pitcher 

The Crafts: 

Decorative Possibilities of Metal Work 
Answers to Inquiries 

Maud E. Hulbert 
Caroline Hofman 
Mary A. Farrington 
Albert Pons 
F. Alfred Rhead 
Edith Alma Ross 
F. A. Rhead 
Maud E. Hulbert 
Maud E. Hulbert 
I. M. Ferris 
Helen Pattee 
Mrs. C. H. Shattuck 
Mrs. C. H. Shattuck 
Caroline Hofman 
Ruth E. Kentner 
Katherine W. Lindsey 
Georgia Parr Babbitt 
S. E. Price 
C. Babcock 

Mary Burnett 
Ophelia Foley 

F. C. Featherstone 







Look Out for Swindlers 




Just a word to caution our friends against giving their subscriptions to strangers. 
We have no agents ; but complaints frequently come to us that swindlers are out 
taking subscriptions for our magazine and pocketing the proceeds. Be sure you know 
the party to whom you give your money. The best plan is to go to your regular 
dealer or send the subscription to us. 

108 Pearl' St., 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

Kjtow to whom you pay money ! 

Vol, IX. No. 9 


January, 1908 

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THE exhibition of the National Society of Craftsmen in 
collaboration with the National Arts Club, closed 
December nth, too late for this issue, but a full account 
will be given with illustrations in the February number. 

The lettering on the Editorial page and the Rose border 
on this are by Maud E. Hulbert. 

hampton, Long Island, of 
ry's summer classes was of 
1 craftsmen. 

.er, designer, and teacher, 
naturally leads us to look for the most advanced methods; 
and this expectation has been more than fulfilled by the 
summer's work at "Wayside." 

The course of study included out-of-door work in oils 
and in charcoal — for composition and the handling of these 
two mediums, — and an interesting course of design specially 
adapted to ceramics. 

To illustrate the work of the entire term the big barn 
at "Wayside" had been turned into an attractive exhibi- 
tion-gallery; and here, hung against walls covered with gray- 
toned canvas, were selections from each department of the 
summer's study. 

Beginning with interpretations of beautiful designs 
from the best periods, the exhibition led on to original work 
of the students which showed, in a marked degree, their 
appreciation of the fine qualities in the ornament they had 
been studying. 

One feature of the work met with special enthusiasm: 
a collection of designs for small porcelain panels done in 
soft brilliant colors. They were in absolutely flat tones, 
each designed as carefully as a bit of old mosaic; and in 
such splendid color-harmony that they fairly glowed in 
their narrow black frames. The students who came for 
the study of landscape exclusively had two walls of the 
improvised gallery allotted to groups of their work; and 
the oil studies and sketches, and the charcoals, showed a 
painter-like quality, a vigor of handling, and a sympathy 
with the summer's training, that would do credit to an ex- 
hibition of far greater pretentions. 

Mr. Fry's earnest study with such masters of landscape 

composition as Whistler, Dow, and Brangwyn, together 
with his unusual talent, has given him ability as a painter 
and instructor which the public is not slow to appreciate. 

In the house one room was entirely given to ceramic 
designs and the finished pieces; and here the members of 
the class who were ceramists, had done themselves and 
their instruction great credit, while the interesting and well 
planned design, and the beautiful colors, had all been 
resolutely held within the bounds of suitable decoration 
over the glaze. 

Plates, bowls, and other pieces of china, of quiet line 
and good proportion, showed a beauty of pattern and a 
charm of color which were a delight both to the visitors 
and to the students themselves. Caroline Hofman. 


The illustrations on pages 208 and 209 of this 
number of Keramic Studio will be of special interest to stu- 
dents of design as well as to League members who have fol- 
lowed the League study course this season. If these members 
will compare their own drawings of "Facts from Roses" 
with the excellent one by one of our League members, Mrs. 
C. H. Shattuck, of Washburn College, Topeka, Kansas, 
they can easily see where they failed to make as complete 
an analysis of the plant. In most of the drawings sub- 
mitted the analysis was much too general and dreamy and 
while many were pleasing they lacked a certain vigor nec- 
essary for style or emphasis in design. Vigor and snap is a 
characteristic of most rose plants. Nature's facts should be 
represented in no uncertain outlines and with a minute at- 
tention to all detail. This familiarity of detail is invalu- 
able as a suggestion to our creative mind when convention- 
alizing for design. 

The question has been asked by many "how shall I 
apply the facts gained from my study of the rose to a 
design. " To answer briefly, the design must be an orderly 
arrangement of these facts, it must first be in the mind, 
then depict it. First, consider what it is for, second, the 
constructional arrangement, third, the superstructure or 
enrichment. As the growth of the plant differs under the 
different conditions of its environment so must the use of 
it in design vary according to the shape to be decorated. 


20 1 

We must keep the proper proportions between the details 
and the space to be decorated, avoiding over-crowding and 
collision of lines. The construction or framework must be 
good, for beauty of design depends upon excellence of con- 
struction, which must be strong enough to support the 
detail just as the branch is strong enough to support the 
leaves, flowers and fruit. If the construction is poor no 
amount of enrichment can redeem it. 

To illustrate with our study of "Facts from Roses," 
take a leaf in the abstract apart from the plant. First 
you will observe a leading line or support, the midrib and 
other ribs dependent upon this, each has a certain office to 

fulfil, the midrib supports everything, the little fibres even 
have their office to hold together the detail between the 
ribs, giving contour to the leaf; cut out the construction 
and no beauty remains. The detail of the design must be 
held together by the construction as in the leaf, else it is 
uninteresting. It is the framework that first attracts one. 
Then also the design must show the beauty and variety 
of line. In nature we do not find many lines of unvarying 
thickness neither are they pleasing in a design. Keep a 
just distribution of covered and uncovered surface, an equal 
division of background and foreground is seldom desirable. 

Mary A. Farrington, 




Karchesium, adapted from'-Greek example in Brit- 
ish Musenm, painted underglaze by F. A. Rhead. 
It is executed in a scheme of greens with a black 
background. The handles are Chrome Green, 
the light bands Victoria Green, and the flowers 
shaded pale Pea Green. It was exhibited with 
other vases at Paris. 

Terra Cotta vase, painted under- 
glaze by F. A. Rhead. Back- 
ground Red with Russet and 
Citron bands. The peacock is 
natural colors with bright Tur- 
quoise eyes in tail. 


F. Alfred Rhead 

The best palette of underglaze colors was made by the 
late Mr. Thomas Brougham, of Staffordshire, England, and 
on his death his stock and recipes were bought by Mr. 
Wenger who has agents in America. Brougham supplied 
the whole Continent of Europe, and many color makers 
purchased his colors and re-sold them; and his palette will 
be found the most complete and best available. Poulenc, 
of Paris, has an excellent palette, but he has no agent in 

The Chromo Transfer Company, of Stoke on Trent, 
England, make a very fine range of underglaze colors. 
These may be obtained from Mr. Frederick H. Rhead, of 
Zanesville, Ohio, and a set of samples sufficient to do quite 
a number of articles can be got at a very cheap rate. The 
English underglaze colors are much the best, and are chiefly 
used all over the Continent of Europe. Mr. G. T. Croxall 
of East Liverpool, also supplies » both Wenger's and the 
Chromo Company's colors. 

Good effects may be secured in underglaze colors by 
the use of the atomizer or aerograph. Shaded or blended 
grounds can be done by this means, but if applied to painted 
pieces, the process should be employed after, and not before 
the painting is executed. Grounds may be also done (on 
flat surfaces) with a printer's roller, rolled in color. mixed 
with an adhesive oil, such as linseed, and rolled upon the 
tiles or slabs until quite level. This process gives a qual- 
ity of surface' 'something 'between Morocco leather and 
primed canvas, and is valuable on that account. The well 
known Austrian flower painter, Mussill, always had his tiles 
and slabs prepared in this way. 

Any color may be chosen for the ground. But the paint- 
ing must be done in opaque colors applied in exactly the 
same manner as oil colors. It is, in fact, one of the great 
advantages of underglaze painting that the technique may 
be varied indefinitely. The water color or mineral color 
painter can employ his or her little technical devices, and 
the decorator accustomed to oils may use his own method 
of painting by the employment of impasto underglaze 
colors. But this requires some variation in the prepara- 
tion and application of the colors, and this will be dealt 
with later. 

The method of painting naturally, either flowers, 

birds, animals, figures or landscapes, cannot be laid down 
arbitrarily. It depends upon the ordinary practice of 
the worker, who may easily find a means to adapt his own 
style to the necessities of underglaze painting. As has 
been pointed out before, the absorbency of the "biscuit" 
may be either utilized or discarded. Assuming that the 
artist is accustomed to water color work, the vase, pitcher, 
or what not, may be done in a series of successive washes, 
as many water colors are done. 

Or, assuming that a certain "on glaze" method is 
preferred, i. e., that of putting on the color in smooth pulpy 
masses, and taking out the lights with a brush, this may be 
done also. In this case, a pretty strong size (as already 
described) must be used to absolutely check the absorb- 
ency, and to even give the appearance of a slight glaze, 
and the color must be made more flexible by the addition 
of a little vaseline or similar medium. An experiment or 
two will demonstrate the exact amount. For ordinary 
painting, white should not be used except in certain mix- 
tures, such as the blue already described, or when the 
painting is on tinted bodies. In landscape, the ordinary- 
water color method is best. Care should be taken that 
each successive "wash" or painting is perfectly dry before 
the next is applied. 

In painting portraits, heads, or the human figure, 
much depends upon the style and amount of finish desired. 
The great French painter, Lessore, whose underglaze 
paintings command fabulous prices, painted with great 
dash and freedom. He dashed in a sketchy outline with 
a pen, in manganese brown, and with a large and vigorous 
brush put in the draperies, backgrounds and skies. The 
flesh he did with a smaller brush, but with equal vigor. 
He seemed to absolutely ignore the peculiarity of the 
material, and to paint just as though he was working in 
water color on paper. With a curiously restricted palette 
he got great variety and richness of effect, and his plaques 
and vases had all the amplitude and dignity of the best 
Italian majolicas. 

Boullemier, accustomed to the high finish of Sevres, 
found at the Minton firm at Stoke a new outlet for his 
technical skill and fine sense of color in Minton 's under- 
glaze wares. He had three methods of painting in under- 
glaze, cleverly adapting each to his subject and the partic- 
ular class of ware he was decorating. One method was 
similar to that employed by Lessore, except that he care- 
fully finished and "stippled" the heads and hands. The 
rest was done in square and expressive touches. His 
second method was the employment of "impasto" colors. 
He mixed white with his colors until they had the requisite 
body (the colors cannot be used beyond a certain thick- 
ness without the admixture of white) and boldly applied 
them with hoghair brushes, and even a palette knife. The 
colors, used in this way, are apt to have a chalky effect, 
but Boullemier neutralized this by painting over the opaque 
preparation with transparent washes. By this means he 
obtained depth and lichness. His third method was the 
application of his ordinary "china painting" style. He 
worked and "stippled" until he achieved a degree of finish 
surprising to the ordinary painter in underglaze colors. 
He proved, in fact, that almost anything can be accom- 
plished with the underglaze palette. I have often sat 
with him while he worked, and have to thank him for 
many little technical tricks. In his ordinary work (on 
glaze) he made a very free use of the needle, — an ordinary 
sharp darning needle lashed with silk to a pencil stick. 
This he used to break up surfaces, and obtain a "texture*' 



Suitable for application unclerglaze or overglaze. 



on which he worked with a fine pointed brush until he got 
the requisite "quality" and finish. 

I was once surprised to see him using the needle on 
a vase which he was painting underglaze. On the glaze, 
the color, of course, is easily scratched with a point, but 
on biscuit, under ordinary conditions, it would make no 
more impression than it would on a water color drawing. 
Boullemier, however, by sogging the surface of his vase 
highly, had obtained a smooth and non-absorbent surface 
similar (on all essentials) to glazed ware, and had mixed 
his colors with just the right amount of "tackiness" for 
the needle to make a fine clear line. 

Of course, with this kind of painting, one must make 
a perfect net work of scratches — something like a wood 
engraving — and when the whole surface is covered, the 
minute white patches, must be touched and stippled with 
a fine pointed brush in the proper color. These must in 
turn be broken up with the point, and again finished with 
the brush. Washes may be put over the stippling in parts, 
according to the discretion of the artist — for this process 
must be only used by the artist, and not by the tyro. It 
is a laborious method of working, but the delicate and 
exquisite finish obtainable by its use well repays the trouble, 
if the operator can draw and paint. 

- , ' For the ordinary kinds of underglaze painting no 
more instruction is necessary than the simple rules laid 
down. A very little experiment will demonstrate its pos- 
sibilities, and every one who practices the art will find 
little devices for obtaining new effects. It is (while pre- 
serving all the advantages and possibilities of enamel or 
on glaze painting) to on glaze painting, what oil color is 
to water color painting. It can, besides, be wedded to 
other processes. Underglaze painting may be followed 
up and finished on glaze, thus allying the vigor of the one 
method to the delicacy of the other. 

■ Underglaze painting may be glazed with colored 
glazes, and effects of extraordinary depth and richness are 
possible in this way. It has the great advantage to the 
amateur, that while a person having some skill with the 
brush or pencil cannot paint on glaze in mineral colors 

without some instruction and practice, they may paint 
successfully under glaze right away. 

But even the practiced painter will find, at the out- 
set, that the impasto method of painting under glaze needs 
some experiment and practice before successful results 
can be attained. But once it is tried, it is found so fascinat- 
ing that it is rarely discarded. The painter Mussil, before 
mentioned, was a master in this style of ceramic decoration. 
His adoption of the method was partly accidental. He 
left Paris just before the siege by the Germans in 1870, 
and went to England, where he found employment in the 
Minton Studios. Mr. Arnoux, the well known ceramist, 
was art director at the time, and he noticed that Mussil 's 
fine studies of flowers were invariably made either in oil 
or Gouache, which is opaque water color on tinted paper. 
Being translated to china, they lost much of their force 
and power, and the idea struck Mr. Arnoux that Minton 's 
fine red body would be an admirable ground for these 
powerful studies painted underglaze in impasto. Mussil 
therefore tried some pieces, and they achieved an immediate 
and immense success, both in England, the Continent of 
Europe, and America. He declined a fixed salary, and 
was paid an arranged price for each piece. He was in- 
credibly swift, and would perfectly represent the down 
on the breast of a bird, the bloom on fruit, or the light on 
a rose, with a few flicks of his brush. He died in 1906 and 
left a little fortune of $200,000 made chiefly by his under- 
glaze painting. It is Mussil's palette which I give here, 
as well as his method of painting. I use it myself for 
this class of work, and find it simple, convenient, and ex- 

The colors needed are those already specified, with the 
addition of U. G. white. Wenger supplies a good white, 
but the perfect one is made by Aidney, Stoke, England. 
Some of the colors will not mix with white, or are unsatis- 
factory when mixed, and this should be borne clearly in 
mind. Others, again, have sufficient opacity to be used 
alone, and retain their color even when put on a colored 
ground. The best grounds for general purposes are drab 
or red (terra cotta). 

Of course, a number of other stained bodies are avail- 
able, and these may all be utilized for novel decorative 
effect, so long as the painting or decoration is schemed to 
harmonize with the color of the ground. But with the 
drab and red bodies, almost any color effect (so long as it 
is not discordant in itself) will agree. It will be well to 
bear in mind that the color of these stained grounds may 
be effectively pressed into service. For example, a thin 


Outlined in French Green. Flowers, Wenger's 
"Brougham's Unique," or Poulene's Violet, or 
"Chromo" Mauve. Leaves, Apple Green (1 part 
Victoria Green and 1 part Yellow). 





(Treatment page 212) 



wash of mazarine on the red body gives a rich purplish 
grey, a thicker wash a sober violet, and a still stronger coat 
a luscious velvety black. Greens, according to their tone 
and thickness washed over the red, give an immense range 
of tones varying from dull drab to suave subdued greens 
of all hues, while chrome and Victoria green if applied 
thick enough for opacity, retain their own inherent brilliancy 
and are not affected by the ground, unless they are washed 
on thinly enough for the ground to be seen through. On 
the drab body, a wash of blue produces varying tones of 
slate color, and greens are affected (in tone, if not in tint) 
as they are by the red, except that the contrast of the red 
ground makes the greens appear brighter. Yellows and 
oranges give a wide variety of tones on the drab, accord- 
ing to the thickness of the wash. When opaque, they 
show yellow and orange, but not quite so bright as on 
white or cream. 

Yellow flowers may be very simply and effectively 
treated on a drab ground, by washing a very thin wash of 
yellow for the shadows, and brightening the lights by re- 
peated thickness of yellow until the necessary opacity is 

It will be easy to judge of this during the process of 
painting, for the colors, when mixed with the necessary 
mediums, show a similar degree of opacity and semi- 
transparency to what is seen after firing. 

Still, the method previously suggested, of making 
trial slabs or plates of tinted bodies with all the colors 
applied in various strengths, will be more helpful than 
columns of written instruction. 



At the regular monthly meeting of the New York 
Society of Keramic Arts, held on December ioth, three very 
interesting talks were given. First, Miss Sheldon, an art 
teacher of the Normal College of the City, addressed the 
Society on jewelry: she spoke about the copper, silver and 
gold workmanship of the craft, illustrating her talk with 
fine examples. Then the Society had the pleasure of 
listening to Miss Hibler's talk on block-printing : in a few 
words we were given a true idea of the successes and fail- 
ures of this undertaking. The third but not the least of 
the speakers was Mr. J. Wm. Fosdick of the Nationa Arts 
Club, who spoke on crafts in general. 


Maud E. Hulbert 

"Gather ye rosebuds while ye may; 
Old Time is still allying; 
And those same flowers that bloom today 
Tomorrow may be dying." 

DRAW the design, paint in the roses first, with Pompa- 
dour, Warm Grey, Yellow Ochre and Lemon Yellow, 
the lightest leaves, with Moss Green shaded with Brown 
Green and the deeper ones with Shading Green and Brown 
Green. The shadowy leaves in Copenhagen Grey, the stems 
with Finishing Brown. Finish it with some delicate green. 
Apple Green with a little Ochre in it is good, tint it with 
Ivory glaze. 

Paint the band a Green Gold. Parts, about a third 
Silver and two-thirds Gold, mixed well together. This will 
have to be put on for the first and second fires and the 

lettering for the third firing. The capital may be done 
with the Yellow Green with black outlines and the letters 
Black or Shading Green. Make the letters dark and even. 
The band would also look well if it were done in a Mat 
Green, the same shade as the flushing, with the letters in 
Gold. This would require only two firings if the mat color 
were painted on evenly the first fire. 


THE petals of the flowers are white, use Warm Grey 
and Brown Green for the shadows on them. The 
lip is white striped with purple, use Rose, Ruby and a 
little Violet of Gold. In the center is a very little Yel- 
low with a few tiny spots of Orange Red. 

The leaves and stems require Deep Blue Green, Brown 
Green, Yellow Green and Moss Green. Some Ochre and 
Copenhagen Grey might be used in the background. 





COSMOS (Supplement) 

I. M . Ferris 
"C^OR the pink flowers use Peach Blossom and 
-■- Ashes of Roses, keeping only one or two 
blossoms prominent, the rest in shadow. Make 
background tones warm and yellow for first fire, 
leaving detail for second or third fire. Keep the 
greens soft and grey, and blend flowers, leaves 
and background together, except in most promi- 
nent part where strong accent may be placed. 


Photograph by Helen Pattee. 

H. Barclay Paist. 

THE sepals and lip-like center of the flower are 
white. The values may be secured by shad- 
ing with Grey for Flowers or soft Grey Green. The 
cup of the flower is shaded delicately with Rose 
and spotted at regular intervals near the top with 
Ruby. This is a difficult flower to describe and 
if a student is not familiar with it, it would be 
much safer to use monochrome treatment. The 
backs of the leaves would better be kept a soft 
grey green, rather light; the inside or front of the 
leaves, stronger. Paint first with Dark Green and 
dry dust or glaze with Moss Green. The prettiest 
background for this study would be a light tone 
of Grey Green or Apple Green. If the study is to 
be applied to a vase, one can use a shaded back- 

ground running from Grey Green at the top to Dark Green 
at the base. 

For monochrome treatment select green or grey. For 
green scheme use Grey Green, Olive Green, Dark Green and 
Moss Green for glazing. For grey scheme, Copenhagen 
(Blue and Grey) ; if too cold glaze delicately with Ivory Yellow. 





(Instructor in Painting and Ceramics at Washburn College, Topeka, Kansas.) 











THIS study is for the bowl which was given as Problem 
II of the National League course. 
It should be warm in tone, with Black outline. Tint 
the bowl inside and out with an Ivory Yellow of rather grey 
yet luminous quality. In the repeated fire slightly deepen 
the background of the large panels in the border. 

Make the interlacing bands which form the panels of 
a soft green, which with the violet of the flowers will pro- 

duce a harmony of tone. The same green may be laid 
flat for stems and leaves, though the leaves may be slightly 
darkened and modeled, blending into violet. Flowers to 
be in tones of violet with gold centers; and panels contain- 
ing flower motives to have gold background. 

Work for purity of color and luminosity, repeating 
the painting until a fine harmony and depth is se- 




Caroline Hofman 
[This series of articles has been reviewed and indorsed by Mr. Ralph 
Helm Johonnot, Instructor in Composition and Design at Pratt Institute.] 

THE thoroughly trained workman is the successful 
workman in any line of service and bread winning, 
whether craft, business, or profession. The trained mind, 
the practiced hand, will win the prizes in the long run, and 
so receive the reward of careful preparation. 

For a while it may be possible for the careless worker and 
the thoughtless designer to hold a public, but always the 
hold is brief and the returns small. 

What is true of our own craft is equally true of the 
others; but although most of the statements made, and all 
of the principles followed in these articles are applicable to 
a wider field of decorative art, our present concern is for 
the one craft, and we will follow that, leaving our readers to 
carry the methods and principles into other fields if they 
choose to do so. Considering, then, our own craft; the 
trained worker thinks out his whole plan of decoration at 
the outset, building (spacing) it upon the shape of the 
piece to be decorated; and then hunts for the details he 
may omit, knowing that his design will be finer, stronger 
and more enduring for each unnecessary stroke left out. 
Concentrating his effort upon the three essentials of all 
beautiful decoration; good dark-and-light pattern, graceful 
line and proportion, and harmonious coloring, he works 
out his design with care and love and patience. 

With this effort constantly brought to bear upon his 
chosen handicraft he will cultivate the keen appreciation 
of beauty which is the chief characteristic of the master- 

The student of design who will test his work honestly 
at each step of the way, by considering whether he is putting 
into it something of these three qualities, will shorten his 
way toward success by many a weary and discouraged day. 
The earnest student will soon recognize the forms that are 
beautiful and the colors that harmonize. 

His business is to make something beautiful; and in 

just so far as he succeeds does he entitle himself to a stand- 
ing in his^art. 

The student will reach the best results in the most direct 
way, (shall we not, as artists, look for directions and thor- 
oughness, rather than "quick methods.") by trying to 
master the first exercises in "space art" before undertaking 
anything ambitious. 

"To do a great thing is to do a simple thing better 
than anyone else has done it." You do not know what 
possibilities of originality may be in your nature. Make 
each design, however simple, express yourself alone; your 
own taste, your own judgment, your own sense of propor- 
tion; and you will soon see that you are growing and develop- 
ing in your art. There is no reason why, with ordinary 
knowledge of line and color such as the beginner in china- 
decoration must possess, he should not, from the first, pro- 
duce interesting work. But the student who intends to 
master his art, must be content to go slowly at first, realizing 
that more ambitious things can only be reached step by step. 

The artist-nature, always enthusiastic and eager, is in 
an ecstasy of joy while creating, but perhaps sees, the next 
day, that what he created is so faulty or common-place as 
to mortify and discourage him. 

The surest way to avoid these wearing alternations of 
hope and discouragement and to keep the attitude of mind 
that is truly workman-like, is to attempt only a little 
progress at a time, limiting ourselves strictly in the elements 
of decoration to be used; and then, by faithful effort, to 
accomplish that little skillfully. 



As designers, let us open our eyes and minds widely to 
all that is beautiful in nature, and to the best things that 
have been done by decorative artists. 

Let us use our motif in whatever way will best express 
our taste, so long as that taste is guided and ruled by the 
broad principles which underlie all beauty in decoration. 

Whether we are at present in any danger of falling 
into a limited way of planning design for china is a question 
that each china-painter has to decide for himself; but when 
we look at the wonderful work of the old oriental designers 
we can all agree that there are many fine ways of composing 
designs for china. 

For, consciously or unconsciously, those old-time 
ceramists had a decorative feeling in the use of whatever 
motif came to hand; a feeling for proportion, for spacing, 
for subordinating interests, and for movement of line, — and 
these were the spirit of their work. 

And it is these principles which we propose to study in 
our articles, for through them alone we can reach the spirit 
of beautiful composition and design. 

You will see in the illustrations the difference between 
these two ways of beginning a design. To divide our space 
in a big frank way helps us to feel the whole proportion at 
the outset; and above everything design rests upon good 

When we work in this way we are compelled to think 
of proportion, and not of our motif, as the important factor 
in our design. 

Any given space can be divided into a well proportioned 
design in an infinite number of ways,— each person finds 
his individual way of doing it by following the broad first 
principles of composition, by practicing, and by growing, 
(as he is sure to do if he cares to,) in appreciation of beauty. 

We all want recipes for working, and often we would be 
more ready to work out, mathematically, the exact amounts 
of given tones to be used in a design than we should be to 
go out under a pine tree and note the beautiful dark pattern 
of its branches against the sky. 

Where do the best designers get their inspiration . 

Not from scientific recipes for dark-and-light patterns. 



Anyone can make a design of a sort, but to very few 
is it given to make a good design without considerable study 
and practice. 

In making simple designs children are often more suc- 
cessful than grown persons, because they work with frank 
space divisions and do not try to draw into their designs 
artificial and awkwardby planned shapes. 

Good design always means dividing space in a big way, 
by careful planning, so that every shape in the whole space 
may be a graceful and well-proportioned one; while weak 
and uninteresting design shows us certain shapes drawn 
into a space for the sake of what they represent, (a flower, 
a tree, or whatever it may be,) with no thought given to 
the shape of the spaces that are left. 

We cannot make designs by cutting pieces out of a 
given space in this fashion. The method will answer when 
one is cutting cookies out of dough, because the rest of the 
dough can be kneaded together to make more cookies. 
But our background spaces in design have to be left right 
where they are, and they form a prominent part of our 
design, so it behooves us to consider them carefully. 

When a Japanese art-dealer was asked whether the 
designers among his countrymen worked from given theo- 
ries he answered mockingly, "No, we make the designs, 
and let others make the theories." 

Broad principles the designers of every race and time cer- 
tainly have, and, consciously or unconsciously, always follow. 

These principles of design are what the present 
series of articles is intended to teach, .and there will be 
much insisting upon them, much harking back to them, 
with which you will have to be patient. 

Principles we must have, but in addition let us be sure 
that we can always recognize beauty; let us feel it and seek 
it, and it will surely find its way into the work of our hands. 

Do not conclude that because you do not care for 
modern "conventional" design you are opposed to all ab- 
stract ornament. There are plenty of rare and beautiful 
designs among the classics that every artist-nature delights 
in, cannot help liking. 

Copies of a few of these, some of which are given with 
this article, hung on the walls of his work-room, will im- 
prove a designer's work more surely than will months of 



Helpful, really beautiful, things that are within the 
reach of everyone will be mentioned from time to time in 
these papers, and sometimes given with the text, and the 
student who is really eager for the best examples of design 
to study will be constantly finding them for himself. 

Now, with this preliminary lecture well over, we must 
go to work to design. When we want a design we must 
try it in half-a-dozen different ways, and if it will not go 
this way, perhaps it will go that way, — and this need of 
ingenuity soon gives us active imaginations. 

But we must do our trying without wasting time by 
round-about methods, so we can learn to "blot in" our 
designs, roughly at first, working wholly for a good space- 
division instead of carefully drawing our motif. 

Get your design well proportioned, well spaced and you 
can polish your drawing later. 

Shall we try, first of all, a border of "line and dot" 
pattern. This will serve to bring our principles into service, 
and you will be surprised to see how much beauty and 
variety can be achieved with these simple elements of 
decoration. To be continued. 

PRIMROSES (Page 205) 

Maud E. Hulbert 

USE Warm Grey and Lemon Green for the shadows of 
the flowers and Lemon Yellow and Moss Green for 
the markings on the petals, and Brown Green for the centers 
and a little Chestnut Brown to give the depth of the centers. 
The green of the primroses is very bright and tender, use 
Moss Green, a little Deep Blue Green and Brown Green. A 
very light wash of blue in the last firing over the white 
flowers in the high light, usually makes it appear whiter. 


Miss Fannie M. Scammell has removed her studio to 
43 West 27th Street, New York. 

Miss Mellona Butterfield of Omaha, Nebr., has opened 
a new studio at 894 Brandeis Bldg., where she will be 
pleased to see her friends. 





K-aihervne W. Lindscy. 
Outline and lire, all Black. Second fire : Tint all over 
with Special Tinting Oil and a little Meissen Brown, just 
enough color to make it easy to see when the color is patted 
smooth and even. After standing until tacky, dust with 
2 parts Pearl Grey, i part Grey for Flesh and i part Meissen 
Brown. Third fire: Put leaves and stems in with one-half 
New Green, one-half Shading Green. Wash Yellow Red 
on dark side of apples. If these colors do not come out 
dark enough do the third firing over. 


{Catherine IF. Liudsey. 

First firing: Outline with Black. Put trees in with 
one-third Copenhagen Blue, one-third Banding Blue, one- 
third Grey for Flesh. 

Second firing: Use Special Oil over all the stein with a 
little Meissen Brown in it, dust when tacky ^ Grey Green in 
back of landscape, the rest with one-third Copenhagen 
Blue, one-third Sea Green, one-third Grey for Flesh. 

Third firing: Go over trees with same colors. Paint 
flat wash over dark parts of stein with one-half Banding 
Blue, one-half Grey for Flesh. 

PEARS (Page 217) 

Mary Burnett. 

KEEP the foremost pears warm in color or else the design 
will be dull and uninteresting; using Alberts' Yellow 
and Brown Green for edges and Fry's Blood Red for flush 
with a little touch of Finishing Brown for darkest part of 
red. The side pears may be kept more green, using Brown 
Green, Moss Green and softening with Yellow. 

Paint the leaves with Dark Green, Brown Green and 
Moss Green, making a few of them warm with Brown 
and Red. The stems are Brown and Green. 

2I 4 



S. E. Price 

T>AINT the dark part of the design with one part Copen- 
A hagen Blue, one-half part Sea Green, three parts 
Copenhagen Grey. Fire. Tint border with Neutral Grey 
and fire. Tint the whole surface with Pearl Grey and fire. 


Paint design with Banding Blue and dust with Royal 
Blue. Fire. Tint border with equal parts of Copenha- 

gen Blue and Banding Blue and fire. Ground lay whole 
surface with Grey Blue Glaze and fire lightly. 


Ophelia Foley. 
Darkest tone should be Black, body of vase, Dark 
Olive Brown, background of border, Dull Ochre, apples, 
dull Ochre with a tinge of Pompadour, darker on one side. 
Leaves, a dull Olive Green. 


DRAW one portion of plate design carefully and trace 
remainder, going over all carefully in India ink. Tint 
border a good blue, not a weak suggestion of a color, using 
two-thirds Light Green, one- third Deep Blue Green. Clean 
out. design; then either outline design all in Black, or all 
in gold ; or, Swastika and line portions in Black, remainder 
in gold. 

When perfectly dry, fill in Swastika and connect- 
ing lines with Liquid Bright Silver, forget-me-nots in Blue, 
deeper at edges, roses in Pink, turnover portions and edges 
deeper, leaves Apple and Moss Green. Fire hard. For 
second fire strengthen any weak lines or imperfect silver, 
put gold in center of forget-me-nots and dotted shading 
in roses and give a medium fire. 




0& „££& 








Two tones of green or grey blue with gold on handles and edge. 


Mrs. J. W. — The use of a banding wheel is very simple. The piece to 
be banded is placed in the center of the whirling disc. The hand with the 
brush is steadied by the rest. The brush, well charged with color as for 
tinting, is held steadily at the point where the band is desired while the other 
hand whirls the disc, thus carrying the color around in a band. 

Mrs. S. E. B. — To put a dark blue conventional border on a pale blue 
ground — First tint and fire your ground, then paint your design with a 
square shader well charged with color. This gives a vibrating tone which is 
generally considered more pleasing than solid color. However if you prefer 
the latter, after the tint is fired, paint the design with grounding oil, padding 
it evenly and cleaning off whatever runs over the design. Then dust on your 
color, cleaning edges again with surgeon's wool on a pointed stick. 

C. E. D. — For a dinner set, the idea of gold bands and monograms for 
the tnain part of the service is very good. The fancy dishes we should pre- 
fer in that case, decorated with borders in gold with monogram in medallion 

in border or center. Colored enamel could be introduced if necessary. We 
would not care for naturalisitc treatment of flowers in a dinner set. 

Mrs. A. W. J. — If you use powder enamel, mix with fat oil of turpentine 
so that it just holds together, thin with oil of lavender to the desired con- 
sistency breathing on it and mixing again if it shows a tendency to spread, 
If tube enamel use oil of lavender only. See November, 1905, number 
Keramic Studio. Class room article in enamel. 

M. M. C. — We will give some letters and monograms later. Liquid 
bright gold does very well for first coat, is saving and wears well. 

Mrs. E. B. K. — Liquid bright gold cannot be used over paste for raised 
gold. It can be used over enamel but is tawdry looking. We should judge 
that your paste was not fired sufficiently. 

Mrs. S. R. — Belleek china is treated exactly the same as white china 
in overglaze decoration with the exception that reds must be painted stronger 
and that moss green, yellow green and brown green are liable to come out 
brown. Also it must not be fired quite as hard. 




(Treatment- page 213) 


(Treatment page 214) 


Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 232 East 27th Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 


F. C. Feather stone 

WE are awakening, thanks to the critical attention 
given to craftsmanship by Ruskin and Morris. Pub- 
lic taste and appreciation are increasing and we are begin- 
ning to realize that good things are not necessarily costly 
ones. How to make art pervade the industries is the prob- 
lem we must meet. To achieve this, handicraft and design 
must be taught at the same time. 

The best designs for any medium are only obtained by 
working in it. The limitations imposed by material and 
process of working should be recognized and accepted. 
These very limitations will often be a source of inspiration 
to us. 

We should imitate the art of the early craftsman whose 
work was direct and fearless — the hand and the brain 
worked together— the process suggesting ideas that were 
unfailingly strong and national. One is impressed with the 
sincerity of these early workmen as well as with their 
patient skill. 

It is our wish to further encourage the handicraft 
movement. These papers will deal with metal craft in its 
simplest forms. 

Metal work is an ancient art and we may claim as 
fellow craftsmen and patrons Tubal Cain and the Cabiri. 
It is advisable for the worker to visit museums to see what 
has previously been done. Many interesting jewels, trin- 
kets and household utensils will be found made by our 
primitive people, and marvels are to be found in the Indian 
collections. In the middle ages the practice of covering 
wooden coffers and caskets with thin metal, either cut (in 
which case it was frequently backed by rich colored velvets) , 
or embossed, was quite general. 

The very general impression that expensive tools and 
a special place in which to work are necessary, have proved 
great drawbacks to the art of metal work being extensively 
practiced. It. is quite true that the more advanced proc- 
esses — enameling, chasing, and heavy forming — require an 
elaborate, expensive outfit not to be found outside of the 
studio, but a great deal may be done with a very simple 
equipment the cost of which will be practically small. 

Steel metal work is very easy in its simplest stages 
where only very thin ductile metal is used ; the work can be 
done by a student who can draw a pattern. In this article 
will be shown what can be done with but two tools, a com- 
mon nail and an ordinary hammer. 

Of all metals brass and copper are best for beginners, 
they are cheap and easily worked and are sold in sheets or 
rolls of different widths by weight and [cost twenty-five 
cents a pound. The thickness of metals is known as their 
gauge. The gauge or thickness decreases as the numbers 
increase. No. 30 is the best for the first work. It comes 
hard rolled, and soft rolled — hard is the smoother, but the 
soft is best for this purpose, as it need not be annealed. 

Annealing is softening metal by making it red hot and 
afterwards cooling slowly. 

Two of the simplest methods of decoration are pierc- 
ing, and decorating by a series of single dots. For the first 
is needed an ordinary hammer or mallet and a wire nail filed 
to a conical point. After filing the nail, carefully smooth 
with emery paper to do away with any roughness; this fil- 
ing heats it, and takes away its temper, therefore, it is 
necessary to heat the tool to a red heat through the point 
and then dip into cold water at once. For the second, a 
light hammer and a nail filed to a smooth blunt point. 
This decoration, by a series of single dots, was an ancient 
practice, and many beautiful examples are to be found in 
our museums. This treatment gives a lacelike effect both 
delicate and refined. To trace the same design in lines, 
would require far greater skill and would be far less effective. 
For this work your design must be traced on the back of 
the metal which is screwed to a board covered with either 
felt or blotting paper. Great care must be taken not to 
pierce the metal; the dots must be simply embossed. By 



5 1 (At o\ WttAfri 


SnoYi'ino now to piAri 

Scale, 'jl 

tA Cut" Iflrtk 


filing nails to different degress of bluntness the pattern will 
have more variety and as the student becomes familiar 
with tools he will be more keenly alive to the artistic possi- 
bilities of this work and these possibilities are infinite. 


Preliminary work. Having unrolled the metal, rub it 
flat with a piece of wood, or a wooden mallet and with 
scissors cut a piece a trifle larger on all sides than the article 
to be made. It is better to have the design carefully drawn 
on paper. Place the piece of metal on the drawing board, 
the design upon this, fixing it at the top with drawing pins 
or tacks. Under this slip a sheet of black carbon paper. 
With a hard pencil firmly follow every line of the design. 
Remove both papers and you will find a print of the pattern 
on the bright metal. This, however, will rub off easily, so 
it is best to scratch the lines with some sharp pointed in- 
strument, a steel crochet needle makes an admirable tracer. 
Look the traced lines over carefully, if there is the least 
error, correct -it; do not count upon making correction 
later; what seems to be a trifling fault in the drawing will 
be a serious blemish when beaten in metal. 

Let me impress upon those attempting to learn a 
minor art, the importance of care and thoroughness in the 
beginning ; careless habits acquired at first are seldom over- 

Having perfected the pattern the metal must be at- 
tached to the felt-covered board. The felt not only pro- 
tects the board but keeps the tool from getting dull, also 
it prevents the metal from bending. With your pointed 
nail-punch in the left hand and the hammer in the right 
begin by following carefully the outline of the center form, 
piercing the holes at a regular distance apart. Outline the 
entire pattern first. Always work from the center outward, 
the metal then is less likely to buckle. Having finished the 
outlines gradually fill in between, puncturing the entire 
background. This will give relief to pattern, and make it 
appear raised. The lamp shade 111. No. 1, is made of 28 
gauge copper. When the work is finished you wilLhave 

to seek the assistance of the local tinsmith and have him 
turn the edges, top and bottom, over a wire to give the 
shade firmness. He will also join the sides in either a 
clutch joint, or by riveting. For this joint you must allow 
on either end one-half an inch margin parallel to the ends. 

Riveting is much the more decorative way of joining 
and is not a difficult problem. This paper deals with the 
simplest form of this art and that requiring the least ex- 
pensive equipment, therefore riveting will be described 

Nothing could be better than perforated decoration 
for lamp shades, lanterns, electroliers, candle shades and 
fire screens. The light shining through is most effective. 
The beauty may be still further enhanced by lining with 
colored silk. Be sure to select a silk which is rather thin 
and transparent so that it will not exclude too much light. 
Lamp shades of brass require to be made in panels, for the 
reason that brass comes in rolls not over twenty- two inches 
wide. Copper, however, may be obtained in sheets 28 
by 40 and even larger. 

When decorating an article like the sconce or bellows 
111. No. 2, where the perforations are used only to give the 
effect of repousse\ and not to admit the light, it is well to 
make the holes rather small. This is attained by a lighter 
blow of the hammer so that only the point of the tool pene- 

The bellows are very stunning made of either brass or 
copper. The length from the tip of nozzle to top of handle 
is three feet. Instead of the English coat-of-arms the arms 
of the person for whom they, the bellows, are designed 
could be used. A conventionalized salamander or dragon 
makes an effective design. The salamander seems, be- 
cause of its mythological significance, particularly well 
suited to a bellows or fire screen. 

Two other methods of decorating metal are what is 
known as repousse and chasing. 

Repousse is embossed ornament in relief, done by 
forcing out the metal from the back. 

Chasing is done entirely by working on the face of the 
metal. Chasing is used by itself or in connection with 

Ivte6Tr>m sHowt'r\c (How To pUrt 
^nd cu\' lamp ?>rwclt 
scale % 



the work itself is not easily injured and the saws are inex- 
pensive. It should be mentioned here that the saw must be 
frequently lubricated with kerosene applied either with a 
small splint of wood or with a feather. Beeswax also can 
be used. 

When the management of the tool is understood, 
metal one-eighth of an inch in thickness can be cut easily. 
Combs for the hair and belt buckles of heavy copper, in 
simple cut work designs are charming. 

The conventional design on book ends, 111. No. i , lends 
itself equally well to cut work. The parts of the design 
which in this illustration are beaten down, might be sawed 
out instead. For these ends which must be firm use metal 
of greater thickness, 20 or 22 gauge. 

Candlesticks can be made of three-fourths inch, 26 
gauge seamless tubing. To form the feet or base the tube 
is slotted with a file or fret saw. With a pair of flat nose 
pliers extend these feet so that the base is broadened. The 
candle socket is expanded by twisting any round hard in- 
strument in it. 

The bobeche and handle are cut from a flat piece of metal, 
a hole is cut in bobeche the exact size of tube filed and 
slipped on before the nozzle is expanded, which will keep 
it in place. The bobeche is the little saucer like receptacle 
intended to catch the candle grease. The handle is riveted 
to the tube. Tall slender vases may be made in the same 
way using tubing correspondingly larger in circumference. 

Summary of tools and materials : Saw frame and saws, 
steel punches blunt, drill, saw board, wooden or rawhide 
mallet, metal. 

The following in the order of their difficulty is a list of 
the articles that may be made in metal: Finger plates, 
escutcheons, false hinges, blotter ends, door plate, name 
plate, trays, photo frames, mirror frames, boxes, chests, 
flower pot covers, fern dish holder, sconces, candle shades, 
lamp shades, jardinieres, candlesticks, vases, belt buckles, 
mountings for bag, pen holders, casserole covers, lanterns, 
fire screens, bellows. 


For this work a metal hand-saw will be needed. They 
retail for sixty cents and the small saws come in sets of 
twelve for ten cents a set. It will also be necessary to have a 
saw board, which in shape greatly resembles a boot-jack. 
Screw this securely to the edge of the work table. By this 
means the work is supported at both sides of the board over 
the opening, while the metal is firmly held. It can also be 
turned about in any direction to conform to the movement 
of the saw as it follows the pattern to be cut. In the sconce 
111. No. 2 there is a combination of pierced and cut work. 
The cut part is not intricate however. It would be advis- 
able though to practice first with some small scraps of 
metal. Trace the form to be cut out, with a fine brush 
charged with India ink or black water-color. Punch a 
hole just inside the space to be sawed out. Take the saw 
in the frame, unscrew one end which should be threaded 
through the hole. Readjust the saw, screwing so that it is 
quite taut and by a vertical movement up and down, follow 
the line of the pattern, sawing out the entire piece. When 
one section is finished it will be necessary to again unscrew 
the saw and thread through another part in the same way. 

There is quite a knack in managing this tool. Many 
saws may be broken before dexterity is acquired, but, 
nearly every one has the same experience. Fortunately 


J. H. — A short article on Repousse was given in the December number 
of 1903. We hope to have an article on the making of bowls in metal very 

E. B. — Try using Devoe and Raynolds Indelible Tapestry dyes for your 
leather, they claim its adaptability for that medium. 

The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles mast not be reprinted without special permission. 














League Notes 

St. Paul Loan Exhibition 

Underglaze Painting (concluded) 

Mirror (Supplement) 

Design for the Decoration of China (1st paper continued) 

Valentine Plate 

Crabapple Study 

Ceramic Crafts at the National Society of Craftsmen Exhibition 

Copy of Persian Vase in South Kensington Museum 

Dandelion Design for Vase 

Dandelion, Photo by 

Conventional Design of Dandelion 

Cracker Jar, Plate, Bowl, Dandelion Design 

Teasle Design for Stein 

Tile in Monochrome 

Chrysanthemum — Design for Vase 

The Crafts— 

The Needlewrought Decoration of Homespuns 

The Crafts at the National Society of Craftsmen Exhibition 

Answers to Inquiries 

Answers to Correspondents 

Mary A. Farrington 
Elizabeth Hood 
F. Alfred Rhead 

Caroline Hofman 
Nellie V. Hamilton 
Amy Dalrymple 

Dorothea Warren 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Helen Pattee 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Albert Pons 
Maud Chapin 
Georgia Parr Babbitt 

Sarah Francis Dorrance 




The thousands of these Kilns in use testify to 
their Good Qualities. 



The only fuels which give perfect results in 
Glaze and Color Tone. 

No. 2 Size 14x12 in $30.00, 

No. 3 Size 16 x 19 in 40.00 I 

Write for Discounts. 

Gas Kiln 2 sizes 

Charcoal Kiln 4 sizes 


'No. 1 Size 10x12 in.. ..,..$15.00 

I No. 2 Size 16 x 12 in. ...... 20.00 

No. 3 Size 16x15 in 25.00 

No. 4 Size 18x26 in 50.00 


Springfield, Ohio 


Vol, IX. No. 10 


February, 1908 

3RK is for the workers and Heaven 
for us all," is only another way of 
saying that "virtue is its own and 
only reward." We may talk about 
arts and crafts movements and all 
they are intended to do for the 
workers — but after all "The Lord 
helps those, who help themselves." 
And the especial good which we 
derive from arts and crafts exhibits, 
to which we contribute in many instances our heart's blood, 
the real benefit, lies in the effort of the work itself; whether 
we attract attention, or sell our handiwork, is a secondary 
matter, a mere question of bread and butter for the flesh 
that is weak. For the spirit, the reward accompanies the 
effort. But, after all, without the bread and butter the 
spirit grows faint; so we sacrifice the soul's effort for 
the body's need and thus lose our reward, and in the end 
the bread and butter too. For the public may for a little 
while support a fad or fancy, but only the really good 
work — the soul's expression — lasts through fashion's changes. 


DESIGNS cannot be accepted for criticism after March 
first. All received up to that time will be returned 
if possible by April first. 

The annual exhibition of the National League of Min- 
eral Painters will open at the Art Institute, Chicago, April 
30th, continuing until May 26th. After that the work will be 
exhibited at Burley & Co.'s for a few weeks. It is hoped 
that every member who has had the criticisms, will send in 
the finished piece and that those members, who have not 
had time to submit their designs for criticism will send in 
their work for the exhibit. 

This is the cut of shape select- 
ed for problem seven in place of 
the one we hoped to have manu- 
factured from a League drawing. 
Please remember that my address 
has been changed and now is 
41 1 2 Perry Ave. The following notes by Mrs. Bergen will 
be of interest to all League members. 

Mary A. Farrington. 

In the Traveling Exhibition of the National League of 
Mineral Painters this year Ave should first look at the ad- 
vancement in quality rather than quantity. No one who 
has followed the work displayed from year to year can fail 
to notice the wonderful growth of each exhibition. Our 
study with Miss Bessie Bennett of the Art Institute of 
Chicago, has been of great benefit as well as pleasure to all 
who have availed themselves of this privilege. The num- 
ber of pieces is not as large as in previous years, but that 
in a measure is due to the fact that the study course last 
year called for larger pieces and therefore necessitated 
much more time and thought being given to their execution. 

The exhibition opened in May 1907 and was at the 
Art Institute, Chicago, for three weeks in connection with 

"Conventional" Sugar No. 8022 
A. H. Abbott & Co., Chicago. 

that of the Chicago Ceramic Art Association. During the 
Summer months it was stored as no club would consider 
entertaining it until Fall. 

In October it was started east stopping first at Pitts- 
burg, Where it was favorably mentioned by the press of 
that city. From there it was sent to Augusta, Maine. 
The Augusta Club was enthusiastic in its praise and thought 
it surpassed the work in any previous exhibit. Portland 
came next and thought it ahead of any other year's work. 
From Portland it was sent to Boston in November. These 
three Clubs have entertained the exhibit every year. 

Springfield, Mass., for the first time, asked that they 
might have a chance to view the work and on December 5th 
and 6th the work was on exhibition in that city. It 
seems to be a difficult task to decide what to do about the 
West this year. All of the Clubs have been written to 
from three to four times, some of them have responded 
very promptly and are anxious to have the exhibit. Others 
have not been heard from at all and as the distances are so 
great and transportation so extremely high, the committee 
hardly know what to do. The itinerary has been made out 
however and appears below, all clubs not having written 
the committee in regard to the matter would greatly accom- 
modate them by communicating with them immediately. 
We have made the time between each city long enough to 
admit of shipment by fast freight. Whether this itinerary 
will be carried out to the letter depends largely on the 
responses received from the clubs and also on the transpor- 
tation, it is as follows : 

Topeka, Kansas, January 8th to 12th. 

Baker University, Baldwin, Kansas, Jan. 18th to 21st. 

Denver, Col., Jan. 30th to Feb. 3d. 

Los Angeles, Feb. 24th to 27th. 

San Francisco, March 19th to 23d. 

Portland, Ore. April 12th to 16th. 

Miss Florence Davis, Seattle, April 23d to 26th. 

St. Paul, Minn., May 20th to 23d. 

Returning to Chicago for distribution. 

Luea C. Bergen, 
Chairman of Transportation Committee. 
7404 Harvard Ave., Chicago, 111. 


Elizabeth Hood 

IN Italy, the Renaissance may have occured four hun- 
dred years ago. In St. Paul, it is just beginning. 
In opening the Art Loan Exhibition given by the Arts 
Guild of St. Paul, Governor Johnson said: "Whistler and 
Sargent, Hawthorne and Lowell and MacDowell, will mean 
as vitally the United States to the future as can an)'- financier 
and captain of industry; and will mean more permanently 
as contributors to the future of this nation." 

Under the direction of Miss Wheelock, President of the 
Arts Guild, and Miss Newport, Chairman of the Art Loan 
Committee, the first week of November saw gathered to- 
gether in the Auditorium such an assemblage of rare and 
beautiful objects as would do credit to a much older and 
larger city. With the exception of paintings and manu- 



scripts, nearly every thing was of local ownership. Antique 
furniture, old jewelry, silver and lace, Japanese prints and 
curious musical instruments, — of all these things there was 
wealth unlooked for. 

No department, however, was finer than that devoted 
to old china. Here, as elsewhere the rule was not quantity 
but quality. Doubtful pieces were not admitted, and few 
duplicates. Even so, it was impossible to find room for all 
of the fine pieces that were offered. 

The Germann Collection contained about one hundred 
pieces formerly the property of George III, which have 
come down to the present owners from an ancestor who was 
Bailiff of Windsor Park, during the last years of the eighteenth 
century. Old Worcester and Sevres, with their scarcely 
humbler companions, made up a collection so notable that 
it may ultimately become the property of the city. 

Decorators of china who are prone to overload could 
have no better object lesson than the gold and white Sevres 
formerly owned by Napoleon III, or the delicate cup with 
simple bands of pink and green and gold, bearing the crest 
of Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico. 

Of still greater historic interest was a platter from the 
set presented to Washington by officers of the French fleet. 
In the center of the blue bordered oval, was painted the 
insignia of the Order of the Cincinnati. Washington 
pitchers and plates commemorating the early history of our 
country, seemed things of yesterday, beside old Delft tiles 
whose soft blue and creamy white proclaimed their age. 
Two placques of Capo di Monte bore youthful likenesses of , 
Marie Antoinette and Louis the Dauphin. A teapot with 
braided handle and other choice pieces of Lowestoft; Delft 
hot water plates, copper and silver lustres, curious Italian 
faience, delicate Chelsea, a Bow figurine; — all these claimed 
attention. But for china to live with, and use and enjo3^, 
nothing surpassed the Meissen. It is a pity that for table- 
ware, our decorators do not work more along those lines. 

The exhibition was most successful from all standpoints. 

It was educational; it made scores of new friends for the 

Arts Guild; and the profits will serve as the nucleus of a 

fund to erect a permanent fine arts building in St. Paul. 

1? -P 


F. Alfred Rhead 

The painting of a snow effect — studied from my studio 
window — struck me as peculiarly decorative and Japanese 
in character, if not in method of execution. 

I made the study with a vieAV to its execution in under 
glaze colors on drab tiles, so I did it on drab tinted paper 
answering to the tone of the tiles on which I proposed to 
paint it. I saw, too, in it, a. decorative motif which had 
not been worked to death, and I made two designs, as an 
object lesson, keeping closely to the motif suggested. It 
will be seen from these drawings, that the most unlikely 
subjects present opportunities for decoration of an original 
character. Nature, after all, is the best designer, and a 
close adherence to its suggestions will always give far 
better results than the trickiest "ringing of changes" on 
popular decorative "properties". 

Snow is alway difficult to paint. On the one hand, 
there is a danger of getting it leaden and dirty, and on the 
other hand there is the risk of going to the opposite extreme 
and getting it hard and garish. "White as the driven 
snow" is a poetic phrase, but like many other poetic phrases, 
it is misleading. Snow (at any rate for the painter's pur- 

poses) is never white. It must appear white certainly, 
and the snow in the drawing does appear white, although 
there is really not a touch of pure white pigment in the 
whole drawing, a bit of white paper put on any portion 
will prove this.* 

Another paradoxical fact. Snow must look cold, 
yet cold tones must not be used in painting it. All the 
white must be faintly warmed with yellow, and the greys 
in the shadows must be warm, and not cold greys, or the 
effect will be leaden, plastery, and otherwise unnatural. 

It is the most piquant instance of what Ruskin calls 
"the faculty of seeing true color." There are no pure 
primary, or even secondary hues in nature. Of course, 
if you take a brilliant scarlet flower, and compare it with 
scarlet pigment, it will be found that no tint prepared by 
the chemist can hold its own in brilliancy with "nature's 
vermeil dyes," but it is easy to remember that all colors 
become modified by the atmosphere the moment they are 
removed even a yard away from the point of vision and no 
object should be painted as being nearer than five or six 
feet away. 

The warm greys in the snow are the'drab color of the 
ground left untouched. The distance and parts of the 
background are also the drab of the ware with a few washes 
of a lighter opaque grey, intensified nearer the spectator. 
The bluish reflected lights are done with a mixture of 
about two parts of matt blue to one of orange. This is 
the general grey for the shadows to all white objects. If 
it is needed warmer, a little more orange is added, if colder, 
more blue. If a slightly violet tone is needed for the greys 
add a little pink. It may be graduated up to pure white 
by the admixture of white as needed. Almost any tone 
of grey may be obtained by this simple mixing. Impasto 
painting in underglaze colors should be done in exactly 
the same way as oil painting. The shadows (generally) 
should be kept transparent, and the lights opaque. 

The shadows should be painted first, and the lights 
painted into them. By this means blending and softening 
of tones and shades is assured, and the drawing is kept 
'firm and pure. If shadows are painted after the high 
lights are done, the result is blurred and slovenly. Paint 
firmly your darkest tones first, and graduate up to the 
lightest. No dark tones should be put in afterwards, ex- 
cept possibly a few selected touches for emphasis. Some- 
times it may be necessary to "glaze" or put a thin wash 
of local color over some of the light parts after they are 
dry, but on the whole, it is better if the work is done spontan- 
eously and decisively. 

The light parts of the snow in the panel should be done 
with white stained with the tiniest portion of yellow. 
The white must not be yellow or yellowish but rather 
warm, or "creamery" white. This rrmst be done with a 
broad, flat soft brush — camel hair or sable, perfectly clean 
and just dipped in lavender oil or any other medium, and 
worked flat on a clean tile.^The brush is not to be dipped 
in the color, that is to say, it must not be filled with color, 
but a little color should be scooped from the heap (which 
should be about as stiff and smooth as oil color) as though 
taking it on the end of a chisel, and applied plumply and 
solidly on the ware.^The shading is done by taking up a 
little color on one side or corner of the flat brush, and a 
dip of oil on the other corner. By drawing this lightly 
over the tile, it will be found to give automatically a grad- 
uated shadow. V^The strokes should be tested on the color 

*The printing of these snow studies on cream paper somewhat spoils the 
effect. (Ed.) 




22 4 


tile before applying it to the ware. This represents the 
shadow side of an object. For the lights, the white should 
be taken up on the corner of the brush in the same way, 
and applied to the light side, while the shadow is still wet. 
It will be found that a few, light, feathery strokes will 
blend the shadow and the lights so that the transition is 
gradual and imperceptible. An ounce of practice is worth 
a pound of precept, and a few experiments will show what 
fascinating results may be achieved. 

But keep your shading brushes clean, and moist, so 
that they will work smoothly, but not wet. This refers 
to shading brushes. Tracers (for lines) and similar brushes 
should be charged with color, although, as a general rule, 
it is better to take up the color on the point, or to wriggle 
it about on the color tile until the bulk of color settles 
near the point. The greens for the foliage are chrome, 
French green, and Victoria green. Chrome should never 
be mixed with white. It is a dense color made from bi- 
chromate of potash, which is also the base of pink. White 
is made chiefly from oxide of tin which has a tendency 
to "strike" the chrome and turn it pinkish. The very 
dark greens should be put in with chrome green, slightly 
stained with black, the next dark tones pure chrome green 
and the other greens French green mixed with yellow or 
orange according to the warm or cool tones desired. The 
bright green with the light shining through, under the 
mass of snow, should be done in Victoria green mixed 
with an equal quantity of yellow. The lighter and cooler 
touches in the leaves below should be done with French 
green and white, warmed in some places with a very little 
added yellow. The stems are pure dark brown, and the 
lights and the stems the same color, with more or less 
white and orange added according to the tint required. 
The shadows of leaves on the snow are done with the same 
grey as the snow itself. A very pale wash of pink thinned 
down with oil or medium, washed over the light parts of 
the snow after it is thoroughly dry, to suggest the pale 
winter sunlight, complete the panel. 

The design for an ice pail — which may be applied to 
a vase or pitcher— is the same motif conventionalized. 

The idea is a drab or red body, with the stems in 
black or Indian pearl, the leaves in "dead leaf brown" (3 
parts chrome to 1 red brown) and the snow in pure white. 
The other ornaments in Indian pearl 'or neutral. 

On a vase or pitcher of this kind very brilliant and 
rich effects may be got by applying different colored glazes 
over the painting. But this process, to be quite success- 
ful, requires two glaze fires. The colored glazes have a 
habit of eating away the oxides from the underglaze colors 
if they come in direct contact, so that is is necessary to 
glaze the piece thinly with white glaze and fire it. Then 
apply the colored glazes as desired, with a brush. The 
thin film of white glaze interposes between the under- 
glaze color and the colored glazes, and the painting retains 
its brilliancy. 

Sunset effects, painted broadly in impasto, and glazed 
with orange glaze (with perhaps a touch or two of crimson 
glaze) are very rich and mellow, and marine effects glazed 
to the horizon with orange, and over the sea with copper 
green have a depth attainable in pottery by no other means, 
It is not necessary to blend two or more glazes if applied 
to a piece. Quite a rigid line of junction may be left and 
the glazes will melt and blend together imperceptibly. 

All underglaze painting needs "hardening on" before 
glazing. That is, they must be passed through an easy 
fire such as an enamel kiln to fire out the oils, or the glaze 

would not adhere properly. As an alternative to this, the 
glaze may be ground in^oil and applied over the painting 
(when quite dry) with a brush. 

Another fascinating type of work, generally classed 
as underglaze painting, but really rather inglaze painting, 
is the Stanniferous enamel work as practiced by the Delft 
potters — those of Rouen and Nevers, and the ceramic 
artists of Italy. In this case the artist glazes his own 
work first, with a tin glaze. This glaze varies in its in- 
gredients according to the body it is desired to apply it to. 
But a tin glaze which will suit nearly any body may be 
made from 

Oxide of Tin 6 parts 
China Stone 3 ' ' 
White Bead 3 " 
Borax 4 " 

These ingredients can be obtained from any 
merchant. They should be weighed, mixed and ground 
together on a large slab, or if this is not convenient, mixed 
with water in a pitcher, well stirred with a stick and passed 
through a fine sieve. 

About 3 per cent, of the bulk of strong liquid gum 
should be added, and half the quantity of a thick syrup 
of sugar and water, or molasses (to prevent the gum from 
cracking on the ware). If sufficient of this glaze is mixed 
the piece could be dipped in it, otherwise it may be applied 
with a brush. It should then be thoroughly dried. 

This glaze is extremely white (it is really an opaque 
white enamel) and can be applied to any colored ware, 
on which it will still appear pure white. In the fire, the 
painting sinks in the glaze, and the chemical properties 
of the mixture make it extremely friendly to colored oxides, 
giving the colors that quality and brilliancy which is pecu- 
liar to Dutch, Staffordshire, and Lambeth Delft, and the 
beautiful tin glazed wares of France and Italy. So far as 
I know this branch of ceramics has not been practiced 
in the States, which, considering the simplicity and con- 
venience of the process and the number of practicing 
ceramists, is peculiar. In the foregoing notes, though 
necessarily fragmentary and incomplete, I have tried to 
make clear the modus operandi of a beautiful and important 
branch of ceramics, which has hitherto been neglected, 
at any rate by amateurs. It is not at all difficult of achieve- 
ment, and if my notes are the means of directing the atten- 
tion of ceramists to this fascinating branch of their art, 
I shall be more than satisfied. 


Helen S. Patterson Williams 
HIS design can be adapted to a placque center, re- 


arranging the handle design for the border. The 
handle design can be adapted to candlesticks, necks of 
vases, cup borders, etc. The outlines are all to be in gold 
as well as the background of the lettering and all other 
spaces indicated by the light brown in the design. The 
design may be executed in flat color or in flat enamels with 
raised enamel jewels on handle. The colors to be used are 
Banding Blue and Black, Deep Blue Green, Yellow Brown, 
Royal Green, Grass Green and Pompadour. The Black is 
to be used in toning the other colors so that they will not 
be too brilliant. For the jewelled effect the soft red enamel 
will have to be used as there is no red which can be used 
with the white enamel to color it this shade. Raised gold 
outlines may be used in which case do not raise very high 
and raise the dots on the blue ground also. 








Caroline Hofman 
(first paper — continued) 
: Shall we try, first of all, a border of "line and dot" 
pattern? This will serve to bring our principle into service, 
and you will be surprised to see how much beauty and 
variety can be achieved with these simple elements of 

Taking a stick of charcoal, or a Japanese brush and 
ink, you might make a series of beginnings like the illustra- 
tions. When we compare them we find that the most inter- 
esting patterns are those where groups of lines or dots are 
spaced closely (the lines that form a single group is meant) , 
this giving us amass of. dark against the light background. 

Where the lines intended to form a group scatter, we 
get only a thin grey effect that misses entirely the aim to 
be decorative. But there is a second reason why certain 
of the designs please us more than others. Isn't it because 
a large mass of dark is supported by smaller, detached 

This alone will not insure a good design by any means ; 
but it is an essential of good design, and takes us directly 
back to that question of effective space-division. It is 

&%% S£Sa£££S££ JF 

s s s 



first a matter of proportion of dark-and-light, then of sub- 
ordination of smaller masses to greater ones. (This last is 
not always the same as "subordination of interest" about 
which we will have considerable to say later on.) 

Let us look now for this plan of spacing in every good 
design, and in every well composed picture we can lay our 
eyes upon. Notice how well-supported the main darks are in 
the Gothic window, the Rheims cathedral, the Daubigny 
landscape, the Franz Hals portrait*, for they are all designs, 
just as your little line and dot pattern is, except that they 

*The landscape and portrait were published in the January issue.— Ed. 

are each a unit, while your pattern is a repetition of a unit. 
Now with this principle of "picturesqueness" well in mind 
let us try again for a simple space-division; this time 
with the purpose of using it to decorate a small vase or 

This gives us an added problem; that of spacing the 
whole article to be decorated in such a way that our little 
band of "trimming" may be in just the right place and 
proportion to divide it effectively. 

Doesn't the bottle-shaped vase in the illustration give 
a good example of a space divided in a decorative yet 
simple way? 

See what you, yourself, can do with white lines on grey. 
The most direct way of doing this is to draw in outline the 
side view of the article to be decorated; not in perspective, 
but fiat, with a straight line at top and bottom. 

Fill the outline with a rather strong tone of charcoal, 
(use soft sticks of charcoal,) and rub it lightly, until even, 
with a soft rag. 



Then, with a bit of kneaded rubber take out lines and 
spaces to divide your vase or cup in good proportion. Yes, 
you have to judge the proportion yourself, but you can do 
so, if you will make three of these flat drawings and divide 
each one differently. And unless We do make several plans 
of each exercise that is given we cannot hope to develop 
our critical judgment, for judgment must be based on 

So let us try several of these designs, all for the same 
piece of china, and we will place our bands differently, 
changing the proportions, and will alter the shapes of the 
little white spaces until we achieve something that we feel 
is the very best we can do. 

Working on a charcoal tone prepared in this way is as 
easy as working on a slate, for the cotton rag with which 
the tone was rubbed in will quickly erase a mistake, freshen- 
ing the surface to be used again. 

For our last exercise this month let us see what we can 
do with a design for a small oblong tray, square-cornered. 
When we make a variation of a given design we so change 
the proportions as to give a practically new design. Mr. 
Arthur Dow has made this exercise in variation such a help- 
ful one to his students that we feel that the study of pro- 
portion would be many times more difficult without it. 
In our space representing the tray we are to design let us 
make some variation of one of the little squares given in 
our illustration. 

Blot in your design on paper with a brush filled with 
ink or black water-color, using the same shapes and general 
plan as one of the squares, but altering the proportions. 

Depend wholly upon this good proportion of spaces 
for your decorative effect, and study to have not only a 
good pattern of dark on light, but also a good pattern of 
light on dark, — for you remember what we said of back- 
ground spaces being part of every design. Do not use 
any outlines, work in mass. 

Now compare the designs you have chosen out as the 
best you have done, with the Gothic window and theDaubigny 
landscape. No, I am not joking, we must measure every- 
thing we do by something that is so fine that there is no 


appeal from it; we will not grow nearly so fast or nearly so 
strong if we are content to emulate something that we 
think may be good ; we want something to measure by, which 
we know is good. 

The one thing to consider is whether, in the work you 
have just done, you have caught any of the spirit that is 
in these great works of art. 

Perhaps you will conclude that one of your designs 
has "quality," perhaps there will be two that have. If so 
you may be happy; and by all means put the best one you 
have done upon a piece of china. 

Work it out in two tones of the same Color, or in a soft 
grey and one color, keeping the same arrangement of dark 
and light; that is, don't put the spaces that are dark in 
your design into light tones on your china. To fix your 
designs on paper so that the charcoal will not rub you must 
have a bottle of fixative, which can be sprayed over the de- 
sign with one of the small tin atomizers that art-students use. 
(to be continued) 


To be executed in violet blue, green and gold. 


Amy Dalrymple. 

FIRST fire: Carnation, Primrose Yellow and sometimes 
Apple Green for lightest parts, using Carnation with 
Blood- Red and a bit of Ruby for deepest darks. Let the 
bloom show toward some of the edges of apples, using for 
it Deep Blue Green, just tempered with Ruby. For leaves, 
Apple Green and occasionally Primrose Yellow and a little 
Yellow Brown and Moss Green for light parts, keeping 
shadows cool with Myrtle and Shading Green, kept quite 
grey by adding Carnation in parts. Dust with same colors. 

2d fire. Darken and blend above colors as needed, 
taking care to get light and shade strong enough in this 
painting so it shall need nothing in the 3d fire but harmon- 
izing washes. 

3d fire. Wash all surfaces as needed. Thinnest Yel- 
low and Yellow Brown for sunlight touches on edges of 
leaves. Strong color where desirable and dust all sur- 
face once more. 

The flowers and leaves will need a second painting to 
strengthen and show shadows, but the seed heads must re- 
main very light, showing little detail and melt into the 
background at the edges. 




(Treatment page 228) 



Tea Set — A. E. Baggs— Handicraft Shop, Marblehead, Mass. 


CONSIDERING the number of individual potters at 
work all over the country and the national character 
expected of the exhibits, from the sponsorship of the Na- 
tional Arts Club and the aims of the Society itself, the 
ceramic exhibit was somewhat of a disappointment. What- 
ever the reasons may be, it is certain that many of the best 
workers were not represented at all, and few of the exhibit- 
ing potters were adequately represented — while of the over- 
glaze decorators, not only may the same be said, but it 
must be added that most of what was exhibited had already 
been shown in the same galleries. 

While it does not seem kind for criticism to be made by 
those who have not borne the brunt of the work — and while 
the difficulties of getting together a good exhibition in the 
present condition of handicrafts in this country are fully 
appreciated — it is to be sincerely regretted that the juries 
could not be composed in every case, of persons well enough 
versed in their particular craft to be competent to sit in 
judgment on even the best and able to discriminate between 
what was fit for a school exhibit and what for a "Compara- 
tive Exhibition of the modern crafts with the best to be ob- 
tained of ancient crafts." A few choice things from every 
good craftsman would be of inestimable educational value, 
while a larger exhibit of good, bad and indifferent, may show 
the kind-heartedness, or the inexperience of the different 
juries, but is very confusing to the general public who come 
to the exhibition to learn to discriminate between hand- 
work and machine wrought. One could not blame much 
the lady who remarked that she "preferred an article 
designed by an artist and well made by machinery to one 
designed by a tyro and executed badly by the same." 

Nevertheless there were several good new things in 
ceramics and some good things which had been seen before 
but could bear being seen again. 

The work of Russel Crooke, potter, which aroused so 
much interest at the last exhibition of the N. Y. S. K. A. 
was in this category as well as that of Mrs. Sara Wood 
Safford, the Misses Mason, Mrs. Anna Leonard and others 
of the overglaze decorators. Doubtless the latter are reserving 
their new work for the next exhibition of the Keramic Society. 

The best new work in ceramics was undoubtedly that 
sent by the Handicraft Shop of Marblehead, Mass., of 
which Mr. Arthur E. Baggs is guiding spirit. The forms are 
simple and good, the designs also are restrained and in good 
taste. The colors are soft and subdued, yet varied, with a 
pleasant matt texture. The designs are in flat glazes with 
incised outlines— showing a good control of the medium — 
an altogether noteworthy exhibit. 

The tea set, in brown and olive with landscape motif 
was exceedingly attractive, the handle of the teapot was 
finished with rattan in much the same fashion as the Jap- 
anese employ. The tiles were unusually nice and were 
evidently popular as most were sold — as w r ere many of the 
other pieces. Many of the best pieces were impossible to 
photograph since they were in two tones so near in value as 
to lose the design in a reproduction. We understand that 
the handicraft shops were started to give employment and, 
by the way, health to nervous invalids. We doubt if a 
saner and more, practical treatment can be found. Evi- 
dently the plan is a success for there is no sign of nerves, or 
lack of nerve, in this pottery. 

The new Grueby tiles have raised designs in a rather 
antique effect both of design and color which is a cream 
with brownish edges, something of an old ivory tone. 

The Newcomb College Pottery was good, as ever, in 
much the same style, nothing particularly new, but always 
in good taste. 

Mr. Walley's jars and bowls in browns and greens, matt 
and bronze effects, were good and harmonious for their pur- 
pose of holding flowers and flower pots. Mr. Volkmar's 
familiar work also greeted one like an old friend. There was 
a small case of the Robineau porcelains in matt and crystal- 
line glazes with carved designs but the new feature of inter- 
est in this exhibit was a collection of sixteen experimental 
pieces in flamme" reds of copper from the dark purplish 
browns through the various shades of reds, and peach blow. 
These are the experiments in glaze and firing of Mr. Robin- 
eau, Mrs. Robineau making the vases only. W T hile few 
pieces were perfect, they represented the preliminary work 
in this line and before long it is hoped that perfect pieces 
may be exhibited. 

Of the overglaze w r ork which has not already been il- 
lustrated in Keramic Studio, perhaps the most interesting 
was the exhibit of Miss Matilda Middleton of Chicago. The 
flat enamel work was exquisitely executed, especially in 
the Satsuma coffee pot which was a marvel of painstaking 
and sympathetic execution. The sandwich set of large and 
small plates was also charmingly designed and executed. 
Next in interest, or rather, equally of interest in a different 
way were the quaint reproductions of old English porcelains 
by Miss May McCrystle, also of Chicago. Miss Dorothea 
W arren of New York showed some fine copies of old Chinese 
plates, and Mrs. Anna Leonard a few new things in an 
agreeable combination of blues, greens and gold. A few 
of the other good new things are shown in the illustrations. 
It is to be regretted that nothing was shown by Mr. Marshal 
Fry, and nothing new by Mrs. Safford or the Misses 








23 1 

A. I. Hennessey — Handicraft Shop, Marblehead, Mass. 

A. E. Aldrich 

A. E. Baggs 
Handicraft Shop, Marblehead, Mass. 

A. I. Hennessey 

A. I. Hennessey — Handicrai't Shop, Marblehead, Mass. 



Anna B. Leonard 

Mary McCrystle 

Dorothea Warren 
Mary McCrystle 

Matilda Middleto 

#*'.] I- 



Grueby Tiles 

Joanna Bible: 

i Leonard Eleanor Stewart 

Anna B Leonard 

G. W. llosegrant 
Eleanor Stewart 

Anna B. Leonard 




Design in dull blue and brown on ivory ground. 





Henrietta Barclay Paisl. 

THIS design was intended for a cylinder vase, to be 
carried out in Green Gold and Light Green lustre. 
Lay the entire design and panels (treating the seed heads as 
suggested in the drawing) with two coats of Green Gold, 
leaving only the path around the design white. Burnish 
and lay over the entire vase two coats of Light Green lustre, 
padding to get an even coat. This gives an extremely 
decorative and beautiful effect. If one prefers, the path 
only may be laid with lustre. This is also a fine effect. 
The Gold is then left natural and not influenced by the 
lustre but harmonizes perfectly. 


[Photograph by Helen Pattee] 

Henrietta Barclay Paist. 

IF this study is used on a panel for framing, choose for a 
background a soft grey green. This will harmonize 
with the yellow blossoms and give a good background for 
the seed head, which will be first pounced out and then 
picked out from the background, strengthening with Olive- 
Green when the calyx shows through. The background 
may be made stronger at the bottom if one wishes, shading 
gradually from top to bottom — use Olive and Brown Green 
for strengthening. The flowers are painted with Lemon 
and Egg Yellow, shaded with Grey Green and Copenhagen 




2 3 6 


' r - i 


Grey. The leaves and buds painted simply with Olive and 
Brown Green. The stems delicately with Grey Green. 
The dragon fly which has lighted on a bud, and was induced 
to remain there long enough for the exposure by a slight 
dose of chloroform, may be handled as follows: Paint the 
body with Dark Brown, modeling after the study. If the 
background has been left grey green at this point, the 
wings need not be wiped out but scraped a little for the 
light and the edges and veins strengthened with touches of 
Brown. The surest way would be to have a model and 
place him over a background similar to the one used and 
observe the effect on the wings. 

The flowers and leaves will need a second painting to 
strengthen and show shadows, but the seed heads must re- 
main very light, showing little detail and melt into the 
background at the edges. 


Albert Pons 
Teasle to be executed in Grey Green, background 
light Grey Blue, light parts in Yellow. 






Color scheme — Ivory tint over all, design in grey greens. 

2 3 8 




Georgia Parr Babbitt. 

SKETCH design for vase in ink. Either dust or paint 
body in Black. Clean out design carefully, then fill 
in with liquid bright silver. Put this on with as little 
working over as possible and sufficiently heavy to insure a 
bright mirror like effect. Should either silver or black be 
uneven after firing, repeat and fire again. The petals of 
chrysanthemums may then be brought either in brownish 
Silver, Gold or Black outlines. 


Mrs. Charles F. Palmer, formerly of Indianapolis, Ind., 
and former president of the Indiana State Keramic Asso- 
ciation, has removed to Houston, Texas, and has established 
a studio at 412 Moore-Burnett Building. 

T. McTennan-Hinman will teach in Chicago for a few 
weeks, beginning Feb. 10th. She will use an entire new 
set of studies, which are now on exhibition at A. H. Ab- 
bott's, where any information regarding the classes may be. 


Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 232 East 2 7 th Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be anszvered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day 0} month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

in the fabric, these are most interesting for their crude con- 
ventionalizations of the human and of animal forms and 
for the perfect subjection of the design to the demands and 
limitations of the method of construction. The result is 
beauty of design, however grotesque in itself each unit of 
that design may be. 

The Metropolitan Museum ofjArt^has^also many cases 
filled with fragments of embroidery and textiles of Greek, 
Roman and Alexandrian origin, these are easy of access and 
beautiful both in color and design. ^ ■ ' 

Whatever motif be chosen for the work in hand, it 
must be simplified to meet the requirements of the material 
upon which it is wrought, hence the value of studying care- 
fully these early results of distaff and loom, so harmonious, 
even in crudity, because the decoration is perfectly adapted 
to the material of which it is made. . 

Given now the definite problem of a portiere (a simple 
curtain) for a summer room which is light and cool in its 
appointments. For a material we may use Cheviot burlap; 
though inexpensive it has a soft silvery sheen of surface 
quite delightful. In a room with more color and heavier 
furnishings, arras cloth is better, being richer in texture and 
hanging in heavier folds. 

Provide an ample quantity of burlap, several very 
large strong darning needles and an abundance of floss — a 
moderate quantity of cream white and dark dull green and 
more of a lighter shade of the same soft green (if preferred 
browns may be used in the place of green). The color 
scheme of the room of course determines the colors used for 
curtain and for needlework. 

Any untwisted, or loosely twisted, floss of linen, silk or 
mercerized cotton may be used. There will also be needed 
plenty of paper, pins, and a bit of soft white crayon. A 
hem of six inches is first turned on the right side, thoroughly 

Pillow Slip — Mrs. Dorrance 


SarcCh Francis Dorrance 

THERE can now be found in the shops an ever increas- 
ing group of textiles which are peculiarly adapted to 
housefurnishing and other decorative uses. Among these 
are a few really homespun and handwoven fabrics, such as 
the Russian crashes and other linen stuffs woven abroad, 
and many more, including the burlaps, arras cloths and the 
like, which, though machine made, are loosely woven and 
approach in character the more artistic handwork. In the 
Southern mountains also cotton, flax and wool are hand- 
spun and woven as in colonial times. These latter textiles 
are of course more difficult to obtain than the materials of 
the shops, but certain schools, as Berea College in Kentucky, 
are trying to preserve these industries and to create a 
demand for their finished work. 

The usefulness of such materials for decorative pur- 
poses is at once evident, but a simple method of applying 
ornament to so loosely woven a fabric is less apparent; it is 
too coarse in texture to be easily decorated with design in 
applique" while the surface is too rough to seem consistent 
with rich embroidery. It is a simple needlewrought decora- 
tion of such textiles as these which is now to be considered. 

First the character of such a material demands the 
utmost simplicity in method of treatment, decoration on 
such fabric should itself be as simple in design as in manner 
of rendering — the coarser the surface, the heavier and sim- 
pler the design. By darning into the surface of the material 
some fiber or floss of suitable color and texture, designs may 
be freely rendered with effects quite as pleasing as those 
produced by more labored methods. 

This method is so simple and one requiring so little 
time that one's best strength should be spent in planning 
the design ; this, in fact, is not only desirable but essential. 
If one has access to Museums of Art or Ethnology, a veritable 
storehouse of suggestion for the designer of textiles is found 
therein. In New York the American Museum of Natural 
History has a peculiarly rich collection of prehistoric 
Peruvian or Aztec textiles, the designs of which are woven 

Table Runner — Mrs. Dorrance 



pressed and fastened by a rope of floss, couched at the top 
with a ravelled thread of the burlap, (Fig. 1) this thread 
must secure the top of the hem to the curtain as well as 

Design for table runner. Peruvian motif. Showing paper units in place and 
threads marking the placing 

^ ' CH) 

LL ^ 


- ■ Vf ( ( \) 







1 11 

1 " 



Sketch for pillow slip 

Stems and oblique line 

hold the floss in place. This makes a firm heavy finish, 
far more suitable than fringe for large pieces of needlework. 

The next step is the planning and placing of the design. 
Having a rough sketch of it at hand, hang the curtain con- 
veniently over a door or screen, with the hem touching the 
floor, cut from paper the various units forming the design 
(in varying scales of size so the size, exactly suited to the 
curtain may be chosen) pin these paper patterns upon the 
material as nearly in accordance with the sketch as possible. 
Change and rearrange until the result is a well placed design. 

The scale and placing of such simple designs is so im- 
portant that many units are oftimes cut and many times 
placed; the merit of the paper forms is their quickness and 
ease of preparation and arrangement, they can be changed 
many times without injuring the material and give a better 
impression of the finished work than does an outline ; when 
once in place the difficult part of the work ends. 

Fig. 6. Design for portiere 

A certain freedom is gained by working in the design 
without further drawing, but, as this is often impossible, the 
outlines of the paper units, may be lightly sketched on the 
material with soft light crayon ; on darker fabrics a darker 
(never black) crayon should be used. The placing of a 
simple repeat like the Peruvian motif shown in Figure 2 
may be indicated by threads, the design wrought free-hand 
and the threads removed, no drawing being needed. Al- 
ways aim toward simplicity of line as well as of form — all 
lines to be structural should follow either warp or woof as 
the line is to be vertical or horizontal. If an oblique line 
is needed it should be approximated by a series of succeed- 
ing upright and transverse lines (Fig. 3). Masses must be 
simple and loose or intricate forms avoided. 



The needle must be heavy enough to carry the thread 
without strain and should be fitted with enough floss to 
equal in size the threads which compose the material (it is 
often necessary to use from six to twelve threads of the fine 
untwisted mercerized cottons). Too thin a thread gives a 
"meagre" effect most undesirable, a thick thread drawn 
over every second woof thread is more pleasing than a 
scanty thread drawn in more closely. Untwisted floss 
should be used if possible, the loosely twisted may be rolled 
in a clamp towel before using and partially untwisted in 

The prepared floss is now darned into the surface of 
the material, the needle passing under every fourth or fifth 
warp thread, the length of stitch may vary with the texture 
of the material; it is neither necessary nor desirable that 
each stitch be the same length, but each thread must follow 
the woof thread over which it lies. Work the masses first, 
back and forth on each (or every second) succeeding thread 
until finished (Fig. I). Use white or ecru for the flower 
motif, dark green for the flower stems and the lighter green 
for leaf forms and their stems, the dark green should be 
used for the couching of the hem also. When the masses 

Table runner by Mrs. Dorrance 

are done the upright lines may be drawn in on the warp if 
narrow. If the design is very large these lines may be 
darned across the thread in the same manner as the masses. 
Experiment alone will show when this may best be done. 

A word regarding colors may not be amiss. Many of 
the commercially dyed materials for needlework are harsh 
and crude in color. Most of these may be easily toned 
("saddened" the old time dyers said) by steeping them a 
short time in some vegetable dye of neutral color. A decoc- 
tion of walnut bark or husks may be used, or coffee even will 
soften certain reds and yellows. If one can color all the 
floss used with vegetable dyes a much more harmonious 
range of color is the result. Most of the vegetable dyes used 
in basketry, such as fustic, logwood, indigo or saffron are 
available and it is most interesting to experiment in dyeing 
one's own materials. A small bit of floss should be colored 
and allowed to dry before coloring a large quantity for the 
moist color changes much in drying. 

Bags — Miss Mary Evans Francis 

When the needlework is finished a thorough pressing 
is needed, this should be done through a damp cloth and 
with a very hot flat, and the material pressed until thor- 
oughly dry. This causes the floss to sink into the mesh of 
the fabric and seem structurally a part of it. The method 
of decoration described above may also be used on finer 
materials than those mentioned, (provided that the textile 
is loosely woven) and various belongings of dress and house- 
hold may be enriched by simple designs wrought with 
correspondingly finer floss. The peculiar field however for 
this simple needle rendering of design seems to be in the 
ornamentation of rough heavy homespuns which do not 
lend themselves kindly to other methods of decoration. 

& #> 

The exhibition of handicraft lately held in the galleries 
of the National Arts Club, of work done by craftsmen in 
America and other countries was certainly the largest and 
best yet held in New York. Considering that the Arts and 
Crafts movement in this country has only so recently been 
taken up with enthusiasm, and that many of the workers 
have had comparatively little real training, the result, 
accomplished is remarkable. On the other hand especially 
in the exhibition of jewelry, which was one of the largest 
sent in, there was much that was disappointing. A jewel 
is such a personal thing, it should be so carefully designed 
and so beautifully wrought, as to make it something that 
can be lived with, a perpetual joy. It is all very well to 
copy Barbaric jewelry, there is a great deal that is attrac- 
tive in it, but we are not Barbarians, seldom anything in 
our dress or environment harmonizes with heavy crude 
jewelry. Not that copying good old things or making 
adaptations of them is to be scorned, it is far better to 
carve a belt pin in a design copied from the Celtic as the 
two illustrated, or to adapt a well known scroll to the stone 
to be set, as in the platinum and diamond necklace, ex- 
hibited and made by Emily F. Peacock, than to personally 
conduct a bad design in so lasting a medium as metal. We 
cannot agree with the writer in the January Craftsman, 
who says that the result of such copying is the loss of any 
well defined standard, that might serve as a base for growth. 
We work out ourselves in our work naturally, so that if we 
are not capable of good designing, we cannot design, though 
we may have the feeling for good things that have been 
done before. 

Doing these good things must raise our standard, we 
must grow with them, — but, we do agree with the same 



Altar cloth designed and executed by Helen Turk, Greenwich Handicraft School. 

Woven table scarf from the Institution for the Blind, Cleveland, Ohi 

Woven table scarf from the Institution for the Blind,"Cleveland, Ohio. 

Table cover designed and executed by Margaret Whiting, -The Deerfield Scoiety of 
Blue and White Needlework. 

Woven table scarf, from the Institution for the Blind, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Woven scarf, from the Institution for the Blind. Cleveland, Ohio. 



c #^^^^^-v^^---^#'#'^#»^#<# j tf^ 

Pendant in silver and opals, designed and executed by Emily F. Peacock. 
Silver belt buckle in repousse, by Harriet McDonald Ide 
Copper belt buckle by Virginia Senseney Silver belt buckle, by Mrs. Froehlich 

Scarab pendant and chain, designed and executed by Emily F. Peacock 
Carved silver belt pin, by Margaret Ivins . Silver and niello belt buckle, by Margaret Ivins 

writer when he says : "It would be worth while for everyone 
in this country, who takes a genuine interest in handicrafts 
and who believes that in the cultivation of them lies the 
solution of many of our industrial difficulties, to give some 
serious thought to the establishment of schools formed 
somewhat on the plan of those maintained by the London 
County Council, England, and see whether the outcome 
would not justify the effort to establish handicrafts upon a 
broad and permanent foundation. 

"If the Government could be induced to extend its 
interest sufficiently to provide expert instructors, and in- 
spectors, such as are now maintained for the fostering of 
agriculture, forestry, mining, etc., we would have a work- 
ing basis sufficient to give handicrafts the start toward being 
a great national movement that in time would work great 
good in establishing better industrial conditions. Then per- 
haps for the greater encouragement of Craftsmen, our 
Museums would buy examples of their work, as Museums 
do in the older countries." 

To return to the exhibition, and the jewelry section, 
among the most creditable work was a silver belt buckle by 
Mr. Herbert Kelly, which unfortunately is not illustrated. 

It was very well made, and beautiful in line. Mr. B. B. 
Thresher had some interesting work, but most of his things 
seem more suitable for cabinet pieces than actual wear. 

Mr. Otto Doesinger had some attractive and well made 
scarf pins, Miss Ivins a gold ring beautifully carved, a 
copy from an Egyptian coin, some belt pins and cuff buttons 
also carved, and some unique silver rings adapted from the 
Greek, Roman, and Celtic. Miss Senseney had several well 
made copper buckles, big in feeling, without being barbaric. 
Mrs. H. Froehlich among other things a silver brooch 
good in line and color, and Miss Deming a carved, silver 
and turquoise ring, Miss Ella de Neergard a very quaint, 
silver brooch though it scarcely needed the pendants at- 

Miss Peacock's necklace of platinum and diamonds 
was exquisite, and her gold bracelet set with lapis lazuli 
in its big simplicity appealed equally with the necklace. 
Each was carried out with sureness and consistency, show- 
ing thoughtful design and good workmanship. 

The work from the jewelry department of Pratt Insti- 
tute was well represented by a number of students. Among 
them was Mr. C. H. Johonnot, who sent a carved silver, 



Guest book in brown leather after Prayer book in tooled leather 

Mediaeval Sienese of the 15th Century. with bronze cross. 

By the Misses Ripley 

bracelet good in design and very well made; Mrs. F. S. 
Gardiner, a silver locket in repousse, beautifully modeled; 
Mr. H. C. Jeffery some well made rings; Mrs. Westbrook, 
and Miss Underwood bracelets. 

In the metal work, we would mention the beaten silver 
from the Handicraft Shop in Boston, a silver porringer made 
by Mr. C. H. Johonnot, a stamp box by Mr. G. Rodgers, and 
a silver teapot, sugar bowl, and cream jug, made by Miss 

The fire screen by Miss Minna D. Behr was most suc- 
cessful. The color and nice adjustment of wood, copper, 
and glass was well thought out. It was a very satisfying 
example of simple decorative art. 

Mrs. H. Butterworth had a very delightful panel for 
the back of a mantel; it was carved in a broad and simple 
way, in low relief. In the centre of the panel a green tile 
was set, which made an harmonious note of color. 

There was a small but good exhibition of hand-bound 
books. The Misses Ripley exhibited two guest books 
bound in tooled leather which were excellent in workman- 
ship and very interesting as copies after the Mediaeval 
Sienese of the 15th Century. 

The exhibition of textiles, including weaving, embroid- 
ery, wood-block printing and stenciling was one of the best 
sent in. We illustrate some wonderfully good work sent 
from the Institute for the Blind in Cleveland. A table 
cover by Margaret Whiting, of the Deerfield Society, of 
blue and white needlework, and a linen altar cloth, by 
Miss Helen Turk, of the Greenwich Handicraft School. The 
ends of the altar cloth were beautifully worked in fillet 

Mrs. T. E. Heuche sent a portiere of Russian crash, 
the narrow strips of crash were joined together in a design 
of old blue and natural colored floss, which was very effective 
in color and design. 

eather after Mediaeval Sic 
by the Misses Ripley. 

of ll.c tgth Century, 

It was a matter of great regret that the exhibition was 
not better arranged for the exhibitor, and the invited public, 
— as in only one or two instances was the name of the ex- 
hibitor plainly indicated with his or her work. True there 
were catalogues, but every one does not buy one, and even 
possessing one, people do not always have the time and 
patience to look up the different articles in which they are 
interested. A crafts exhibit differs from an exhibition of 
pictures in this, that there are so many small articles, and 
for the benefit of the workers which the Societies are meant 
to represent, we would suggest the following: That the 

Fire screen of wood panels, of cut copper with golden yellow glass background 
byMina^D. Behr 



articles of each exhibitor, as far as practicable, be grouped 
together, marked with his or her name in plain lettering, 
and each article labeled with a specially designed label, and 
tied with neutral colored thread, plainly marked with the 
price; that the number corresponding with the number in 
catalogue be subordinate to these things. Let there be a 
catalogue by all means, but only as an additional aid to the 
public, for whom things cannot be made too easy. 
tP *• 

C. P. — Batik is a craft which originated in Java and the natives there 
excel in it. It is a method of covering, in a design, material with melted 
beeswax which is absorbed by the material without running, and when im- 
mersed in the dye bath, prevents the dye from penetrating the covered parts. 
It is allowed to remain in the dye untill the color is thoroughly absorbed 
when it is hung out to dry. When quite dry it is placed in boiling water, which 
melts the wax and causes it to rise to the surface when it is skimmed off for 
use again.. This process is for one color, for several colors separate dippings 
are required. Batik which is to be brown blue and white must have the 
brown and white parts covered with wax. The sheet is put into the blue 
dye, dried and the wax removed. The wax is again applied to those parts 
which have to be white and blue ,the sheet put on the brown dye and again 
dried. This is rather a tedious process and craftsmen usually confine their 
work to two contrasting shades. 

(See articles on the Batik by Theo Neuhuys, May and June issues 1907.) 

C. R. — Niello is a compound which is used as an inlay in all kinds of 
silver articles. It was done principally in Russia where its composition for 
a long time remained a secret. It is said to have been invented by Maso 
Finguerra, an artist, and was found among his belongings after his death. 
It is also claimed that the Egyptians used a similar substance in olden times. 
It first became known in the 15th century in Italy, and was much used by 
the jewelers there. Cellini decorated some choice work with niello. It 
was used by engravers too, who filled copper engravings with it and also used 
it for decorating ecclesiastical vessels. 

It comes in sticks like sealing wax, the silver is heated and the stick 
rubbed in the engraved part until the niello is level with the surface of the 
silver when the whole is polished. Some kinds of niello are very hard and 
will take a high polish. 


A. B. C. — The glaze of Belleek china if over fired, will crawl and absorb 
gold in such a way that it can not be remedied. We hardly think you could 
secure an even surface by applying a thin layer of raised paste over the gold. 
We would suggest making a fine pattern in raised gold and enamel using the 
rough gold band for ground, a fine scroll with enamel flower or jewel ornament 
should hide the roughness fairly well. Use unfluxed gold over the paste. 

J. H. P. — You can put a monogram on a tinted plate by using unfluxed 
gold. You can even put it on the unfired tint if well dried first. But the tint 
must not be heavy. The unfluxed gold ought to be sufficient without going 
over with Roman gold. 

Mrs. A. J. M. — For your dragon handle we would advise first a good coat 
of Dark Green lustre well fired, then a coat, not too heavy, of Ruby lustre. 
If you wish you can use touches of Ruby alone on nostrils, eyes, etc., or if 
you prefer the underside of the dragon lighter, use Yellow lustre over Rose 
which gives an opalescent pearly effect. 

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Golds, etc.: Every" requisite for China Decoration. Mail 
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Better than six months lessons. Mistakes in firing, glaz- 
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ceipt; lessons in flowers, figures, etc.; practically all; also silk painting, oil, 
ate. 75 cents per copy, postage 5 cents. 

Samples of Campana's Colors mailed on receipt of business card. 

D. M. CAMPANA, 112 Auditorium Building, CHICAGO 

100-LUSTRE COLORS, combinations with all the latest colors. 
Many new treatments and how to make them. A very interest- 
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For Decorating 

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116 PAGES — of articles all of which are of vital interest 
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The Revelation Kilns 

h. j. caulkins Especially Well Adapted for Glass Firing 

If you anticipate getting a new kiln do not 
fail to investigate the merits of the Revelation 

THEIR essential feature is the tubular system of fire-brick, by which the 
flame goes to every part of the kiln, ensuring an even temperature 
throughout. By this system there is a very thin wall of fire-brick be- 
tween the flame and oven. A non-conducting outside wall maintains the 
heat developed without allowing it to radiate into the room. 

The rounded surface of the tubes gives equal expansion and contraction, 
when subjected to high heats, so that the parts do not go out of shape or give 
way, which does occur in the case of flat tile or large pieces of brick. 

The most perfect device for a private studio or school work, as good 
chimney connection is all that is required for perfect operation, and the fuel, 
kerosene oil, is easily obtainable in all places. Its operation is so simple that 
a novice can meet with success from the start. 


No. 6, the most popular size for general studio work, 

and No. 7 for professional and factory firing. These kilns may 
be arranged with a series of shelves to accommodate flat glass. 

This is our new No. 3 Round Kiln. 

The removable tubes by the door constitute the in- 
dividual advantage of this kiln, as they make a complete 
circle of flame about the oven. They may be used or not, 
at the will of the firer, but are especially desirable when 
an even, strong heat is necessary for certain classes of work. 

Our School Kiln No. 2 is built on the same plan as 
the one shown above, and is meeting with general favor. 
As a small combination kiln, for general studio and craft 
work, it cannot be surpassed. The lightest heat for glass 
and china may be developed, and it is also so constructed 
that it will fire to the higher heat required for modeled 
clay pieces, or pottery, as well as soft glazes. It has 
proved an admirable kiln for school work, and manual 
training departments. 

We also construct to order all sizes and shapes of 
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melting, enameling, fusing, testing, etc., both in the open 
flame and closed oven. 

The Revelation Kilns have been thoroughly tested by years of experience, both in studio ^oork and for la K 
manufacturing purposes. If you are not familiar <with their use <we take pleasure in referring you to any of the 
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Editorial. Notes 

Metallic Deposits on Glazes 

Studies of Yarrow and Wild Grapes 


Bowl Design in blue greys 

Bowl Design in Cafe At! Lait and Olive Green 


Design for the Decoration of China, 2d paper 

Arbutus (Supplement) 

Cup andfSaucer 

Ten Weeks Stock 

Plate, Border and Bowl 

Tree Design for Plate or Tray 

Hawthorns and Rose Haws 

Vase or Stein 

Wild Rose Plate 

Wild or Single Rose 


Salad Bowl in Olive Greens 

Small Violets 

Salad Plate 

Wild Carrot Border for Salad Bowl 

The Crafts — 

Waste Paper Baskets 

Art in Pewter — Technical part, continued 

Answers to Inquiries 
Answers to Correspondents 
Shooting Star Design in Gold on White 

Louis Franchet 
Mary J. Coulter 
Henrietta B. Paist 
Lucia Jordan 
Nancy Beyer 
Mabel C. Dibble 
Caroline Hofman 
Maud E. Hulbert 
Ida G Failing 
I. M. Ferris 

A. L. B. Cheney 
Edith Alma Ross 
Oreon P. Wilson 

Blanche Van Court-Schneider. 
Anne Seymour Mundy 

B. H. P. 
Ophelia Foley 

Anne Seymour Mundy 
Ophelia Foley 
Alice Witte Sloan 

Madge E. Weinland 
Jules Brateau 

Elizabeth DeLong 




■ 268-270 






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Springfield, Ohio 


Vol, IX. No. n 


March, 1908 

OME time ago we asked in our 
editorial columns for an expression 
of the ideas of our subscribers on 
the subject of an added department 
of water colors and oils. If we de- 
cide to issue this new publication, 
which would be uniform with Ker- 
amic Studio in size of page and 
cover, the first number will be 
October, 1908. And, although 
many points are not yet decided, it is very likely that. the 
Crafts Department will be included in the new publication, 
thus leaving more room in Keramic Studio for exclusive 
china and pottery instruction. 

There would be, besides the Crafts, reproductions of 
subjects suitable for execution in oil and water color,. one of 
them given in color as a supplement, all accompanied with 
technical treatments and with instructive articles on water 
color or oil painting,. drawing, etc. 

The subscription price cannot be determined yet, but 
a special price would be made to subscribers who wish to 
have both Keramic Studio and the new publication. 

Any suggestions by our readers in regard to the new 
venture will be welcome. 

A new department is to be added to Keramic Studio. 
We have not quite settled what we shall call it. One of our 
foremost decorators who has great sympathy for the strug- 
gles of beginners and those who must make a living of their 
art, has expressed herself as willing to give us monthly 
helpful talks on any and all subjects which come up in the 
daily routine of ceramic work. All who have vexed ques- 
tions in relation to their work may address them to Ker- 
amic Studio with full assurance that they will be fully and 
sympathetically answered in these talks. Let us hear from 
those who need' help soon, as we expect to begin these talks 
in an early issue. 

We have a number of special features planned for the 
coming year. Among these several will be of special inter- 
est to lovers of flowers. An early issue will be devoted to 
"Wild flowers of Texas," from the brush of Alice Willitts, 
of Cincinnati, a former decorator at the Rookwood pottery. 
These are executed in a semi -naturalistic manner which we 
are sure will please both schools of decorative art. An- 
other number which will be helpful to both naturalistic and 
conventional workers, will be entitled "In a New England 
Garden." This from the brush of Sara Wood Safford, of 
New York. We have other good things in store which we 
will announce later. 


Casting about for a subject of timely interest, the editor 
appealed to a member of the staff for a helpful suggestion, 
The answer was a jocular allusion to the editor's absorption, 
these past few weeks, in the pages of the plant and seed 
catalogues of various nurserymen. After all, why not? 
Now while the snow covers the ground and the thermo- 

meter wavers between zero and "way below" is by way of 
contrast the season of all seasons when our attention should 
be distracted to the glory that is to be in our gardens, and 
as for suggestions! these catalogues are full of them, flowers, 
whose description brings to our minds forgotten friends, 
or new ones; subjects for design or color suggestions. Why 
have we not thought before what useful material they would 
make. Let us begin alphabetically. 

Anemones, of all kinds, for both Spring and Fall, so 
wonderfully decorative. Antirrhinum (snap-dragon) with 
its tall spikes of magnificent blossoms in every conceivable 
color combination from white through yellow to pink and 
crimson. Aquiligia (Columbine) . white, blue, yellow, pink, 
red and purple. And all these new strains of our old 
familiar friends are so much larger and more varied in color- 
ing than ever before. Aristolochia (Dutchman's Pipe), 
Asters, which grow yearly more like the Japanese chrys- 
anthemums. Here is one seedsman's catalogue with such 
a beautiful picture on its cover that we must surely spend 
our pennies to have this to study. A large branching aster 
with long curled petals twisted in and out and striped in 
such a dainty violet and white effect. 

Bachelor's Button, the real blue Kaiser Wilhelm; 
why do we not use it more? Bellis Perennis, the Eng- 
lish Daisy, that sounds full of possibilities. Calliopsis, yel- 
low and maroon in great variety, we need yellow to reflect 
the sunlight. Campanula, Canterbury Bells, The Blue Bell 
of Scotland and Chinese Bell flower. Blues are so restful 
and the Bell-flower especially so dainty and graceful. Car- 
nations, so many new colors and the ragged edges are so 
attractive. Clematis, especially the fine white paniculata 
is so dainty and refreshing. Cosmos, Cowslip, Cyclamen, 
Dahlia, Digitalis (Foxglove). We must hurry through the 
list or our space will give out. Indeed, we must skip half 
the letters of the alphabet. Gentian, another rare blue. 
Heliotrope, white lilac, and purple. Hollyhock, single and 
double, all shades but blue. Iris, German and Japanese. 
We must surely have these. Larkspur, the most beautiful 
blues of all, and such gorgeous tall spikes. "Love lies 
Bleeding," "Love in the Mist," Marigold, Mignonette, 
Monkshood, Morning Glory, Nasturtium, Nicotina, Oxalis, 
Peonies, Pansy, Phlox, Primrose, Poppy, Roses, Salvia, 
Spirea, Stoksia, Sweet Peas, Verbena, Violet, Zinnia. Dear 
me ! dear me ! no more space and we have not named half 
and there are the Daffy-down-dillies, the Narcissus and 
Tulips, the Hyacinths and Lilies of the Valley that we 
almost overlooked. Who says it is wasting^time to study 
seed catalogues in^mid- winter. It is time [now to start 
our seeds in the house and hot bed to give us material 
for summer delight. All hail to the seedsman's catalogues 
in February. 

¥• «f 
We have just received a new catalogue of Air Brushes 
and Air Brush materials from F. Weber & Co. The use of 
air brushes and mechanical sprayers by designers, potters, 
etc., is becoming quite general, and this catalogue will un- 
doubtedly be of interest to many of our subscribers. 

2 4 8 




Hispano-Moresque Tiles in the Metropolitan Museum. By courtesy of the Museum. 


Louis Franchet 

FROM tradition and from rare manuscripts, we learn that 
ten centuries ago, at a time when the application of 
metals over enamels was unknown, ancient potters ob- 
tained by reduction deposits of copper and silver on the 
glaze which covered their wares. Modern ceramists have 
attempted to imitate these lustres by simpler methods, in 
the oxidizing atmosphere of their muffles, but the results 
have been disappointing and have only made the question 
of glazes and glasses with iridescent reflections still more 

The uncertainty which has always existed in regard to 
these metallic deposits is due to the fact that those obtained 
by reduction have been considered similar to those obtained 
in an oxidizing atmosphere. They are two entirely differ- 
ent kinds of deposit, however, and the difference in their 
properties enables us to establish a marked distinction be- 
tween them. 

The time of the discovery of metallic deposits over a 
vitrified substance is uncertain ; it seems to date back from 
the foundation of the first potteries established by the 
Arabs in the East about the period of their great conquests. 
The oldest examples of faience covered with iridescent 
enamels date from about the IX. century and are claimed 
by Orientalists to be of Arabian manufacture. Persia has 
transmitted to us some remarkable iridescent pieces, but 
none seems to be anterior to the Mussulman invasion, and 
all bear the characteristics^ Arabic art. 

It is only at the beginning of the XIV. century that 
this manufacture developed to any extent, when the Moors, 
according to Baron Davillier 1 established in Malaga their 
first faience factories; the iridescent wares were then, under 

the name of golden ware, 2 exported all over the world, and 
potteries multiplied in Spain. This fabrication was prosper- 
ous until the end of the XV. century, when Ferdiand V., 
king of Aragon, delivered the peninsula from Mussulman 
domination and it disappeared almost entirely when in 1610 
Phillip III expelled the Moors who were still residing in 
Spanish provinces. Spain, however, has never entirely 
ceased producing faience with metallic reflections, but the 
few potters who have succeeded to the Moors have never 
given to their manufacture the importance which it had 
under the Mussulmans. 

In the XV. century, Italy, which had always been an 
important market for the golden ware of Spain, undertook 
its production. This attempt would probably have failed 
if a Sienna potter, Galgano di Belforte, had not gone to 
Valencia and succeeded in obtaining the secret of the Mores- 
que process. The Italians even improved upon this pro- 
cess, and Giorgio Andreoli has left us majolicas with metal- 
lic deposits, the splendor of which has never been sur- 

France also had once factories of iridescent wares; 
one in Narbonne, about which little is recorded, and one in 
Poitiers much better known. 3 At the end of the XIV. cen- 
tury, the Duke of Berry secured from Valencia a Moorish 
potter, and established in Poitiers kilns and the necessary 
installation for the manufacture of ceramic tiles with metal- 
lic iridescence. 

In 1882, an Italian potter introduced among the 
potteries of Golfe Juan and Vallauris the use of a decora- 
tion with metallic deposits. The method there employed, 
which we will study later on, is the same which was used 
in the Middle Ages, and the same tradition is observed by 

1. Davillier — Histoire des Faiences Hispano-Mauresques a reflets metalliques, 
Paris, 1861. 

2. In Spanish, obra dorada, in French, oeuvres dories. 

3. lj. Magne — Le Palais de Justice de Poitiers, Carreaux emailles du 

XV erne Siecle (La Ceramique, T. VII, p. 157). 







the many artisans who during late years have left Golfe 
Juan and Vallauris to practice their trade in Marseille, 
Paris, Aubusson, Limoges, etc. 


For several centuries the process for obtaining metal- 
lic deposits on the glaze was transmitted in Spain by tradi- 
tion only. But, in Italy, in 1548, a ceramic painter, Piccol- 
passo, wrote, giving a very exact description of the method 
in use in all Italian potteries. 1 

Besides this, in 1785, in answer to an official request 
the alcaid of the city of Manises, the great center of Hispano- 
Moresque ceramic fabrication, sent to Madrid the old Arabic 
recipe. The manuscript was published only in 1877 by 
Don Juan F. Riano. 2 

The following are the directions given by the alcaid 
Manuel Martinez de Frugo : 

"First firing— Biscuit. 

"Second firing — Glazing. 

"The pieces, after being made, fired and glazed with a 
stanniferous enamel, are submitted to a third firing to ob- 
tain the golden effect. 

"Five ingredients form the composition of the golden 
matter, these are : 

Copper, the older the better. 

Silver, about which the same remark may be made. 


Red ochre mixed with clay, called here almagra. 

Strong vinegar. 

"The mixture of these ingredients is made in the follow- 
ing proportions : Copper, 3 ounces; Silver, a small piece; 
Sulphur, 3 ounces; Ochre, 12 ounces; Vinegar, 1 azumbre 
(3* pints.) 

"To this mixture is added three pounds twelve ounces 
of the scoria which is scrubbed off the ware after the firing 
of the golden color, the ware being at that time washed in a 
basin full of water in which the scoria is deposited. 

"Here is how the combination of these ingredients is 
made: a little ground sulphur is placed in a metal spoon 
with two small pieces of copper and between them a small 
piece of silver; then it is covered with sulphur and copper. 
The spoon is placed on a fire and left there for a thorough 
combustion of the sulphur, which is completed when the 
flame naturally dies out. 

"When the material contained in the spoon has cooled 
off, it is carefully ground; then the ochre and scoria are 
thoroughly mixed by hand, and the whole is again ground 
to the consistency of a fine powder which is placed in a 
basin. Water is added so as to form a paste which will ad- 
here to the sides of the basin, and it is fixed there with a 
trowel, one being careful not to leave any paste at the bot- 
tom of the dish. Of course in order to obtain this result, 
the water must be added gradually until the paste is of 
the proper consistency. 

"After being thus prepared the basin is placed in the 
kiln during six hours, and in Manises this is done at the 
time of the first firing of the ware. The contents of the 
basin are scrubbed off with a piece of iron and crushed in a 
mortar, then placed in a hand mill with the vinegar which 
so far has not been used. The whole is ground during a 

1. C. Piccolpasso — Li trelibri dell'arte del Vasaio, 1548. Manuscript in the 
South Kensington Library. 

2. Don Juan F. Riano — Sobre la manera de fabricar la antiqua loza dorada 
de Manises, Madrid, 1877. This pamphlet cannot be found to-day but 
an English translation was published in 1879 by the South Kensington 
Museum. . I owe much useful information on this subject to Mr. L. Solon, 
of Stoke on Trent, whose ceramic library is one of the most complete in 
the world. (L. F.) 

couple of hours and the result is the golden color ready for 
the decoration of the ware (Valencia, February 18, 1785)." 
So far as the preparation of the golden color is con- 
cerned, the manuscript of Manuel Martinez de Frugo thus 
gives us very thorough instructions; but, although it men- 
tions the third firing, which is the reducing firing, it does 
not say how this firing was done. Fortunately this impor- 
tant information, as we will see later on, is found in the 
accounts of the Moresque manufacture established in 
Poitiers by the Duke of Berry. 

The manuscript published in 1548 by Piccolpasso, also 
gives, in addition to formulas, the method of firing which is 
required for the production of metallic deposits. This is 
worth considering, as the Italians had obtained the process 
from the Moors. The French translation of Piccolpasso's 
work by C. Popelyn being incomplete, I have consulted 
Passeri who in 1758 compiled from it a small treatise. 1 
Unfortunately this treatise is full of erroneous conclusions 
and discrimination must be used when consulting it. But 
Passeri gives the technical details without any of his strange 
comments, and we find the following formulas : 

a b 

Terre rouge 3 ounces 6 ounces 

Ferret d'Espagne. . 2 " 3 " 

Bol dArmenie . . . . 1 " 

Cinabre mineral 3 " 

Argent calcine" 1 " 

6 ounces 13 ounces 
"Terre rouge" is red ochre which was used mixed with 
"Bol dArmenie." a ferruginous clay. Passeri also men- 
tions red toccalapis which is hematite. "Ferret d'Espagne" 
is copper sulphide. "Argent calcine" (calcined silver) is 
undoubtedly silver sulphide which was obtained by heating 
the metal with sulphur. 

Translated into modern chemistry, Italian and Hispano 
Moresque formulas correspond to 

H. Moresque Italian 

a b 

Red ochre 71,98 66,67 49,49 

Silver sulphide .... 1,15 .... 1,03 

Copper sulphide . . . 26,87 33,33 24,74 

Cinnabar .... 24,74 

It will be noticed that the Moresque formula and the 
Italian formula b contain very much the same proportions 
of copper and silver sulphides which are the active factors 
in the formation of metallic deposits. But for a certain 
proportion of red ochre has been substituted in the Italian 
formula, cinnabar or mercury sulphide which at that time 
was frequently introduced, and generally at random, into 
most chemical preparations. 

In formula a there is no silver sulphide, only copper 
sulphide which is sufficient . to give the ruby red metallic 
deposits. This is very likely the famous secret of Giorgio 
Andreoli, who, according to J. Marryat, had obtained it 
from another artist who had preceded him in Gubbio. 

In Moresque faiences, the red which decorated the 
Giorgio ware is never found, because with copper sulphide 
they used silver sulphide which produces yellow tones. 

Brongniart was evidently unfamiliar with these old 
formulas published by Passeri one century before his time, 
as, when he experimented on the production of metallic 

1. G. Passeri — Istoria della pitture in maiolica fatte in Pesaro e ne luogi 
circonvicini dell'abatte Gaimbatista. 1st Ed. Venice, 175S. 2d Ed. 
Bologna, 1775. 3d Ed. Pesaro, 1838; translated into French by H. De- 
lange, Paris, 1853. 





'' -- -■ • 


GRAPES— HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST (See Treatment Keramic Studio, January 1907) 



deposits, he simply used copper oxide in a muffle containing 
faience heated to a red heat. 

I have tried the old processes by following strictly the 
instructions which accompany them, and I have obtained 
deposits absolutely identical to those found on Renascence 
faience. I have also sought to determine the blue and 
green tones which are found there occasionally, also the 
golden, yellow and brown tones which were obtained at 
Deruta toward 1530. My experiments convince me that 
the blues and greens are due to the metallic mixtures, while 
colors shading from golden to dark brown are due to the 
more or less prolonged action of reducing gases. 

I have composed the following formulas : 

No. i No. 2 
Copper carbonate 30 Copper carbonate 28 

Red ochre 70 

No. 3 

Silver carbonate 3 

Subnitrate of bismuth . 1 2 

Red ochre 85 

No. 5 

Copper sulphide 20 

Tin protoxide 25 

Red ochre 55 

No. 7 

Silver sulphide 5 

Red ochre 95 

Silver carbonate 

Red ochre 70 

No. 4 

Copper oxalate 5 

Silver carbonate 1 

Subnitrate of bismuth . . 10 

Red ochre 84 

No. 6 

Copper carbonate 95 

Silver carbonate 5 

No. 8 

Copper sulphide 2 

Silver sulphide 1 

Subnitrate of bismuth . . 17 

Red ochre 80 

These different combinations were applied over enamels 
of various compositions vitrifying at 990 C. (Seger cone 
08), then heated to 650 C. (Seger cone 020), the third fir- 
ing mentioned in the Moresque process, and submitted 
there to an intense reduction. Formulas Nos. 1, 2 and 5 
gave metallic iridescent effects similar to those obtained 
with the old Arabic and Italian formulas. Nos. 3, 4 and 
8 gave indigo blue deposits, sometimes green with No. 3, or 
a mixture of blue and green with Nos. 4 and 8. No. 7 gave 
brilliant tones, pale yellow, golden and brown (similar to 
the effects obtained at Deruta), and No. 6 a brass yellow 

The influence of bismuth oxide is evident; its presence 
determines an intense blue shading into green in silver com- 
binations, while the latter, if used alone, produce yellow or 
brown deposits. It is then very probable that the Italians 
used this metal which is mentioned for the first time by 
Agricola in 1529 and was considered by some authors as an 

water bottle with the arms of the Duke of Segorbia, about 1450-1470. 
Courtesy "of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

impure silver. It is as such probably that it was tried and 
frequently employed later on by Francesco Xanto Avelli di 
Rovigo (i 530-1 550), the last artist who used in his studio 
in Urbino, the ruby red and golden effect. The violet and 
purple lustres on his ware show us that he had thoroughly 
mastered all the processes of the manufacture, even more 
so perhaps than Giorgio Andreoli whose fame is much 

The different tones obtained with silver combinations 
are due to the action of reducing gases, as I have studied it 
by modifying somewhat the Moresque process. Instead of 
applying the metallic mixtures over the glaze, I have in- 
corporated them into the glaze itself, thus making the ob- 
servation of phenomena much easier, because the fusing of 
the ochre mixture with the underlying glaze was not then to 
be feared, while in the ordinary process this fusing occurs 
every time that the temperature of the muffle is allowed to 
rise during reduction. 



Mrs. Vance-Phillips is back from Los Angeles and has 
resumed her classes in her New York studio, 647 Madison 

Miss Laura Overly has resumed her classes in porcelain 
decoration in her New York studio, 27 West 26th street. 






THIS is a simple design suitable for a beginner. Divide 
plate into sevenths. Make perfect tracing of one 
flower group, transfer to china laying the tracing directly 
on a line not between lines. Outline in Black and put gold 
edge on plate for first fire 

For second fire, prepare your enamels. For green 
leaves use Apple Green, Yellow for Mixing, Brown Green 
No. 6. Divide this, making part of it lighter by adding 
more\ Yellow for ' Mixing and darken the >< rest with more 
Brown Green and a little Brunswick Black. Theh add one- 
fourth Aufsetzweiss to each. Make fine small leaves and 
calyx in the lighter and stems and larger leaves in the 

darker green. 

For pink flower and buds prepare mixed enamel. One- 
third Hancock's hard white enamel (ground down with a 
very little Dresden Thick Oil) and two-thirds Aufsetz- 
weiss, thin with turpentine. Take Hancock's Carmine, 
grind down with Dresden oil, add one-eighth Flux, thin 
with turpentine. Add a little at a time to the mixed en- 
amel until a delicate pink. Add more Pink to part of it, 
for the darker petals. Pistil, a light green and stamens 
yellowish brown. Touch up gold edge and fire. Not too 
hot a fire as the flux will help the pink enamel to develop 
with less heat. 




Caroline Hofman 


HAVING begun to think of design as space-division, 
and to grasp the principles which govern it, we want, 
naturally, to gather the best material to use in our work. 
And we find nothing more valuable, nor more filled with 
suggestions for beautiful pattern than plant form. These 
we will study in the ways that make them most directly 
useful to our purpose. 

The very first quality in plant-growth which the 
designer must feel and interpret is the line. 

No matter how closely he has represented parts of the 
flower or leaf, if he has failed to give the structural line, 
the direction and attachment of flower to stem and stem to 
stalk, he has fallen short of the true aim and his drawing is 
of little value in designing. A designer who is also a very 
successful teacher said to me: "When I draw plants and 
flowers I try to fix in my mind just the way they grow, the 
characteristic line. Then I do not copy each little accident 
of that particular plant, but can sieze the whole nature of 
it with a few strokes,' and get the crispness and vigorous 
growth instead of toiling over every inch of it until both 
plant and drawing are limp and lifeless." 

Everywhere plants give us strong yet delicate turns of 
line, and wonderfully graceful forms. Now if these forms 
are coarsened by careless or unsympathetic drawing, and 
then enlarged, (as they often must be,) for use in abstract 
design, what is left to us wherewith to "decorate" our china? 
Isn't it quite necessary, then, to preserve in our drawing 
the grace of proportion and charm of line? 

Flowers ! The way in which some of the best Japanese 
porcelain-painters used growing plants on their wares would 
give us modern china-painters enough to study throughout 
our lives. With them it was never a question of realistic 
arrangement, for they gave us the very spirit of nature 
with the soul of decorative art. But suppose that we are 
going to use our flower-studies in designing an abstract 
unit to repeat as a border or a surface-pattern. Then, 
quite as much, we need a careful record, in our flower-draw- 
ings, of what is most alive in the plant-form; for we must 
make our unit graceful and well proportioned even though 
it should be a bUnchy little tree or a plump little mushroom. 
Whatever it be, (unless it is wholly geometrical,) it must in 
some way suggest and follow nature. 

For our pencil-drawings we must be sure that the lead 
is rather soft, (the "B" grade is best) and it must be care- 
fully sharpened to a very fine point, with enough wood cut 
away so that we can see constantly what the point is do- 
ing. If we can possibly do so let us draw from a growing 
plant. Cut flowers will do if they have been cut with a 
good deal of stem, and even of stalk, with them, and if 
they have been long enough in water to have risen firmly 
into their natural lines. But nothing makes a more sat- 
isfactory model than a growing plant. You may only in- 

tend to draw a spray of leaves or a single flower from it, 
but you have nature herself, in her best mood, before you. 
1 In the summer there are beautiful models at every 
turn. Some weeds are delightful when treated decoratively, 
and there is rich material for the designer in a flourishing 
vegetable garden. Scarcely a vegetable that has not a 
blossom of interestinglform and delicate modeling, while 
clusters of pea-pods, and the small tomatoes with their 
fern-like leaves, might fill whole pages of our sketch-books 
and be worked into innumerable designs. 

You remember the border in one of Ghiberti's doors, 
where he has used an egg-plant in such a beautiful way. 

Whatever model we have chosen for this exercise, let 
us come to it with no previous notions as to how it ought to 
look, give no thought to the ways in which other people 
have seen it. It will tell us its story in its own way if we 
look at it with open mind and loving heart. 

First let us draw the main lines of growth, to give us 
the action and construction of the model, as well as the 
placing of the drawing upon the paper. 

Upon the feeling in these first lines all the success of 
our drawing depends; so, if our first attempt looks heavy or 
limp let us throw it aside and begin again. We shall make 
all the better, progress for this slight sacrifice. 

Having now drawn lines that express the growth, let 
us construct the rest of the drawing with relation to them, 
— in outline only, — keeping the pencil very sharp and not 
indicating any shadows. The perspective is sufficiently 




express just what this plant means to you. 

Now having Nature's lines and curves and forms freshly 
in mind, let us use something from one of our drawings as a 
motive for a little design. Our practice in proportion and 
spacing, in the first exercise, and our interpretation of 
plant-forms in this one are to be combined. 

Perhaps we will use a very much simplified flower from 
our drawing, perhaps only a leaf, but we will study how 
best to space it in a little seal, in the same spirit of decora- 
tion as that of the seals and crests among the illustrations. 
It could be used inside a small bowl, or on a hatpin, or in 
various other ways that will occur to you. A nicely 
designed seal is an ornament that always makes the article 
it decorates seem especially one's own. 

shown by a careful outline. Where, however, one part of 
the flower or leaf laps over another, we can strengthen and 
darken the outline ; and the same where we want to indicate 
any part of the plant coming toward us. This management 
of outline, used skillfully, will give a surprising amount of 
movement, and even of atmosphere, to our drawing. 

We use a sharp point because it enables us better to 
study nature's way of putting graceful forms together, and 
to learn how her fine curves, be they great or small, spring 
crisply one from another, giving a feeling of unity and, 
strength to the whole growth, however light and delicate ' 
it may be. 

Now, putting our pencil drawing by, let us try to in- 
terpret a part of the same plant with a brush and ink (India 

Again we must keep in mind the structural line which 
holds the entire plant, stem, leaf and flower together, and 
with our brush we will try with clear crisp touches to in- 
terpret the different forms. 

The brush drawings that are among our illustrations 
will give you a better idea of the way to do this than words 
can. Do not hesitate to try the same thing several times, 
altering the dark and light until you find how you can best 

Although our design is not a large one it gives us every 
opportunity to use our principles; the shape of it, to begin 
with, must be good, the space must be planned to give us 
principal and subordinate shapes of both dark and light, 
and we must have only one main interest, that is, one part 
of it must attract the eye more than any other. 

You will notice how well the spaces in the corners of 
the Byzantine panel comply with these principles, and how 
the Japanese have followed the same laws in designing the 
crests and seals. 

Compare all the compositions and designs which have 
thus far been given in these articles, and you will find that 
they all follow the same general rules. 
(to be; continued) 




Maud E. Hulbert 
"O OSE (or Pompadour 23), Lemon Yellow, Yellow Ochre 
AV Chestnut Brown, Copenhagen Grey, Warm Grey, 
Deep Blue Green, Yellow Green, Moss Green J, Brown Green. 

Paint the buds and outside of the flowers with Rose 
(or Pompadour) for the first firing and the insides with a 
thin wash of Brown Green, in some a very little Ochre or a 
little Copenhagen Grey, in the very centers a touch of Lemon 
Yellow and Brown Green, and in some Chestnut. Use the 
Moss Green and Yellow Green for the lighter leaves and 
Brown Green and Chestnut for the darker ones. 

For the stems use Chestnut and a very little Pompadour. 
Use Deep Blue Green, Warm Grey, Copenhagen Grey and 
Ochre in the background. 

Do not mix the colors on the palette with a knife but 
wash one into or over another. If possible avoid using the 

Rose in the second firing but shade with light washes of 
Lemon Yellow or Brown Green. Do not use Warm Grey 
with Rose but if the Pompadour is used in place of Rose, 
the Warm Grey should be used with it. 


Carmine, Lemon Yellow, Roman Ochre, Hooker's 
Green 1 and 2, Olive Green, Sap Green, New Blue, Burnt 

To keep the colors clear and to get good greys in water 
colors avoid mixing the colors on the palette by rubbing 
one color into another, but take the two or three colors to 
be used into the brush without mixing. For instance the 
background is New Blue, Carmine and Roman Ochre (or 
Brown Pink) and one can easily see by a little experiment 
that a muddy grey is obtained by mixing and a clear one by 
taking the colors into the brush separately. Use rather a 
heavy paper and if possible a large sable brush. 


BLACK — Duck Green or Shading Green. White — 
Palma Rosa Salmon (Fry). Halftone — Duck 
or Shading Green lighter than black bands or Olive 
Flowers — Russian Green. Flower centers — Yellow Brown. 

2. Reverse, have flowers Pink, background Blue with 
Olive or Brown Green bands. Last fire, wash of Ivory 
Glaze or Chinese Yellow, thin. 

3. Yellow Brown lustre background. Pale Blue 
flowers. Gold, leaves and outside band. Black or very 
dark blue, dark bands. Black or dark blue for markings, 
outline and stems. 




Soft blues and greys are best for this study with a touch of Yellow in the heart of both the white and purple 

flowers. The most prominent ones are White shaded with Dark Yellow and Brown Green. For the 

purple ones use Violet and Banding Blue. Leaves, a soft Grey Green. 




Darkest tone and outline, black. Medium dark tone, dark grey blue. Medium light tone, light grey blue. 

Lightest tone, ivory. 

*This design was sent in competition under the name of Rosedale, but the name of designer was lost. 

'm ■' 









"TVIVIDE the plate or tray. Trace design on and outline 
*-J in India ink. Paint background of tree and portion 
between circle and border with Copenhagen blue. Dry well 
and dust Copenhagen blue over this. Dark portions of 
border painted with Fry's Special Oil, colored with very 
little Copenhagen. This must be applied smoothly and not 
padded; let stand an hour and dust with Copenhagen blue; 

clean out and fire. 

Second fire. Paint over all the Blue with oil, pad, let 
stand for an hour, then dust with Copenhagen blue. 

Third fire. Apply special oil for tinting mixed with 
a trifle of Pearl Grey to the foliage and band enclosing tree, 
grass, etc., and dust with Pearl Grey; Grey-yellow for light 
portion of border. 







A Conventional flower design to be used as a repeat pattern on either vase or stein, leaves and 

stems green, flowers light blue. 





Anne Seymour Mundy 

FIRST Fire: Paint design in flat with Ashes of Roses, 
Purple Black and Grey for Flesh. Do not get any 
Purple Black on the high lights. 

Second fire: Tint the whole, dividing the surface 
diagonally with Pale Pink and Russian Green. Allow 
the tint to cover the edges of flowers and leaves and all 
over stems. 

Touch up leaves with Apple, Moss and Brown Green, 
the blossoms with any good pink thin and with flat strokes 
all in one direction. Do not paint over the turn overs 
but make them with the Pink and little Purple Back. 

Centers, flat wash of Yellow, flat touch of Yellow Brown 
on one side, Brown Green in the middle, and stamens of 
Yellow Brown and Purple Black. Use same for brown 

Shadow leaves, flat wash of Yellow Brown thin. Some 
should not be touched up. Pad down any ragged edges. 

*See also treatments for wild rose in Keramic Studio, June 1906'. 




















Light Violet of Gold almost entirely with Ruby and Black, a very little on the same brush, in darker tones. 

"Eyes and whiskers" Black and Violet. Leaves, Apple, Moss and Brown Green, 

shadow leaves, Violet and Greens, in flat washes. 






Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 232 East 2jth Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received 

before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 


Madge E. Weinland 
waste; paper baskets. 

THE waste paper basket in 111. No. 1 is black and 
natural raffia, woven with the bridge stitch over a 
filling of fifteen double strands of natural raffia. It is 
thirty- two rolls high and its diameter is eleven inches. 

There are six figures of men, three large and three 
small. These are separated by a step design (see 111. No. 1). 
In the border at the top of the basket there are six dogs 
uniformly spaced. Above and below there are single 
rolls of black raffia. 

In 111. No. 2, the lazy squaw stitch is used. For the 
filling in this basket nine double strands of natural raffia 
are put together. There are forty-five rolls in the side, 
making the basket a height of ten and one-quarter inches. 

The coloring is natural and light brown raffia. Fig- 
ures of light brown are inserted so that the spacing is well 

There are two groups of men in the lower part of the 
basket with one woman between each group. In the mid- 
dle of the basket, and just above the figures are four dogs 
and two swastikas, one dog being on either side of each 
group of men, with a swastika between the dogs. In the 
top and on each side, as is partially shown, is a group of 
men with the figure of a woman between each group. 
These figures are somewhat smaller than those in the lower 
part. In the top of the basket there are four figures of 
dogs set between the figures just below. 

The basket in 111. No. 3 is also woven with the lazy 
squaw stitch, though a much thicker filling is used. There 
are thirty-five rolls in the side, its height is ten inches and 
its greatest diameter eleven and one-half inches. 

After weaving ten rolls of natural raffia, a large step 
design is inserted. The darkest parts of the design are 
dark red, while the medium tone is olive green. Three 

rolls of natural raffia separate this design from the border 
which consists of twenty diamonds, woven with yellow ochre 
raffia. Alternating with these diamonds are black dashes. 
Above and below there are single rolls of black raffia. The 
basket is finished with three rolls of natural raffia. 


The material necessary for making this basket consists 
of one bunch of yellow raffia, one bunch of black raffia, 
one-half pound of natural raffia and a package of No. 2 
darning needles. 

In connection with the weaving there are three points 
to be understood,' namely: 

1. There are three doubled strands of natural raffia 
used for the filling. 

2. The basket is woven with the bridge stitch, ex- 
cept the swastikas which are woven with the lazy squaw 



3. When ready to change weavers, remember to place 
the weaver in with the filling, so that it is always ready for 
use at the proper time. 


Thread three No. 2 darning needles, one with black 
raffia, one with yellow raffia and the third with natural 
raffia. Weave from the center in the following order: 
Five rolls of yellow raffia, one roll of black, five rolls of 
natural, one roll of black, five rolls of natural, one roll of 
black, five rolls of natural, one roll of black, one roll of 
yellow, one roll of black and finish with seven rolls of natural. 
This completes the bottom, making altogether thirty three 


In order to keep the sides straight while weaving, hold 
each roll above the roll previously woven until the side is 
completed. With the black, yellow and natural raffia, 
weave as follows : 

One roll of black raffia, one roll of yellow, one roll of 
black and one roll of natural raffia. The fifth roll of the 
side is woven with the natural raffia, but is broken with 
black in the following manner: After weaving the fourth 
roll around to the starting point, weave one inch more of 
natural raffia, then twice the width of the roll in black, 
twice the width of the roll in natural and six times the 

width of the roll in black. This forms the base or founda- 
tion of the first swastika. Complete the fifth roll, inserting 
the bases of nine more similar swastikas, spaced at equal 
distances apart, with natural raffia between them. Weave 
the sixth roll the same as the fifth. 

The seventh and eighth rolls are similar to the fore- 
going, excepting that the second weaving of black is the 
same as the first, that is, the width of two rolls. (See 
111. No. 4). 

The ninth and tenth rolls form the centers of the 
swastikas and' the weaving of black is carried the full length 
of each figure. The eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth and 
fourteenth rolls are the same as the eighth, seventh, six 
and fifth, excepting that the figure is reversed, as is shown 
in the illustration. Complete the side by weaving one roll 
of natural, one roll of black, one roll of yellow and one roll 
of black. Now weave four more rolls of the natural raffia 
and from the last weaving of black, turn the rolls directly 
toward the center. This forms a rest for the cover. 


Make the cover somewhat similar to the bottom of the 
basket and of such size that it is two rolls larger all around 
than the opening into the basket. Weave a separate roll, 
with a filling of fifteen doubled strands, to form a ring that 
will pass through the top of the basket. Attach this to 
the inside of the cover to hold it in place. 

Illus. No. 7 



, Select three doubled strands of natural raffia for filling 
and with black raffia make a handle four and one-half 
inches long, using the button-hole stitch. Sew this, at the 
center and each end, to the cover with black raffia. (See 

Illustration No. 7 shows a basket woven over a small 
cotton rope with the "Bridge Stitch." The design, simple 
and effective, can be easily made by carefully following the 
photograph. The squares of bright orange raffia are 
separated by vertical and horizontal black lines, against a 
ground of natural raffia. The coloring, in the top of the 
cover, is orange, outlined with black and natural raffia. 

Rope filling will be found very satisfactory, as it makes 
a firm basket. 

Note — The bridge stitch referred to above is made as follows: With a 
weaver of ordinary size and any filling desired, weave by winding toward you 
nine times around the filler, covering about one inch. Now fold the work 
so that the beginning and the end meet and fasten firmly. For further 
weaving wind three times around the filling and insert the needle in the 
hole in the center. Continue weaving in this manner around to the 
beginning of the roll. From this point to the end of the work wind three 
times around and pass the needle under the roll previously made. 



Jules Brateau 

Detaching the whole, we draw out the model and we 
obtain five pieces to be treated as follows : 

The mould is reduced regularly and throughout to a 
thickness of barely one centimeter. I give this dimension 
from experience, as adapted to an object like this goblet, 
thirteen inches high, nine and one-half at the top, and five 
and one-half at the base. 

On the line of juncture of these three sections must be 
made a plaster wall, or partition (Fig. 7, 10, 11 B), 
a kind of border of about six millimeters over and above. the 
thickness of the mould, following closely the line of the sides 
having the bench or section marks, which will be removed 
later. As soon as these borders are exactly fitted to 
the several pieces of the mould, one should be able to assem- 
ble them as easily as when they were joined together on the 
plaster model. 


Fig. 10.— Goblet 
B, partition; C, plane 

nth piece of plaster mould. A, neck; 
urface; D, slope; E, thickness of mould. 

Again, the workman takes two of the sections in order 
(since they must fit exactly), and builds above each of the 
two adjacent partitions, an extension in plaster (Figs. 10, 
11, 12, 13, AAA), about four centimeters in height; quite 
wide at the point of contact and growing narrower as it 
rises. This extension is called the neck or funnel. 

At the center of each piece a square handle is attached. 
This is wider at the base than at the top, in order that the 

pieces may be easily handled when they are made of 
copper. (Fig. 9, 11, 12, 13, E E E). 

Let us now take the shapes ! One of them is called the 
core the other the cap. We regulate them to a thickness 
not exceeding one centimeter. On the core, which is here 
the smaller of the two shapes, we fit a cylindrical body of 
plaster, which assumes the precise form of the interior of 
the vase. This body is obtained by cutting from a mass of 
plaster, or by making a rough-casting (Fig. 12). 

Fig. 11— A, necks put together: B B, wall or partition; C, bolts; D D, clamps in place; 
E, handle; F F, plane part; G G, inclined part, 

The section of the core of the foot being separated 
from the section of the core of the vase proper, we attach 
it on the shape, or the cap, well centered and firm. 
(Fig. 12 C). 

These indispensable preparations build the core, allow 
the object to be hollow, and assure the proper thickness to 
the pewter which is to be melted. 

The plaster mould being thus finished is allowed to 
dry thoroughly; then, a very even coating of modeling wax, 
from one-half to one millimeter thick, is applied at the 
junction of the three pieces (that is to say, the inside of 
the partitions), on the inclined parts of the shapes of the 
core and of the cap, and upon the flat surfaces of the 
top and the bottom. 

The pattern maker, to insure the accuracy of his work, 
needs a slight excess of metal beyond the lines of division 
and friction, and he could not produce a good mould, if he 
had not this resource at his command, in cases when the 
copper varies slightly at the casting. Moulds may also be 
made perfectly smooth and plain, which need no modeling. 

To produce these latter it is no less necessary to make 
a model in plaster, wood, or other hard substance, so as to 
allow the caster in copper, or iron, to reproduce in his own 
way, which differs from the way of the caster in pewter. 


We have seen that the plaster mould is finished, but 
to be practically useful, it must be reproduced in copper, 
iron, or even in steel. 

If the model have a certain artistic value and the 
proofs be not destined for the market .in great numbers, 
it is cast in brass. 

This model is taken to the foundry, where highly skilled 
artisans mould it in sand ; beating and cutting it, and divid- 
ing it into several pieces which they fit together, as the 
maker of the model did with his plaster. 

These artisans assemble their separate pieces accord- 
ing to the necessities of the casting, into frames, (Figure 14, 
AAA) which they completely fill with sand well beaten 
and closely packed (Figure 14, BB). Gates are care- 
fully made and located in order to lead the metal to a more 
important canal which, itself widening, ends in a sort of 
funnel (Fig. 14, C) into which the metal flows, when the 



Fig. 12.— A, neck; jl», . 
DD, partition; EE, stem; FF, thick 

At this point, we recognize the usefulness of the sur- 
plus metal allowed at the joints; for, if the mould be not 
absolutely impervious, the pewter floods in all directions 
and no complete proof can be obtained. 

The fitter files, or planes, the six sections of the walls 
which may be joined perfectly. He measures by compass 
the upper and the lower openings of the model, so that those 
of the casting may correspond exactly. As the bench- 
marks no longer exist, he begins by joining his three sections 
exactly and holding them together with steel clamps so as 
to form a single piece (Figure 16, 11 D D). 

C, core ef the cap; 
lid; G, center- pin of the < 

sand of the frame is very dry, well cleansed and, above all, 
well smoked. 

The founder, having placed the frame in an inclined 
position, firmly grasps the crucible with the tongs, brings 
its edge, or spout, near the funnel of the frame and pours 
out the molten metal constantly and evenly, until it reaches 
the opening of the mold. The operation is now complete. 

Having allowed the mass to cool for several hours, the 
founder breaks open the sand-mould and removes the cast- 
ing, which, if successful, appears covered with an intricate 
pattern of channels (Figure 15, B B). These gates are 
removed with saw or file and the casting is left clean (Fig- 
ure 15, A A A). 

Our five pieces are obtained as well as as the core. 
The core is much the thickest and this portion the judi- 
cious founder will feed by wider gates in order to provide 
it with the necessary metal. 


The fitter finishes the mould. He begins by cleaning 
the separate pieces in diluted nitric acid. He rinses and 

Fig. 13 — A, neck; B B, shape of 
DDDD, bolts; E E E, stems 

re of the foot; 
1 of the neck. 

dries them, and files away the surplus metal which the 
founder removed roughly. The fitter then examines mi- 
nutely the three sections to assure himself that during 
casting, or cooling, they have not changed in form. 

After annealing his pieces, if it be necessary and possi- 
ble, he can rectify them with the hammer, striking them 
on the outside and resting the sections upon lead, or wood. 
He shapes them at the points which, in his judgment, re- 
quire attention; his work with the file having simply re- 
moved superfluous metal. 

Fig. 14 — A, frame; B, beaten sand; C, funnel; D, crucible; E, pincers. 

At the top and the bottom, he perforates the 
metal walls surrounding each section, so as to insert a dowel; 
a kind of round-headed clamp which will project but slightly 
on the inside of the joints of the sections thus united. He 
returns to the two pieces containing the neck and cuts 
with the graving-tool in each flat surface of the neck a 
canal (Figure 17, A A A) which he expands into a funnel at 
the outside of the sections, diminishes progresisvely to- 
ward the inside, in order to lead the metal into the mould. 
But close to the inside edge of the mould, the depth of the. 
channel must be lessened, to allow the flow of metal to be 
broken in the canal when the casting is completed. This 
important point obtained, we can now easily handle the 
mould which has been thus made firm. 

We next place it on the lathe and center it with pre- 

Fig. 15— A A, channels; B B B, piece of 



cision, reducing the plane surface (Figure n, F F) with 
the chisel or other tool to the size of the model. We also 
turn on the lathe the inclined portion (Figure n, G G), 
and we* may .'attempt .to produce the lines of modeling 
which, inside the mould, give the profile of the vase; 
but this last must be done with great discretion. If the 

Fig. 16 — Steel clamps. 

tool can penetrate further than the opening, the shape may 
be "beaten up" by slight taps; the tool being held firm- 
ly and care being taken not to injure the design. Then, 
the mould is turned end for end upon the lathe, and 
the process is renewed. 

The cores are also placed upon the lathe, provided 
that they are successful castings, without air-bubbles and 
holes. The shape of the top and the cap of the base 
are hollowed to receive the ends of the mould, fitting over 
the flat and the inclined portions (Figure 12). 

By passing the tool over the very smooth core which 
must go inside the vase (Figure 12), the workman removes 
enough material to create space sufficient for the pewter to 
flow in and form an object of such thickness as will assure 
a due amount of resistance without excessive weight. 

But the goblet must not be too thin, as the parts in 
bold relief must be held in shape by the solidity of the back- 

The cap of|' the base , which holds the core of the 
foot is treated like the core of the body of the goblet, but, 
in the upper part of the cap, a clamp must be inserted; 
a kind of dowel which will penetrate it. This will support 
the two cores when they shall have been put into their 
respective places and cover the pieces of the mould (Figure 
12, G). 

The caps of the cores must be exactly fitted to the 
parts which they cover and support, but yet they must be 
given a degree of freedom to avoid unnecessary friction 
(Figure 13). The expansion of the metal from the heat to 

Fig. 17 — A A, canal or neck; B B, holes for bolts. 

which they must be subjected, demands this precaution, 
in order that the object may be easily and safely removed 
from the mould. 

The assembling of the mould of the tray mentioned 
at the beginning of this article, offers less difficulty by rea- 
son of its form. It may be effected by turning on 
the lathe. 

With a light stroke of his tool, the turner will sharpen 
the mouldings, if there are any, in the design of the tray. 
He will groove the outside edge, called the margin. (See 
Figure 1, B), to the depth of a half centimeter. He does 
this so that the counterpart may fit in, or over, this groove 
and that the two parts of the mould may turn easily on each 

To stop this rotary motion and to keep the two parts 
exactly in their place, a notch should be made in one on 
the outer edge of the margin and near the neck (Fig. 18, A) ; 
while in the corresponding part of the other piece spirally or 

Fig. 18— A, notch; B, dowel; G G, neck; GB, dowel in notch; 
D, mould put together; E, brace. 

ordinarily riveted, a dowel (Fig. 18, B) is fixed, which abuts 
upon the notch and thus fulfils the desired end. 

As in the case of the core of the goblet, the turner must 
remove with a proper tool a certain quantity of copper in 
order to make room for the pewter which is to be cast. In 
the present case, the counterpart of the tray serves the pur- 
pose of core (Figure 6 I), and it is cut away, as much as is 
needed to give the proper thickness to the pewter proof. 

The measure of the necessary thickness can be gained 
by repeatedly pouring into the mould a readily fusible alloy, 
half tin, half lead, admitted to both parts of the mould, 
which is perfectly closed, heated and lightly covered with a 
kind of coating, or glaze, adapted for use upon inside sur- 
faces. Finally, if judged necessary for the success of the 
piece, a further amount of copper may be removed from 
the core. 

Usually, the mechanic to whom this work is entrusted, 
is a skilled workman who specializes in making moulds for 
pewter, and who must also understand foundry processes, 
as otherwise he would be but the unintelligent adjunct of 
his tools. 

Thus the mechanic and the founder work together, 
each profiting by the observations and experiences of the 
other. In this way they produce excellent moulds and 
assure the success of the objects to be made from them. 


1? *> 


Copper. — If you cannot find copper rivets the proper size for your work 
get copper wire and make the rivets. Silver solder is used for copper though 
you can use a soft solder also. Iron wire for building work while soldering 
comes by the pound and also on the spool, numbers 22 and 28 are the most 

M. B. — You can use cattail leaves for a basket, but the leaves must be 
gathered in August when the tips are beginning to dry. Dry them on a floor 
or shelf, where the sunlight does not come and turn them occasionally so that 
they will dry evenly. When perfectly dry wrap in a damp cloth to make pli- 
able. Sweet grass is more easily gathered and dried. 

E. B.- — Colors for printing on thin materials can be bought by the ounce, 



mix with a little gum tragacanth, and water. To launder printed materials, 
first shake out all dust then soak for an hour in a strong solution of salt. 
Wash with a white soap, and do not boil. 

Leather. — F. W. Devoe & Co., Fulton and William streets, sell a book 
on leather by Marguerite Charles. You will find the information you want in 
this. They also keep tools for leather . All work on leather is generally finished 
before the article is made up. 

J. jft 


K. S. C. — See recipe for making gold for china from gold leaf, Keramic 
Studio, December 1905. 

A.P.K. — A gold coin can be used to make the gold for china decoration 
The powder from a coin will be darker than that from ribbon gold and will not 
need the flux. 

A. J. M. — Rose lustre will easily turn out bluish in firing. It is a sensi- 
tive lustre and should be fired just at a certain point. You probably fire it 
too hard, or it may be affected by other lustres in the kiln. 

S. M. J. — Burnish silver can be bought in powder from any of our large 
dealers. Use the same as powder gold, an underpainting of liquid bright silver 
will help and lessen expense. It should not be fired on the same piece with 
pinks. It would be well if it could be fired entirely apart from the gold colors, 
carmine, rose, etc. 

W. S. W. — It is difficult to say what heat you reach in your overglaze 
kiln, it may vary by 100° F. or more. China decorators judge of the point of 
firing from the color in the kiln. This is guess work and it is impossible with 
guess work to always stop at the same point. Fortunately overglaze colors 
will not be, as a rule, much injured by quite marked variations of temperature, 
and they do not all require the same heat. Liquid bright gold will fire as low 
as 1364° F. (cone 017). Other colors need more, all the way from 1472° F. 
(cone 015) to 1580° F. (cone 013) or perhaps more; it should also depend on 
the kind of ware used, whether hard French china or soft Fnglish china or 
Belleek. China decorators would do better firing if they used pyrometric 
cones, so that, after a little experimenting, they would know exactly where to 
stop. These cones are sold by Prof. Ed. Orton, Jr., of the Ohio University, 
Columbus, O., and cost one cent a piece. 

S. J. — A tankard with dragon handles should be decorated with a con- 
ventional design, using perhaps some of the dragon's parts conventionalised. 
But if you wish to have a naturalistic decoration, we would suggest some of 
the grape studies published in Keramic Studio, for instance in November, 
1907 or January, 1907. 

R. C. E. — The set of tea plates with gold bands and initial letters should 
be worth $10 to $12 a dozen for the work, adding to this the cost of white 
china and gold. The salad dish should be worth altogether $5 to $6. 



Better than six months lessons. Mistakes in firing, glaz- 
ing, grounding, painting, thoroughly explained. Funda- 
mental principles of conventional decorations; gold re- 
ceipt; lessons in flowers, figures, etc.; practically all; also silk painting, oil, 
ate. 75 cents per copy, postage 5 cents. 

Samples of Campana's Colors mailed on receipt of business card. 

D. M. CAMP ANA, J 12 Auditorium Building, CHICAGO 

1\T T2\\ J 10 ° LUSTRE COLORS, combinations with all the latest colors. 
I \ r"^ yy Many new treatments and how to make them. A very interest- 
ing variety of colors, schemes and effects, by D. M. Campana. 
Price 45 cents, mail, 2 cents. 


Mr. Franz A. Bischoff has permanently located in 
South Pasadena, California, where he has opened his art 
school and gallery. 


Owensboro, Ky. 
Since words of praise are always gratifying, let me express my appre- 
ciation for your earnest effort to lead us toward the truly beautiful in our 
work. May success crown your endeavor. Sincerely yours, 

Ophelia Foley 


. in Oil, Water Color and Charcoal. With pleasantest vaca- 
„ J tion surroundings. Terms include board and room. 
>~ =: Co^eshall Camp and Studio, on the beautiful Cape Ann shore. 
Write for booklet. "Cotf eshall," 473 Beacon Si., Lowell, Mass. 





ethe Fines 

pate yourself from th 
■ Higgins Inks 

nd Best Inhs and Adh< 

of c 
nd Adhe; 


ling l 


md adhe: 

At Dealers Gener 

Chas. M. Hi^ins & Co., Mfrs., 271 Ninth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y 

branches: CHICAGO. 


Vase, No. 111-681, 13 in. 
Bonbon, No. 1 Ruth, 4i in. 
Whisky Jug, No. 1052, 11J ii 




Fires perfectly. Exquisite shapes. Low priced. 
Sold by the leading merchants throughout the U.S. 

Have you our white china catalogue? 



26 to 34 Barclay St., New York 


An opportunity you can't afford to miss. 
Preparatory to getting out our new catalog, this 
summer, we have a large number of items which 
we intend to omit from our new catalog, and will 
offer these at the above discount. Send for illus- 
trated sheet, at once, and you will find many 
items of interest to you. 

Put your name in for new catalog 

W. A. MAURER, Council Bluffs, la. 


Agent for Revelation Kilns 

FIRST Supplement to Catalogue D, Color Studies and Designs, might interest voir 
Mailed free on request. Keramie Studio Pub. Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

If you want to get more merit into your painting and pro- 
duce work that sells, send at once for a copy of Colors and 
Coloring in China Painting. This book contains more pointers and information than 
are found in half a dozen ordinary books on china painting. It contains the essence of 
a $20 course of instruction. Price 25 cents, postpaid. Address 

KER/\MIC SUPPLY CO., 658 Lemcke. Indianapolis, Ind. 




China Painting 

a new free working gold. Guaranteed to 
be chemically pure (1000 fine), no alloys 
used in its manufacture. Note prices: 
55 cents per box. $6.50 per dozen boxes 

prepaid to any address. 

We are now offering a new line of 10c china 
colors, "The Erko" brand. Send for special 
introductory price list. 

Erker Bros. Optical Co. 

608 Olive St. 904 N. Grand Ave. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

China Decorators Choose 

from our stock of some five thousand items. 

We fill orders complete on day received. Our prices, with spe- 
cial discounts to teachers and academies, are the lowest. 

- -= ^s-: We Sell - 
Hasburg's Gold for $7.20 per dozen. 
La Croix Colors, 33/4 discount from list, 

and all goods at prices in proportion. 

Ask especially for illustrated list of our New American Ware, 
'warranted to fire. 

Vases as low as 30c. Large Tankards, $1.00 

Let us surprise you with catalog and prices. 

The A. B. Closson, Jr. Co., Cincinnati, Ohio 

Hasburg's Phoenix Gold, $7.20 doz. » 


Ladies, the world over, decorate china — both for pleasure 
and profit — you can do it — have you ever tried; 


with medallion, $1.50 value, | paid 

Every teacher of china painting should sec the "Rochester Fancy Hat Pin." 
Our China Book 19 free (postage 5c) on request. 

GEORGE W. DAVIS & CO., of Rochester, N. Y., since 1888 



Our special importation of Japanese Designs and Prints we offer at one- 
half original prices. When these are exhausted no future orders can be 
filled. We recommend early action. 

JAPANESE BIRDS Nine prints in delicate colors 
. _ TT ~ A -v-r-ni/r * t o and "lack, hand printed on red 
AND ANIMALS paper, formerly $1.50 . . . 

OLD JAPANESE Twelve reproductions of fine old 
rvrcT/~i\Tc designs for surface patterns, for- 
D^MCriNa merlygl.OO 

Sent postpaid on receipt of price 

The Davis Press, Worcester, Mass. 



When writing to advertisers please mention this magazine. 

The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted without special permission. 


League Notes 

Metallic Deposits on Glazes 

Tulip Placque 
Cherry Bowl 

Sagittaria Design for Plate 
Sagittaria or Arrowhead Design for Stein 
Design for the Decorating of China 

Thorn Apple 
Tulip Study 

Happy Study Hours 
Calla Lily Design for Vase 
Calla Lily (Color Supplement) 
The Crafts 
The Making of a Metal Box 

Art in Pewter 

Answers to Inquirers 
Answers to Correspondents 



Mary A. Farrington 


Louis Franchet 


Photo by Helen Pattee 


Ina C. Britton 

B. H. P. 


Alice B. Sharrard 


H. B. Paist 


H. B. Paist 


Caroline Hoftnan 


Chas. Babcock 


M. E. Hulbert 


Nancy Beyer 


Anne L. B. Cheney 


The Happy Worker (Illustrated by Sara Wood Safford) 


Ophelia Foley 


Ophelia Foley 


Dorothea Warren 


M. E. Hulbert 


Edmund B. Rolf e 


Jules Brateau 





We desire to get an expression of opinion from our subscribers and inquirers 
on the subject of a new publication which we are contemplating, devoted to WATER 
COLORS, OIL, PASTEL, CHARCOAL AND PENCIL; in fact, we want to know how much 
support we will get from teachers and students for such a magazine. 

It would be published along practical lines similar to that of KERAMIC STUDIO, 
would contain technical treatments of each study and also contain a color supplement, 
either landscape, figure or study of still life which would be of great interest to teachers 
of art and undoubtedly be of great assistance to them in their lessons. 

It is our purpose, providing we publish such a magazine, to have it strongly 
edited in all departments. 

Do you know of five or more of your friends who might become subscribers to 
such a magazine? If so please send us their names and addresses and we in return will 
send you one of our "color studies for the china painter." To avoid duplication kindly 
state your choice. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

Our Latest 


Keramic Studio 

Second Rose Book 

Fruit Book 


All for $9.00 



Vol, IX. No. 12 


April, 1908 

E have opened in this number a 
new department under the title of 
"Happy Study Hours." It is espe- 
cially for the home workers and 
students who have no access to 
teachers in the larger cities. We 
are sure that these articles are 
going to be very helpful and you 
can help them to be more so by 
writing about your own special 
needs and troubles to the "Happy Study Hours" de- 
partment, Keramic Studio. 

We call the attention of our readers and especially 
would be designers for reproduction, to the letter from the 
Central City Engraving Company's manager; it is re- 
markable how few know the proper way to prepare designs 
for publication. Because a design looks well on Japanese 
tracing paper, or in color, it is taken for granted it will look 
well in reproduction. But the little light or glistening 
spots in the tracing paper all show in the reproduction and 
give a mussy, spotty effect. India ink on Bristol board or 
black and white wash drawings on a smooth paper or, as Mr. 
Minor suggests, sepia, give much the best effect. A rough 
paper shows also the" mottled effect of its little shadows and 
makes a poor reproduction. 

*• «e 

To the Publishers of Keramic Studio: 

Gentlemen — Having had several years experience 
making engravings for your publication, I am satisfied that 
there might be much improvement in the quality of your 
illustrations if the design contributors understood better the 
requirements of the engraving processes to which their 
work must be subjected. In order that justice may be 
done to the efforts of the artist, it seems desirable that we 
"get together" for the mutual good of all concerned. 

That you receive many beautiful studies which are 
desirable copies from the engraver's standpoint, will not 
permit us to overlook the many others from which no 
amount of skill and process handling could ever produce 
satisfactory plates. 

Allow me therefore to suggest that you accept for 
publication in one or two colors, only drawings made in 
monochrome. The best half tones are made from wash 
drawings in sepia with burnt umber for the deeper shadows. 
These wash or brush drawings should be made on a suitable 
surface, not too rough, as the action of the lenses, during the 
making of the half tone negative, will reproduce the grain 
of the drawing board or paper at the same time that they 
reproduce the various shades in the drawing itself. 

Of course when the plates are for supplement subjects 
in colors, the drawings should be made in full color, but for 
reproduction in one or two colors, never. The artist should 
bear in mind the actinic values of the different colors of the 
spectrum in the following order: Violet, Indigo, Blue, 
Green, Yellow, Orange and Red, remembering always that 
the lighter colors visually, like yellow and orange, if put 
into the drawings, will reproduce darker than the colors 

nearer the violet end of the spectrum. Thus the relative 
values olthe different colors in the copy will be more or less 
changed in the reproduction. 

All pen drawings should be made on a fine, smooth 
quality of Bristol board, using jet black drawing ink. 
Occasionally designs made on a rough board with black 
crayon (not pencil) can be reproduced by the engraving 
process with the interesting and artistic spotted effect of the 
copy, but of course this process is to be recommended only 
in exceptional cases. 

Studies should not be made smaller than the size they 
will have in the reproduction. The enlarging of a copy is 
seldom satisfactory. But studies can be made larger than 
the size of reproduction, as they will not suffer from reduc- 
tion in the engraving process, on the contrary will often be 
improved by it. 

Copy should never be folded or creased. 

It might be a good business proposition for the Ker- 
amic Studio to furnish to its art contributors a moderate 
quantity of the proper materials necessary to produce the 
desired effects. 

Should any of your artist friends care enough about 
this matter to take it up personally with me, it will give 
me pleasure to answer any possible inquiries on the sub- 
ject, without further encroacn'ing on your space. 
Very truly yours, 

I. L. R. Minor, 
Central City Engraving & Electro typing Co., 

Syracuse, N. Y. 
*• <f 

The annual exhibition of the National League of Min- 
eral Painters opens at the Art Institute, Chicago, the even- 
ing of April 28th, two days earlier than the date given 
in -February number of Keramic Studio. It will remain 
until May 26th and then will be exhibited in its entirety 
at Burley and Co's. 120 Wabash Ave., for one week. 

The Chicago Ceramic Art Association and the Water 
Color Exhibitions will open the same evening. Members 
of the League may secure cards for themselves and friends 
by applying to the Secretary of the League. The Exhi- 
bition Committee of the Municipal Art League have ar- 
ranged a special Gallery Tour May 14th for the Ceramic 
exhibition at which the President of the N. L. M. P. has 
been asked to speak on Ceramics. These Gallery Tours 
are arranged for the benefit of the fifty-six clubs of Chicago 
and Cook County affiliated with this Exhibition Committee 
and are largely attended by their members. It is evident 
that the interest in Ceramics is increasing. 

Every League member ought to be represented by 
one or more pieces at this exhibition. The honor of having 
one's work pass a critical jury and exhibited at the Art 
Institute is as gratifying to the china painter as to any artist. 
Entry blanks containing directions for sending the work 
have been mailed to every member. Those who wish to 
send work for exhibition in Chicago only should mark this 
plainly on their entry blanks, otherwise they will be sent 
with the traveling exhibition. These entry blanks should 



be mailed to the President of the League previous to ship- 
ing the china. The date for receiving entries at Chicago 
is April 20th. They will be submitted to the jury April 24, 
this will give time to arrange and catalogue them in time. 
It will be difficult to insert other pieces after the cases are 
arranged without destroying the whole effect as the back- 
grounds will be specially selected to harmonize with the 
colors in each case. 

The annual meeting of the League which is open to 
all members will be held at the Art Institute May 5th in 
the morning from nine-thirty to twelve o'clock. After- 
noon two to five o'clock. Amendments to the By-Laws 
will be voted on, also plans for the coming year. Every 
criticism or suggestion which has been or may be sent to 
the Advisory Board in reply to request made in our Finance 
Report issued last June will receive careful consideration. 
The work of the Advisory Board has been arduous the past 
year, made more so by the lack of printed matter. It is 
thought after the annual meeting there will be sufficient 
money in the Treasury to print and distribute information 
in regard to the League and its work in a more business like 

. At the last Advisory Board meeting an unexpected 
enthusiasm was shown, as letters were read and reported 
from different cities showing a great increase of interest in 
the League. At this meeting plans were made for placing 
the study course on a self supporting basis, these plans 
will be presented to the members and decided upon at the 
Annual meeting. We expect a great increase in membership 
from the cities and towns in the middle and far west who 
must look to the greater educational centers like Chicago 
and New York or Boston for expert instruction. 

We hope by July first to have printed statements ready 
to mail to every person whose name appears on our mailing 
list. Any college School, Club or Individual interested in 
designing particularly for ceramic forms will do well to 
request that their names be added to this list. It is crit- 
icism of the highest order that the League offers — helpful 
alike to the professional and amateur. We have members 
who have written us this year offering twice the price of 
our entire course for a single criticism on other than the 
shapes selected by the League. These requests have come 
from members who have studied under good teachers and 
understand the value of our criticisms by Miss Bennett, 
whom we have been fortunate enough to engage for an- 
other year. 

Individual members should watch for the League 
Notes in Keramic Studio, these will keep'them informed on 
all .League matters outside of the Study Course Criticisms. 

It should be evident to all, that the officers of the 
League can not write many personal letters to members, 
to do this it would be neccessary to employ a stenographer. 
This would be impossible without raising the yearly dues 
and this we do not contemplate. These dues of one dollar 
for each member are due May first for the year ending May 
first, 1909. Upon receipt of these dues from members their 
names will be placed on our membership list for the year, 
and literature issued by the League will be sent as soon 
as published. New members are required to pay an init- 
iation fee of two dollars in addition to the yearly dues. 
This initiation fee is not required from members of affiliated 
clubs of five or more League members. Application blanks 
for membership will be mailed upon request. 

Mary A. Farrington, 
41 12 Perry Ave., Chicago, 
President of N. L. M. P" 

Large Sevillian panel, XVI century, in the Metropolitan M 
by courtesy of the Museum. 



Louis Franchet 
I have prepared a translucent glaze fusing at 970 C. 
(Seger cone 09), which I will call glaze A, and which is com- 
posed of: 

Quartz 12 

Sand of Decize 20 

Kaolin from Eyzies 2 

Cornwall stone* 10.5 

Red lead 30 

Cristallised borax 19.2 

Cristallised boric acid 2 

Dry carbonate of potash 2 

Sodium chloride 1.8 

This mixture is ground, sifted through sieve No. 6o, 
fritted and then ground wet. 

With this glaze A I made the following combinations : 

No. 1 a 

Glaze A 100 

Kaolin 10 

Silver carbonate 2 

No. 3a 

Glaze A 100 

Kaolin . 10 

Subnitrate of bismuth 4 

Silver carbonate 2 

Copper carbonate 1 

No. 5a 

Glaze A 100 

Kaolin 10 

Copper sulphide . . 0.3 

Silver sulphide 2 

No. ia 

Glaze A 100 

Kaolin 10 

Zinc oxide 1 

Tin protoxide 1 

Silver carbonate 0.5 

Copper oxide 3 

No. 4a 

Glaze A 100 

Kaolin 10 

Silver carbonate 2 

Copper sulphide .... 2 

No. 6a 

Glaze A 100 

Kaolin. 10 

Zinc oxide . 1 

Tin protoxide 4 

Copper sulphide .... 0.5 
Each of these glazes is ground with gum tragacanth 
which makes it possible to apply it evenly over the ware. 
It is applied like any other glaze with the brush or the 
atomizer, or by dipping. The fusibility may be increased 
by reducing the amount of kaolin or decreased by the addi- 

*Cornwall stone or pegmatite should not be confounded with feldspar. 
It is a mineral similar to feldspar but richer in silica and less fusible. 



tion of five to eight percent alumina. Similar glazes may- 
be prepared for gres and porcelain. 

I fired these glazes in an ordinary muffle, provided at 
the base of the chimney with a damper, which closes hermet- 
ically to prevent the oxygen from the air combining with the 
carbon monoxide during the reduction. 

When the temperature at which the glaze is developed 
is reached, I let the fire go out and the muffle cool down to a 
red glow, when I give the reduction or smoking according 
to the method which will be described further. 

With these metallic glazes the variations in color of the 
metallic deposits are much more sensitive than they are 
with the metallic mixtures applied over the glaze according 
to the old process. With glaze No. ia I was able to study 
the changes produced by the longer or shorter time of the 
reducing action, and to understand how in the XVI century 
the golden, yellow and brown tones of the iridescent faiences 
of Diruta were produced. The time of reduction was 
certainly very closely watched by Xanto and Giorgio 

Thus glaze No. ia passes through five different stages: 

First stage — Brass metallic tone. 

Second stage — Gold metallic tone. 

Third stage — Yellow brown tone, few metallic reflec- 

Fourth stage — Blackish brown tone, few metallic reflec- 

Fifth stage. Black tone, no metallic reflections. 

The gold tone of the second stage has such a remarkable 
brilliancy that it may be taken for gold. But when gold 
itself is introduced into those glazes in any form it does not 
seem to have any action whatever. 

In the three last stages the metallic brilliancy disap- 

pears but if the ware is fired again in an oxidizing at- 
mosphere, and then submitted to a new reduction, the 
metallic reflections will reappear either with the brass or 
the gold tone. 

Glaze No. 2a retains the copper appearance with varied 
iridescent reflections caused by the presence of silver oxide. 

Glaze No. 3a shows the intense action of bismuth oxide, 
as it always has a strong blue tone which entirely overcomes 
the colors determined by copper and silver oxides. This 
blue glaze is generally mat with a more or less marked 
mother of pearl effect; when combined with glaze No. ia 
it gives a green metallic deposit of very brilliant color hav- 
ing also nearly always a mother-of-pearl effect. 

Glazes No. 4a, No. 5a and No. 6a give deposits with 
very brilliant and varied iridescent reflections. No 6a is 
generally mat. 

I have also tried these glazes, using in place of metallic 
salts the corresponding minerals, replacing subnitrate of 
bismuth by bismuthine (Bi 2 S 3 ) and the copper compounds 
by chalcosine (Cu 2 S ), covelline (Cu S ), chalcopyrite 
(Cu Fe S 2 ) and philippsite (Cu 2 Fe S ). The deposits were 
good but generally of a darker tone. We know that the 
old potters prepared their copper and silver sulphides them- 
selves, as is shown by the manuscript of Martinez de Frugo. 

Some Italian potters who work in the Golfe Juan and 
Vallauris potteries introduce into their mixtures pulverized 
charcoal or bone black, but this substance does not seem to 
have any particular action, neither has the use of copper 
sulphate instead of copper sulphide. 

The many experiments which I have made convince me 
that free sulphur or sulphur combined with the metals is 
not absolutely necessary (formulas Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and ia, 
2a, 3a), neither is ochre (formula No. 6). Cinnabar has no 

Hispano Moresque plates in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, by courtesy of the M 


action Silver and copper may be used either as oxide, favorable to the production of iridescent reflections, the 

sulphide, carbonate, arsemate, phosphate, chromate or any more so as they have a natural tendency to become irides- 

orgamc salt; however, when these metals are combined with cent by themselves under the influence of atmospheric 

sulphur, the deposits have a red tone which is produced agencies. 1 

only exceptionally in other combinations. Silver chloride firing and reduction 

may be used, but, as it is volatile at a very low temperature, >m,~ ^ • e . A n- j 

tii B «c,iitc «v.+™„Li ui.ii *. 4. * j £ clctLUlc > The firing of metallic deposits requires great care, he- 

me results obtained with it are not constant and it has some 4-U if U" i_ J i. • 1 

a ^; rt « «t™- m ,«-™«„4; • t t. i jii.u«wu«: cause the ochre mixture which determines them must not 

action over surrounding pieces. I have also tried arsenic u ■ x j • ^ ^i -■ i • , 

, , Q+1+ ; m „„ ;„ j-«r * t- ^ t . i be incorporated into the underlying glaze, and on the other 

and antimony m different combmations but without anv i i +v , , ir . ■ j L rd • ,, ,. . , 

results <-"uul t"y hand the meta n lc coat must a( jhere sufficiently not to be 

,«„•*.*.*«„ ~^ ~ ^ «„ rubbed off by contact with hard substances. 

GRINDING OF THE METALLIC MIXTURE nl . ,. . .,-. , ,< ^ . . . . Jf . 

^ Old potters, notwithstanding their empirical methods, 

I have tried to find out what could be the action of fired to the right point, as can be seen from the many speci- 

vmegar which the Moors used in their grinding, especially mens they have left us, on which metallic deposits have re- 

so as this tradition has been faithfully preserved and the sisted the wear of age very well. 

Italians who work in the Golfe Juan and Vallauris potteries Having used a glaze the point of fusion of which is 
are convinced that it is absolutely necessary in order to ob- 99 o° C. (cone 08), I have observed that the point of firing 
tain successful results. I have prepared the Moresque must not exceed 650 C. (cone 020), otherwise the ochre 
formula and divided it into five parts which I have respec- mixture is incorporated into the underlying glaze, 
tively ground with vinegar, gum tragacanth, dextrine, When the metallic mixtures are introduced into the 
essence of turpentine and fucus. x I have applied these glaze (formulas 1a to 6a) the firing is carried first to the 
different mixtures on the same piece of glazed faience and point of fusion of the glaze, cone 09, but the reduction is 
have found that results were identical in every case. There made in the same manner as in the first case. The muffle 
is consequently no reason to use vinegar, which was formerly is left to cool down to red glow, about 500 C, then the 
used for lack of a better product, as ceramic colors are al- reduced firing is given, care being taken to keep the temper- 
ways more easily applied when added to some organic mat- ature as uniform as possible all the time, 
ter in place of water. In practice gum tragacanth and fucus Old potters had realized how important it is to have an 
are the most convenient and should be generally used. even distribution of the reducing gases, and as they could 
The metallic mixture is applied over the glaze to the not obtain such regularity in their primtive kilns, they had 
depth of about one and one-half millimeter, and very varied made a kind of inside muffle or cylindrical box in refactory 
iridescent color effects may be obtained by making, for in- clay, the sides of which were pierced with many holes. This 
stance, a design with a copper mixture and covering the was enclosed in brick masonry' built around it at a distance 
whole piece with a silver mixture, or vice versa ; the design of about fifteen centim. , so that the reducing gases emanating 
will appear in more vigorous tones and these tones may be from the fire mouth at the bottom might penetrate into the 
varied ad infinitum by the superimposition or juxtaposition box through the holes. Piccolpasso has given in his manu- 
of the different mixtures. script many figures illustrating the details of this contriv- 
influence OF THE UNDERLYING glaze ance, and Passeri gives us a rather thorough description of 
The glaze or enamel over which the mixtures for metal- e . r . m &' . . , , „ 
lie deposits are applied plays an important part in the final ; . " ; the vases ' after bem S drawn from thekiln 
result. The underlying glazes which are the most favorable (meaning the second or glaze firing) were touched with the 
to the production of brilliant deposits are those containing red colo f and fired for the t third time in a muffle kiln A 
oxides of copper, cobalt, iron, antimony, nickel and chrome, cestone or large vase m the shape of a basin pierced a l 
especially in presence of tin and lead. The Moors evidently over ™ th } oles > and filled ™ th vases colored wlth ^ red ' 
knew this for they always applied the iridescent mixture was P lac ^ d m ^ he klln - , The finn S lasted S1X hours > not 
over white and blue plumbo-stannif erous enamels. more and was done with broom wood. ' ' 

The glazes which must be used in preference to all Thls tradl ^on has been preserved to our day and mod- 
others are green and turquoise glazes of copper, and the e ™ P ott f s use the made muffle described by Piccolpasso, 
blue ones rich in cobalt. At Golfe Juan and Vallauris the als ° USe broom f ° r fu ^ . J have P roved b f °" " that metal- 
former are generally used. hc de P°"ts can be obtained m any kind of a muffle and 
The finest ruby reds are applied over a green glaze wr * an ^ kmd of fl ? eL / have used ^ m ^ «penments an 
corresponding to • ordinary muffle with a damper at the base of the chimney, 
Feldsoar 7 and m order to have the muffle hermetically closed, I had 
q , ' ' this damper made of cast iron and sliding closely into iron 

Sand of Decize iq grooves. When it is closed, the gases coming from the fire 

Carbonate of potash 6 mouth pass between the brick sides and the muffle proper, 

Carbonate of soda ...'.' " .' '. 5 penetrate, through the evaporation hole of the vault, into 

-n 1 1 1 the firing chamber, then go out through the spy hole, which 

Conner oxide <; ls * e ^ °P en ' except when the reduction is made with gas or 

This mixture is thoroughly blended, then fritted and sugar compounds _ 

j , The Italians, from information which Passeri borrowed 

ground wet. 

Very fine Color effects are Obtained over a turquoise 1. There are at the entrance of the Villa des Dunes, at Cannes, on the Med. 
glaze Which has been Splashed with Spots of a grey Or Celadon iterranean shore, twelve jardinieres in red glaze of chrome, which bore no 

glaze made from nickel Oxide. trace of iridescence when they were placed there, about 1890. They are 

Lead glazes colored red by chrome oxide are also very t0 " da y as iridescent as if they had been submitted to the action of «- 

ducing gases. They were made by a pottery which never manufactured 

1. Fucus crispus is much used by European ceramists who call it lichen. It iridescent ware. 

is a sea weed very common in European waters 2 L. Franchet — Les lustres a reflets metaUiques, Paris, 1896. 




(Treatment page 296) 



from Piccolpasso, also used for the smoking process broom 
wood, the green branches of which burn with much smoke. 
Martinez de Frugo's manuscript does not mention the fuel 
used by the Moors, but we find this information in the ac- 
counts of the Duke of Berry's tile manufacture in Poitiers, 
for which, as I said before, he had hired the services of a 
Moorish potter "Jehan de Valence, ovrer de carreaux", 
who ordered to be brought from Mintre "des fagots de genet" 
(sticks of broom wood). These accounts have been pub- 
lished by Mr. Magne. 

I have given much attention to this question of broom 
for fuel, as it was evidently considered by the old potters 
as absolutely necessary for the development of metallic 
deposits. I have tried a number of organic matters and 
have found that results were identical to those obtained 
with broom. Coal however has the great disadvantage of 
increasing the heat too much, a thing which it is important 
to avoid in this work. Ordinary green wood burns irregu- 
larly and the formation of gases is at times slow, at other 
times intense. Tar, petroleum, resins and oils are very 
good, because they give an abundant smoke without rais- 
ing the temperature in any noticeable way. Pieces of 
wood, paper or rags may be saturated with tar or oils and 
thrown into the fire mouth which is still hot enough to 
develop a strong formation of hydrocarbons, without gener- 
ating flames. 

However the best process consists in the use of ordinary 
illuminating gas, but the reduction then is so intense that 
the operation must be watched with great care. The 
muffle I use in this case has its sides pierced with four holes 
(two on the left side and two on the right), having twenty 
millimeters in diameter and placed three centimeters above 
the muffle bottom. With a large muffle kiln, the number 
of holes should be increased to six, eight or ten. These 
holes are closed with clay during the first part of the firing 
to cone 09. Close to the outside walls of the kiln runs a gas 
pipe, supplied with as many valves as there are holes in the 
kiln walls. When the time has come to reduce, small iron 
pipes, attached to the valves with rubber tubes, are intro- 
duced into the holes so that they will protrude inside the 
muffle to a distance of about two centimeters from the in- 
side wall. After the tubes have been introduced, the 
holes must again be carefully closed with clay, to avoid a 
gas explosion which might be produced by the mixture of 
air and gas, or the combustion of the gas. Generally there 
will be some flame produced at first, because of the air in 
the muffle, but as soon as the oxygen is absorbed, the com- 
bustion stops. 

Six cubic meters of gas per hour should be used for a 
muffle having one cubic meter capacity. 

The time of reduction is of great importance, since the 
color of the metallic deposits depends upon it entirely. We 
have seen that silver mixtures will, according to the time of 
reduction, pass from brass yellow to brown, then to black. 
Passeri says that the third firing lasted six hours, not more, 
but this evidently included the firing proper, which takes 
about three hours, so that the reduction must have lasted 
about the same time. 

I have obtained metallic deposits as brilliant and clear 
as the old ones, with the use of coal, tar, petroleum, oils and 
resins, and I have brought down to two hours the time of 
reduction, but this operation was conducted with great 
regularity and there was no stop in the formation of hydro- 
carbons. With vegetable fuel, three hours at least are 
necessary. I have kept the reduction during five, eight and 
ten hours ; the metallic deposits have become very dark, but 

not black, as happens with illuminating gas, when the re- 
duction lasts only 35 to 40 minutes. 

It is very difficult to study the different stages through 
which metallic deposits pass, when an ordinary fuel is used, 
on account of the length of time, but with gas the reduction 
is over in ten minutes and must not exceed thirty minutes, 
as above this limit the metallic effects and iridescence dis- 

There is still another way to obtain the deposits. It is 
the introduction into the muffle, at the time of reduction, 
of some sugar compound. This is done through an open- 
ing either in the walls or the vault. The temperature of 
the muffle is high enough to allow an abundant formation 
of gases, without burning the sugar too rapidly. The 
operation must last at least two hours. This method is very 
simple, but the results are uncertain. 

To sum up, the best and most practical reduction is 
obtained with illuminating gas. 


The iridescent glaze formulas 1 a to 6a come out of the 
muffle after reduction with brilliant iridescence and do not 
need any polishing. It is not so with deposits formed over 
the glaze (formulas 1 to 6). These do not exactly need to 
be polished, but they are covered with the ochre mixture 
which has helped their formation and which is more or less 
adherent according to the more or less intense firing. This 
covering is easily removed with a wet cloth, and, if necessary, 
some finely ground sand. The metallic iridescence then ap- 
pears in all its brilliance. 

This ochre residue coming from the scrubbing of the 
ware, is rich in copper, silver or bismuth oxides, and was, as 
we have seen, called by the Moors "scoria" and was used 
to be added to the next metallic mixture. 




Incised and glazed in soft green. 




No. 1 — Deep Ivory tone all over for first fire. Put a touch of Black in the tint. Execute the design in two tones 
of dull Peacock Blue (Blue Green with a touch of Black and Royal Green.) 

No. 2 — Deep coffee tint (Yellow Brown with a touch of Black) Design in same Peacock Blue as scheme No. 1. 

*This design was sent in competition signed with initials B. H. P., but the name of designer has been lost. 

2 8o 



The Bowl should be a soft grey outside, with a lining of orange or yellow lustre. The ground of the border, cream 
with design in grey green and soft browns with gold or red outlines. Cherries should be shades of yellowish brown. 


Ivory tint over all, leaving flowers white; Grey Green background, Yellow Brown stamens and pistils; outline of 
purplish brown or gold. 





Dull yellowish olive over all, Neutral Yellow or Yellow Brown with a touch of green and black; design dull olive, 
with a touch of Black, light panel back of flower a lighter tone of olive; dark panels dull brown, Violet of Iron with 
Yellow Brown; flowers, pale Violet of Iron; outline Violet of Iron. 



A study taken front 

i publication called "The Kokka" found i 
Museum of Art 

the Metropolitan 


Caroline Hojman 

SECOND PAPER— Continued 

Now without following any of these designs, but simply 
by remembering our principles and putting ourselves into 
the spirit of the work, let us see what we can do that is 
wholly our own. 

Try again and again, with ink and a brush, touching 
your designs in freely on a big sheet of paper until you have 
a dozen or more, and keep your whole attention fixed on 
the effort to follow principles and to produce a beautiful 

Something which I feel will be of help to you in mak- 
ing designs from flowers motive is to notice the strong con- 
trast which nature usually, not always, shows between the 

shapes of the flower and the leaf belonging to the same plant. 
Take any familiar flower, — rose, lily, violet, — they are all 
examples of this peculiarity which is such an advantage in 
a decorative way, giving us an opportunity for the contrast 
which is one of the important elements of decoration. 

Often a beginner in design, in dealing with small forms, 
will unconsciously allow his leaves and flowers, or his leaves 
and the petals of his flowers, to take on much the same shape 
and appearance, thus making the design very monotonous. 

Of course in designing we sometimes need the repeti- 
tion of the same form, or similar form, in leaf and blossom, 
and nature is not without authority for this, but a designer 
must use them with purpose and intention, and not through 
lack of care. Often we can reach good decorative results 
by exaggerating, somewhat, the relative sizes of flower and 
leaf, where the design is quite an abstract one. It gives an 
opportunity for subordination of sizes which we can all 
study out for ourselves. 

In trying to simplify flower-forms you will find certain 
Japanese books which can be had for very little money that 
are filled with suggestions. 

Taking for granted that by this time we have at least 
a dozen little designs before us, rather roughly spotted in, 
from which to choose, let us decide which are the best, and 
then try still farther to improve them. Pin a piece of 
tracing-paper firmly down over the selected units, and still 
using brush and ink , see what you can do to improve them 

From an Old (Textile 



_. ; . . .. _ 

Byzantine Ornament 

From an Early Florentine Textile 



farther. Sometimes a very slight change of spacing in a 
small design will so alter it that it is like a new pattern. 

Since we are spending this time in study we can afford 
to work over our designs, to trace and retrace them until 
the shapes and the spaces are what we want, for all this is 
training in appreciation. Do not rest until you have made 
a beautiful little seal, which you can use on a bit of china, 
and can feel is quite your own ; one that you' know has some 
solid merit, and is the very best that you can do. And 
you must use it in one of the ways that have been suggested. 
Have the object it is intended to ornament before you when 
you plan the seal, so that you can plan it with direct rela- 
tion to that object. If you want to use it to decorate the 
cover of a small box you must consider just where the seal 
will be most effective; and you may have to plan some 
nicely spaced lines around the edge of the cover in order 
to make the whole composition a good one. Do not try 

to use more than one color in the seal, as it would not lend 
itself to anything but the simplest treatment. 

There have been periods when the designers of tex- 
tiles put into their work the very qualities that at the 
present day we are seeking for our ceramic patterns; that 
is, abstract design, yet with the fine graceful movement 
that nature gives us in her line construction. Two of the 
illustrations of this article show textile designs of early date 
which are excellent studies in line movement as well as in 
space-division; and abstract as they both are in treatment 
you cannot imagine their having been designed by persons 
who have not studied nature carefully, and thoroughly 
learned to appreciate her forms. 

We, too, can learn to express fine pattern in our floral 
designs, with dark and light effects that have a purpose 
and meaning. Then we shall use our flowers in good dec- 
oration, free and graceful in curve and strong in construction. 


Pale cream color (Ivory Glaze with a little Yellow Brown). Two tones green, outlines gold or Deep Green. 

CALLA LILY — Ophelia foley 







(Treatment page 286) 



Nancy Beyer 

FIRST fire — Background, Pearl Grey; leaves, Apple 
Green and Grey Green in shad ows| only, leaving the 
china white on the high lights, deepening the color in shad- 
ows with Gold Grey and a very little Ruby for the darkest 
touches, put in the shadows of the flowers in the sketchy 

way, shadows Air Blue and very little Brown Green, warm 
the petals with very little Rose or Peach Blossom used very 
thinly leaving the china for high lights. Stamens, Apple 
Green tone with a very little Yellow Brown, with touches of 
the same on the stems. 

Second fire — Tone the whole thing with Pearl Grey 
and very little Gold Grey, just a touch, wiping out the 
pinks and when the color has fired out use the same colors 
used before, use Shading Green where necessary, fire. 

Third fire — Deepen colors where they have fired out, 
soften andi^draw them together where necessary, adding 
the darker touches. 

This tulip study could be applied to a panel and the 
soft grey background shading gradually from top to bottom. 
The treatment I have here given is for a decorative study 
of the tulips, as the tulips suggest that, in the way in which 
they have been treated in the pen and ink. 
■f *? 

Mrs. A.L.B. Cheney. 

AFTER dividing the bowl, trace the design and outline in 
Japanese ink. If the bottle ink is used, it may fire in 
when the color is dusted over it. Place medallion at three 
points on outside of bowl, trace and outline. Apply special 
oil and, after a few moments, pad evenly. When thor- 
oughly dry, dust with equal parts Ivory glaze and Grey 
Green. Clean out the design and fire. 

Second fire: Apply special oil on spaces representing 
the design, pad and dust with 4 parts Empire Green, 1 part 
Brown Green; clean out the background. Medallions on 
outside treated in same way. For lines enclosing center 
figure, for bottom of bowl inside, use same combination 
of Brown-Green and Empire-Green. 
** *• 

Mrs. A. L. B. Cheney has removed her studio from 106 
Broadway to 82 Broadway, Detroit, Mich. She will hold 
in her studio during the Holy Week an exhibition and tea, 
the exhibition including a large variety of craft work. 

Mrs. Henrietta Barclay Paist of Minneapolis, has moved 
her studio to her former home, 2298 Commonwealth Ave- 
nue, St. Anthony jPark, St. Paul Minn. 


Ophelia Foley. 

TINT with Albert Yellow; clean out lily; paint leaves 
and stems with Grey Green, Albert Yellow with Yellow 
Brown on tips of lilies ; outlines in Grey Green with a touch 
of Black. After firing, tint all over with Pearl Grey. Clean 
out the lily, slightly shading with Pearl Grey and fire. 
Strengthen color if necessary in third fire. 
•f •? 

THORN APPLE (Page 285) 

Maud E. Hulbert 

THE petals of the blossoms may be shaded with Warm 
Grey and Brown Green (or Grey for Flowers.) Use a 
little Silver Yellow in the centers and Apple Green and 
Brown Green for the little new leaves. The stem may be 
painted with Finishing Brown, Deep Blue Green and 
Yellow Ochre and the ground with Copenhagen Grey and 
Blue. Very light washes of Deep Blue Green over the 
petals in some places add to the effect of whiteness and 
over others use a wash of Ivory Glaze. 






'. - 



IN the beginning let me tell you that I know all about 
the struggle of the china decorator in a small town, 
— the discouragement that comes from the lack of oppor- 
tunity to study with one's "ideal" teacher, the necessity 
of doing pot-boilers all the while, that the purse may not 
be quite empty from the demands upon it, and the contend- 
ing against the unsympathetic attitude toward one's work 
of other members of the family. I've sent china to be fired 
and wept at the disappointing results. I've carried home 
china to be fired after a long day's teaching and ached and 
wept again from fatigue and worry. Will you then be- 
lieve that I want to help all you workers who feel 'far away 
and out of it? Will you feel free to write of vour vexing 
problems, whether they be of a purely technical nature or 
the sometimes delicate matter of arranging and managing 
classes large or small in or out of your own studio ? 

I realize that many workers and teachers honestly 
think they haven't time or money with which to study. 
But study doesn't necessarily mean going to the city to 
work in some private studio or school. It may mean just 
looking with loving interest and thought at what nature 
has surrounded you with. Do more than look at it, work 
with it. I never feel that I'm working alone and without 
help when I'm drawing a lovely flower or fruit growth. 
There is something about the very life of it that seems to 
give new strength with which to work, while the beauty 
of it rests and soothes one. 

Don't feel unhappy if your first drawing isn't "pretty." 
If you've drawn the "facts" of the growth, your mind and 
your folio are enriched for all time. You don't know T where 
or when you may use the drawing, but believe me, it will 
be well worth treasuring, and even if you should lose it, 
you'll have it always in your mind. When I was living 
as perhaps you are and didn't know much about drawing 
pencils or water colors, I drew and painted a clover. It 
didn't make a "hit" with the family, but this was one of my 
first brain children and I protected it as one does an ugly 
unfortunate little thing, and brought it with me to the 
city. It was six years before I again had an opportunity 
to paint a clover from nature. In all that time I scarcely 
saw one, but I used it successfully as a decoration many 
times in those years, because I had the picture in my mind, 
and the facts on paper, and my despised little old study 
probably has helped to pay many months' rent. Aside 
from the joy of drawing a thing while the life is in it, be- 
lieve me it pays. 

But we all would do so much more studying, we think, 
if we only had time. At this studio we are gaining time. 
Bet me tell you how. We were all much impressed by a 
story, in one of the Christmas magazines, which described 
a little boy whose father on the eve of his departure for a 

*Mrs. Sara Wood Safford has been engaged to illustrate these articles. 

long stay abroad, gave his son in parting a "Happy Day." 
On that day the dear old lady in whose care he was left, 
was to dress him in white and put bright pennies in his 
pockets and he was to be free from work or care and just 
be happy, and all his life he was to keep that day while. 
We all wondered how it would seem to have a whole day a 
week on which we were not to work or worry, but to play 
with the things we'd be happy with. We thought it over, 
found we were "grown ups," needing bright dollars in- 
stead of pennies, but we decided to try happy hours. It 
has worked. It is a badly paying profession indeed, or a 
good profession badly managed, that will not admit of one 
hour a week off. Even in that time you'll be surprised at 
what you can do. Save it for what you want to do most. 

A little drawing, perhaps the carrying out of some nice 
design you think won't sell, but will satisfy your hunger 
for something quiet and better. Even if you only do one 
piece a year, do it! Each quiet, thoughtful happy hour of 
chosen work will bring you rest, courage and a better un- 
derstanding and appreciation of all the ideas developed 
by your fellow workers in the craft. I've tried all the 
things I am suggesting. In that other more quiet life I 
didn't name my study days and hours. I know now, 
though, that they were happy ones and feel that some of 


the impatience and discontent might have been curbed 
had I been told of a happy way out. Of course one's studio 
day seems to" have no end, but I decide now that it shall 
have, and at the close take my happy hour. It may seem 
that I accomplish very little, I may have nothing to show, 
for perhaps I have talked my hour out to a girl who must 
make money and while a spendid student, liking to develop 
and apply only the best in quiet conventional designs, she 
cannot always satisfy her patrons with this work entirely 
or in the necessarily higher price for it. One hardly dares 
breathe the word naturalistic, but after looking through 
some fine old Japanese prints and books we decided that 
all naturalistic work is not necessarily bad, any more than 
all conventional design is necessarily good. So we planned 



something that we thought could honestly be called the 
decorative arrangement of a natural growth. The girl 
used all her knowledge and feeling of spotting and spacing 
in applying the drawing and was happy, with her problem. 
As a result she "held up" her customers. , 

Here is the idea and if you are getting ready for an 
Baster^sale it may have come just in time. Tint a per- 
fectly plain shallow cup and saucer with yellow lustre, 
being careful to pounce it until firm, then tint the under 
side of the saucer and inside of the cup with orange lustre 
pouncing until light and even in tone. Before applying 
any lustre you will of course wipe over a surface with lav- 
ender oil, and where the lustre to be pounced is a thick 
sticky one, such as orange or yellow brown, leave the sur- 
face quite moist with lavender oil and work the lustre in 
it. The color will then hold open long enough to enable 
one to produce, with the pounce, a firm even tint. 

A soft yellow single rose was chosen as the decoration 
to be applied upon the fired lustre background. The 
drawing was kept in harmony with the lines of the cup and 
saucer, and the colors were laid quite flatly, toning with 
the delicate yellow and orange. In a second working a 
thin tint of yellow lustre was washed over the orange lustre, 
softening and mellowing all together. The rose growth 
was sketched as crisply as possible that very little if any 
touching up was needed. There is always so much danger 
of working the life out of a flower, leaving it a stupid un- 
interesting decoration. Both cup and saucer were rimmed 
with gold and the handle was made solid gold. 

The first one was so popular that the girl did six more 
and a sugar and creamer to match. I suggested an oval 
brass tray for them all and the result was a lovely bright 
harmonious set. They didn't pretend to be so awfully 
serious, but they were honest sunny little cups with a per- 
fectly lawful decoration. 

It has taken a whole bunch of my happy hours to write 
all this, and won't you let me know if you think I can help 
you a bit? 

The Happy Worker. 

Same color scheme as supplement. 




Maud E. Hulbert 

'"T^HE petals of the cowslip are a very glossy and brilliant 

A Yellow, use Silver and Orange Yellows or Lemon and 

Albert Yellows, with deeper yellow centers for which use 

the same yellows and some Yellow Ochre. The stems are a 

light green and show that the cowslips grow in damp places 
for they look as though they held the water. The leaves 
are glossy and dark but are much lighter and greyer on the 
underside. Use Yellow, Moss and Deep Blue Greens, Brown 
Green and Shading Green; Chocolate and Chestnut Browns 
with Ochre and Warm Grey might be used for the ground. 


COLOR scheme — Grey tone over all. Bands and outlines, 
Copenhagen Blue. Leaves and stems, Apple Green thin. 
Berries and spots in band, Orange or Albert Yellow toned 

with Yellow Brown. A touch of Violet may be added to 
the Copenhagen Blue if desired, and a touch of Royal Green 
added to the Apple Green. 





Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 232 East 27 <th Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered tender "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

-.-/:. ---; ■YTrnrnoM them fitting into each other (Fig. 2). If you saw a little 

outside of your lines, a common flat file will be useful to 
give them a snug fit. Assemble the sides on a piece of the 
wood and when the corners are at right angles draw a line 
about the lower edges to mark the dimensions of the bot- 
tom . Saw this out and bevel each edge ; similarly the lower 
edge of each of the sides. This will allow of the bottom 
being let into them. (Fig. 3) The cover is made in prac- 
tically the same manner as the body, except that the sides 
will require but one section removed from the ends (Fig. 4). 
At this time saw out the places for the lock and hinges. (Figs. 
5 and 6). 

When all joints fit per- 
fectly, glue them in position 
and securely tie or clamp 
together. Leave till next 
day when the glue will be 
thoroughly set. 

When it is ready for 
further work, go over it 
with emery paper and files 
and see that it has a good 
even surface. Round each 
edge slightly and the metal 
will have no sharp edges 
when the finished box is 

A hexagonal box, as Mr. 
Cooper's, here illustrated, 
would require slightly differ- 
ent treatment. The sides 
are cut of the same size and 
their edges bevelled with a 
small shooting plane. The 
top of the cover is made of 
one piece and the plane used 

Metal Box with wood lining. Courtesy of International Studio 


Edmund B. Rolfe. 
r I ^HE first box to be described, is, in fact, a wooden one, 
-i- covered with thin metal inside and out. The wooden 
frame gives the necessary strength and allows the use of 
hinges and a lock that can be procured at most hardware 
stores. It allows, too, a different treatment of the metal 
than can be obtained from the handling of heavier metals, 
and this treatment should be taken advantage of when the 
design is first thought out. The rectangular box illustrated 
shows one way of using this method. 

Having procured a piece of good, tough, well seasoned 
wood, preferably mahogany, of 1-4 or 5-16 of an inch in thick- 
ness, depending on the thickness of your lock and widthTof 
your hinges, draw an outline of what is to be the front piece 
of the body of the box, repeating same dimensions for the 
rear piece. The two end pieces should be laid out the full 
width of the body as the corners will fit into each other and 
will require no allowance made for the thickness of the front 
and rear pieces. 

Mark on each end of each piece, a line, the thickness of 
the wood, removed from the edge. Divide it in five equal 
parts and extend lines from these points to the edge. 

Metal workers probably will not have the tools used by 
cabinet makers but some of the metal working tools can be 
used making the wood lining and they will be mentioned in 
their proper places. For the work just given the metal 
piercing saw (Fig. i) can be used. 

Remove alternate sections from the ends to allow of 


to give it the proper shape. The rim of the cover is cut and 
glued on, the sides and bottom bevelled and all glued to- 

To cover the rectangular box with metal select a piece 
of No. 30 gauge soft copper that has a pleasing texture. 
It can often be procured with a fibrous surface, caused by 
impurities in the metal when rolled. The purer grades 
come with a smooth surface which is very uninteresting. 
Thejr can be improved by hammering the metal on a piece 
of smooth flagstone, with a round headed hammer, first 
covering the metal with a piece of sheet lead about J inch 

~fi<rOMZ 5~ 

MtJgE % 



in thickness. The texture of the stone reproduces itself on 
the metal providing it is thin soft sheet. The heavier 
metals do not lend themselves to this process. Sometimes 
pieces of cast iron, have a texture that will look well on 
copper when worked in this way. 

A little experimenting will probably reveal other sur- 
faces that can be used also. The requisite requirement is 
that it be firm enough to withstand the hammering. Cau- 

tool and as it is difficult to buy one of the required shape, 
the method of making it will be given. 

Forge or file a piece of £ tool steel, shape the end as 
Fig. 8, cut off five inches. Hold the shaped end in the fire 
and allow it to heat to a cherry red. A white heat will 
spoil the steel. Immerse it vertically in water to cool it 
rapidly. If the steel was really tool steel and had not been 
heated too much, it should be impossible to make any im- 
pression on it with a file. It is now too brittle to be used 
with safety, so must be tempered. Rub the hardened end 
on a piece of emery cloth until it is bright about an inch 
and a half from the end. Heat it at the junction of the 
polished and unpolished surfaces and watch the colors of 
the films that form. As the heat is conducted to the end, 
the films disclose the temperature of it. The first film is a 
pale straw color, followed successively by yellow, orange, 
red, purple and blue. When the purple film has reached 
the tip immerse the tool in the water again. Polish the 
tool by rubbing it in a crevice in a soft board that has had 
some rouge sprinkled on it. 

(To be continued.) 

tion must be used, that it not be overdone. What is 
wanted, is an unobstrusive surface that will break the glare 
of a smooth piece of copper, and give a semi-mat texture 
that will look as if it had always been there. A careful 
study of Japanese metal work will be a help in learning the 
right use of textures. Matting tools generally give a 
labored effect which is bad. 

Cut with the shears a strip of sheet metal that will 
wrap once around the long way of the box, allowing a 
quarter inch lap on one end, while there is an allowance 
of enough metal on the upper edge to bend until it reaches 
the inner lining. As the piece will cover the four sides and 
contain all the decoration of the body, the design should be 
worked out at this time. First fit the strip carefully on, 
allowing the lap to be at a rear corner. Gently tap the 
metal over the keyhole with the mallet which should give 
the outlines of it. With a piece of soft wood rub the metal 
at each corner of the body to make it fit snug. This will 
also outline the dimensions of each face of the body and 
show how much space is to be used for the decoration of 
the faces. Then remove the strip and lay on a pine wood. 

If you have decided to use a line effect for your decora- 
tion, relying on a harmonious proportion of spaces, the 
lines should be drawn on the inner surface of the strip with 
a sharp point. They are then worked over with a chasing 



Fig. No. 19— A, Engraver's ball B, Free space 
Leather cushion EG, Engraver's tools F, Han 
the handle of the mould. 

r mortise CC, Walls of ball D, 
ner HH, Steel jaws I, Hole for 



Jules Brateau 

Box in Shagreen and Metal. By J. P. 

Courtesy of International Studio. 


At the end of the various phases through which the 
mould of the goblet has passed in most rational succession, 
there remains another process quite as important as the 
others, and the final one; that is, engraving and chiseling. 
This constitutes in itself a peculiar art, which, with rare 
exceptions, can be practised by specialists only. 

The engraver opens the mould, removes the cores and 
shapes; retaining on his bench only the three parts of the 
mould proper, on which the design appears in hollow. 

He sets up the model before him, together with the 
three plaster sections which were used in the founding 
process. He uses an engraver's ball (Fig. 19 A) ; its top end- 
ing squarely and cut out deeply, leaving a sort of mortise 
flanked by thick walls (Fig. 19 C), one of which is pierced 
by two thumbscrews passing through the middle space and 
striking upon the opposite wall. The lower part of the ball 
rests upon a leather cushion, on which it can turn in any 
direction. The whole forms a kind of anvil which may be 
inclined at any angle, and therefore greatly facilitates the 

The engraver's tools consist of small curved files with 

2 94 


both ends cut for use (rifflers), (Fig. 20 , AA), graving tools 
of all sizes (Fig. 19, E), blunt at one end for the hammer to 
strike upon or else having a handle to be held in the palm 
of the hand, like those used in other kinds of engraving 
(Fig. 20, B B B ), a hammer (Fig. 19, F) and chasing tools 
in great variety, applicable to all kinds of cavities, and which 
the workman must finish, even often create for himself. 

Surrounded by his tools, the engraver begins his task 
by examining minutely and working upon the inside of the 
parts which come together. 

His experience guides him, and the little tool marks 
left here and there by the turner, indicate that although 
the mould seems perfect, it has bent at certain points, espe- 
cially at the extremities. It has a tendency to curve in- 
ward at the edges, as if it had contracted. 

Fig. 19 2 and 19 3 — AA, Steel jaws BB, Iron wedges 

The workman takes two sections of the mould and joins 
them by pushing the round-headed dowels until they pros 
ject slightly beyond the interior of the walls. Having this 
point of support, the sections remain strictly in their place. 
Holding them firmly in his hands, the engraver inserts them 
in the space hollowed out at the top of the ball. He tightens 
the screws, and the sections closely joined are thrust against 
the side of the ball opposite the screws. The two sections 
of the mould, so held, must vibrate slightly when struck 
gently with the hammer (Fig. 19 2 ). 

With file or chasing tool the engraver begins to work at 
the juncture of the two sections, following the vertical and 
circular lines of the cylinder and attempting at first only 
to give the general outline. 

Having used the chasing-tool for the heavier part of 
the work, the engraver now takes a fine file, somewhat flat 
and bent, and with this instrument smooths his rough 
sketch. He treats in the same way all three sections of the 

Comparing the model with the plaster moulds, the 
engraver cuts and rectifies with the graving and the chasing 
tool the parts of the design which stand along the division 

lines, and have been adapted to the demands of casting, so 
that they may be joined easily. 

Having made the joints perfect, he smooths the neigh- 
boring ground, as well as the whole inside surface of the 
mould with a stick of wood dipped in a mixture of pulver- 
ized emery and oil; or a tool of red copper, adapted to the 
form of the background, can also be used for this purpose. 

The engraver may complain of the smallness of the 
opening through. which his hand must pass; for the mould 
being divided into three pieces, there really remains but one 
passage, whose diameter is one-third the circumference of 
the goblet. For this reason, the division into four sections 
is more convenient, but the artist will overcome the diffi- 
culty with the patience which he has shown on other oc- 

Having unscrewed the grouped sections, he takes them 
one by one, holding them by the handle, (Fig. 19 3 , see ex- 
planation later) and, inserting them in the engraver's ball, 
he continues the engraving and chasing. 

In figure work, at the extremities of the bodies, the 
strokes of the tools must be given with extreme care; for a 
single moment of carelessness, or a blow of the hammer 
wrongly directed, may spoil the entire piece. 

Returning repeatedly to the model for comparison, 
the artist skilfully finishes what the graving tool and riffler 
were not able to accomplish. He thus passes over all the 
sculpture, giving it greater animation, correcting the draw- 
ing which the process of casting may bave injured, but, at 
the same time, handling judiciously the points of accent, 
since too much emphasis may result in exaggeration and 
accidents almost beyond repair. 

Fig. 20— AA, Rifflers BBB, Burins (general term) C, Chisel D, Burin K, Gouge 


Fig. 21 — Steel jaws, soft temper A, Inside B, Outside 

As a rule, in making a piece mould, one should begin 
to work at the joints of the section, so that the general 
form may be perfect; afterward, the details of engraving 
and chasing which extend to the centers of the sections 
should be given attention. 

We might here make numerous observations upon the 
difficulties to be encountered in the course of this work, but 
the obstacles are never the same. The engraver and chiseler 
who is often a skilful artist in these two branches, must 
meet them when they present themselves. 

The tray is also placed on the engraver's ball, with its 
handle held tightly between two steel jaws (Fig. 21); the 
surface of the latter which is in contact with the object 
being coarsely cut after the manner of a file. By the aid of 
iron wedges, the piece is held with absolute firmness (Figs. 
19 2 , 19 3 , A A ,B B). As the handle is often too long for 
height of the space hollowed in the ball, a hole is pierced in 
the height of the space hollowed in the ball, a hole is pierced 
in the middle of the mortise, upon the flat surface of t lie- 
ball, so as to afford room for this part (Fig. 19, I). 

As in the case of the goblet, the workman begins by 
cleaning the background with a hard file, or the graving 
tool, he smooths the work, and follows in the main the 
processes already described. 



The moulds being finished, the engraver closes them, 
covering the ends with the shapes and the caps fur 
the goblet, and with the counterpart for the tray. He 
ties them solidly and they are taken to the worker in pew- 
ter, to whose studio we shall follow them. 

On entering the workshop of the founder, we observe 
first of all a stationary, isolated furnace (Fig. 22). It sup- 
ports a strong iron pot in which the metal is melted (Fig- 


Fig. 22 — A, iron pot; B, circular table, flat rim; CCC, iron 

22, A). The edge of this kind of crucible is level with the 
flat top of the furnace, which serves as a circular table (Fig. 
22, BB). 

The furnace is heated with charcoal, wood, or petro- 
leum; the combustible itself being unimportant, provided 
that the resulting heat be strong enough to produce fusion, 
easy to control and of sufficiently long duration. 

On the furnace there are ladles of various sizes, having 
small spouts or beaks at the sides (Fig. 22, C). Near the 
furnace and in the heat lie several lingots of pewter, all of 
the same alloy which the founder has chosen to adopt; these 
lingots being provided in order to maintain without inter- 
ruption the same quantity of molten metal, and in case of 
too great heat, to lower its temperature. 

These variations are recognizable by the founder; the 
metal when too hot, changes color. It becomes yellow and 
blue, it wrinkles and develops at the surface a more abun- 
dant froth, which is removed and set aside. Formerly 
metal in fusion was covered with pieces of charcoal, which 
were put on and taken off, according as it was desired to 
hasten, or to retard liquefaction. 

Near the furnace stands a gas, or a charcoal stove, used 
to heat the separated parts of the mould. When these sec- 
tions reach the required temperature, they are glazed, and 
securely put together, so that the pewter may be poured 
into the thus completed mould. 

Subjoined are the principal alloys for pewter, with a 
statement of their qualities : 

I. White, pliant, vibrating, sonorous: 
Pure tin (Banca, Malacca, Detroit, 

etc 90 parts 

Regulus of antimony 9 parts 

Red copper 2 parts 

II. Having nearly the same properties as the first: 
Pure tin 88 parts 

Regulus 9 parts 

Red copper 3 parts 

It is possible to vary these alloys, but the formulae 
just quoted give good results in artistic pewter work. 
Other names could easily be given, but I do not think it 
possible to vary greatly from these quantities, if the metal 
used be genuine tin. 

Subjoined is the formula used by the pewterer Salmon 
in 1780; the metal, in this case, was desired to be pliant and 
malleable : 

Pure tin, 100 pounds 50 kilos 

Reddish copper, 1 pound 500 grammes 

Bismuth, \ pound 250 grammes 

Not far from the furnace stands a solid table with 
strong legs, upon which to take apart and put together the 
moulds. A basin holds the glaze which is applied with a 
soft brush to the inside walls of the mould, so as to prevent 
the pewter from adhering to the copper. 

This liquid glaze is composed of red, or yellow ochre, 
or of light clay, etc., finely pulverized, and capable of re- 
maining insoluble in a large quantity of water. 

We also need clamps, and spring-pincers which seize 
the extremities of the mould and tighten them; for it is 
important that the cores do not separate and loosen the 
shapes, which must be strongly held. 

l^^TThe instruments which serve to hold the moulds in all 
their parts, vary according to the forms of the latter. It is, 
above all, necessary that they be easily applied and re- 
moved, because the process of casting is rapid. 

Several mallets of soft wood to aid in removing the 
piece from the mould, must be within reach of the hand; as 
also a pointed knife with dull blade, together with pieces of 
felt cloth for holding the heated object. 

All these accessories are useful, for they aid in remov- 
ing the parts, which after the casting, would press too 
tightly on the shapes, or at the neck. 

Fig. 23— Pincers for moulds, 



At the foot of the table a tub of rather hot water is 
placed, together with a swab of cloth, or a swale. 

Each part of the mould warmed upon the stove, is 
sufficiently heated when a drbp of water thrown upon it 
crackles and evaporates. Another test is made by apply- 
ing a piece of cold pewter, and if this melts, the mould is too 
hot, and must be allowed to cool somewhat. 

With a light stroke of the mallet the workman fastens 
to the stem of each section a short, rounded piece of wood, 
which allows the part to be handled easily. Then each sec- 
tion, when warmed, is drawn near the vessel containing the 
glaze, and coated quickly with the solution of ochre; 
shapes, caps and funnels or necks, care being taken 
to make the coating of the same thickness on the flat sur- 
faces as in the hollows. To do this a hard brush will be 
found serviceable. 

Now the workman quickly puts the mould together 
without striking the pieces; taking first the principal core; 
the stem of the shape lying on the table. Then, putting 
the pieces in the frame, each in the place which it is to oc- 
cupy, he covers the whole with the caps that is, the 
core of the foot of the goblet. Next, rapidly turning the 
pieces on one another,he makes sure that they fit precisely 
and he tightens the whole with pincers, or clamps, accord- 
ing to the nature and the form of the mould. He places 

Fig. 24 — Example of pincers applied to the mould of a spoon (from Salmon's treatise, 
1788). aa, pincers; be, handle; C, dowel; AB, mould, opened; D, pewter proof as 
it comes out of the mould. 

the mould so that the neck or funnel is at the top, and 
that the pewter may be easily poured into it. The mould 
is kept on the bench in the correct position as above in- 
dicated. With his free hand the workman takes a ladle 
large enough to contain the metal necessary for one object, 
and he dips it into the molten mass, which has been thor- 
oughly purged of foam and left bright and clear. Resting 
the spout of the ladle upon the edge of the neck, he fills 
the mould until the metal reaches the surface. He waits a 
few moments, and if the metal sinks by thickening, he adds 
to it. He pours what remains in the ladle back into the 
crucible and lays the former upon the circular table. Now, 
taking the swab and squeezing from it the surplus warm 
water, he applies it first on one side and then on the other 
of the mould, especially at the juncture of the neck with 
the object, since that is the hottest part. This he continues 
to do for some time, tapping over the whole mould. The 
cooling process may be accomplished also by compressed 
air brought through a tube ending in a nozzle. 

The cooling is indicated at the mouth of the funnel, or 
neck, when the pewter loses its brilliancy and whitens. 

Illus. No. 56 — Pewterer pouring pewter into the mold of a tray^held by pincers 
(from Salmon's Treatise, 1788). 

The casting is finished. 

If the moulds are small, they can be held between the 
knees of the founder. This manner of casting is employed 
for casting spoons. 


•f & 

Horn is carved with gravers. Look for the grain and before working 
soak it for several minutes in very hot water. Carve your design on the 
curved side, it will be easier to shape. Tortoise shell can be bought in blanks 
, the size and shape the comb is to be. It is carved also with gravers, a metal 
saw is also used the same way as for metal. A maker of tortoise shell combs 
will polish and shape the comb. He will also cut the teeth in it much more 
easily having all the proper equipment. The tortoise shell must be kept in 
salted water for a time before it is carved. 

Mrs. C. F. O. — Try the recipes given for making colors in the article on 
Batiks, by Theo Neuhuys, in the May issue, 1907. They are non -fading and 
I should think could be used with a block. 

M. I. — Ivory can be dyed by any of the ordinary methods used for silk 
and wool, though it must be perfectly clean before it is put into the dye bath. 
When it is taken out of the boiling hot dye it should be plunged immediately 
into cold water to prevent the chance of fissures being caused by the heat. 
Bone for ornamental purposes is treated in the same way. 

Mrs. F. J. M — Niello or black inlay for metals comes in sticks like seal- 
ing wax. Send to J. Kricue, 88 John St., New York City. If he cannot sup- 
ply you he probably can tell you who can. 

T. C. C. — Soft copper and brass can be obtained from Patterson Bros., 
Park Row, New York City or Hungerford U. T. Brass & Copper Co., Pearl and 
Park streets, New York City. 

M. B., East Liverpool — The tjanting or wax vessel spoken of in the 
article on Batiks is made of brass. * It is not probable that they are made in 
this country, but a tinsmith could make one from the illustrated sketch in 
the May Issue. He could better tell you about the cost of it. 

*" «** 

SAGITTARIA (Page 277) 

(Photograph by Helen Pattee) 

Henrietta Barclay Paist 

THE Sagittaria (Arrowhead Lily) flower is pure white 
with yellow center. For the panel a soft greenish 
grey, made by tinting delicately over a grey tint with Moss 
Green, will make a pleasing background. 



For the design use three tones of green, leaving flow- 
ers white with the yellow centers. The paths around the 
design are of Silver or Green, Gold outline for the last fire 
with a Dark Green or Black line. For the green mix 
Grey Green and Dark Green. Tint and dust the back- 
ground to make it stronger; the leaves need not be dusted. 
The Grey Green alone, or tinted lighter, will make the 
lower panels. The stamens of the flower are Black or 
Dark Green. 

This treatment will require three fires._Tht design 
is intended for a cylindrical vase. 
•p # 

F. L. W. — The snow study in Keramic Studio could be rendered by- 
shading with Copenhagen Blue with Violet, leaving the china for high lights. 
The branches should be a purplish brown, use Banding Blue, Ruby and Yel- 
low Brown with Black in shadows. Make the sky a Grey Blue with a touch of 
Blue Green. Be sure that your branches are not hard at the edges. 

Mrs. D. G. — We can make no exceptions about answering ques- 
tions. These are answered only .in the magazine. In executing the plate 
with the wheat border in gold, the narrow black band inside rim should 
have wheat in gold, in which case the design must be picked out before firing 
and the gold applied for a second fire, or the design may be applied in raised 
gold where the paint has been removed, and gilded in a second fire. A gold 
band with the design in white picked out or in white enamel would also be 
good. In any case the band must be well dried and the paint removed from 
the design before further treatment. 

C. F. B. — Yes. Lustres may be used upon Belleek. 

F- D. — Lustre comes from the kiln spotted when dust has been allowed 
to settle on the china before firing. Also it is caused by moisture in the kiln. 
Usually, however, it is caused by dust and is prevented by drying the lustre 
rapidly in a clean oven or over an alcohol lamp and wiping carefully with an 
old silk rag before firing. You will find the subject of lustre decoration ex- 
haustively treated in the Class Room articles Keramic Studio, February 
and March, 1906. 

. To mend a broken piece of china, the piece must be taken out and 
the cement applied, then put in place and tie with asbestos cord if it will not 
stay of its own weight. 

See article in this number on preparing designs for illustration. 

M. C. — When the peep holes of the kiln are not left open long enough for 
the moisture to escape, it condenses on the china leaving a light spot with a 
rim of darker color, an effect similar to that made by spattering drops of al- 
cohol before firing. 


I consider it by far the most helpful and up-to-date paper, published on 
the subject. I hope my delay in sending in my subscription will not make 
me lose any of the numbers, for my file of Keramic Studio is one of my 
most valued possessions. Edna Hough, 

Morgantown, W. Va, 


p3^w°l° r £? veltie ? i? r decorating poems, booklets, symphonies, blotters, etc. 
Pyrography novelties and things of interest to the maker of all sorts of novelties. Send 
1 cent for catalogue. Maud Crigler-Ande. son Say brook. III. 

: ) in Oil, Water Color arid Charcoal. With pleasantest vaca- 
t- ; turn surroundings. Terms include board and room. 

Coggeshall Camp and Sludio, on the beautiful Cape Ann shore, 
rite for booklet. "Cotfeshall," 473 Beacoo St., Lowell, Mass. 

W. A. Maurer, Council Bluffs, la. 

A. H. Abbott & Co., 151-3 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

Hirshberg Art Co., Baltimore, Md. 

Erker Bros., Optical Co., 604 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo. 

The A. B. Closson, Jr. Co., 110 W. 4th St.; Cincinnati. 

Traxel & Maas, 206 W. 4th St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Lee Roessler, 109 South High St., Columbus, Ohio. 

Kurtz, Langbein & Swartz, 606 Wood St., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Fritzsche & Kleasen, 42 E. Eagle St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Dodd-Rogers Co., 1936 6th Ave., N. E., Cleveland, O. 

Art China Co., 120 Broadway, Detroit, Mich. 

Detroit Photo Supply Co., 31 Grand River Ave., Detroit. 

The Banner Bazaar, 5th and Jefferson, Dayton, Ohio. 

W. H. Schaus, 29 South Limestone, Springfield, Ohio. 

The Snook Company, Wheeling, West Virginia. 

The A. B. Whiting Paint & Glass Co., Topeka, Kans. 

The Carl Graham Paint & Glass Co., Wichita, Kans. 

The Geo. B. Peck Dry Goods Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

The Fair, State, Adams and Dearborn Sts., Chicago. 

S. H. Knox & Co., Kansas City, Mo. (2 stores). 

Gimbel Bros., Milwaukee, Wis. 
These colors are imported. Standard, guaranteed to give satisfac- 
tion or monev back, and include all the 40, 50, 60, 75 and 85c colors, all 
the Lustres, Liquid Bright Gold, Matt Burnish Gold, Pallette Knife, 
Four Instruction Books, all for, each 

Sold by 



in of outi.tcte 

3 rings as airove 104 


TW T pTT T THE TEAClibK Ur LrilftA rAlMlINU, by U. M. Oampana. 

IX^ H W/ Better than six months lessons. Mistakes in firing, glaz- 
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ceipt; lessons in flowers, figures, etc.; practically all; also silk painting, oil, 
ate. 75 cents per copy, postage 5 cents. 

Samples of Campana's Colors mailed on receipt of business card. 

D. M. CAMPANA, 112 Auditorium Building, CHICAGO 

[^ £^ yy Many new treatments and how to make them.^A very interest 


nbinations with all the latest colors. 

ing variety of colors, schemes 
Price 45 cents, mail, 2 cents. 

md effects, by D. M. Campana 

Contents (in part) 

"Aesthetic Training," by Dr. James 
P. Haney. 

'Art in Industrial Development," bv 
Halsey C. Ives. 

Paintings Sold at Auction, 1905-07. 

Art Books Published 1905-1907. 

Reports of Art Museums and So- 

Tabulated Reports of Art Schools. 

Directories of Painters, Sculptors, 
and Illustrators; and Writers and 
Lecturers on Art. 

american Hrt annual 

Cloth 8vo; 480pp. 
Frontispiece and 32 Illustrations. 


Hmerican BrtHnnualflFnc.) 

20 W. 34th St., New York 

| White China 
I for Decorating 

D. & CO 

If you want the best Quality, Shapes, Results 

in Firing % 


New Catalogue just issued, will be sent on application. Goods must fy 
be ordered through nearest local dealer. J 


Endemanra £» Churchill 


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New York 


When writing to advertisers please mention this magazine 




Are the Fir 

Emancipate yourself fror 
and adopt the Higgins Ii 
they a 

t Inhs and Adhesives 

id ill-smelling inks and adhesives. 


nil be 

At DealersiGenerally. 

Chas. M. Hi^ins & Co., Mfxs., 271 Ninth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y 




Vase, No. 111-681, 13 in. 
Bonbon, No. 1 Ruth, 4i in. 
Whisky Jug, No. 1052, Hi in. 



Fires perfectly. Exquisite shapes. Low priced. 
Sold by the leading merchants throughout the U.S. 

Have you our white china catalogue? 



26 to 34 Barclay St., New York 


The paste must be well mixed with clean turpentine- 
free from all moisture— to the consistency of color. Apply 
with clean brushes used for gold only. Scour with a glass 
brush or burnish with blood-stone or agate. Unfluxed 
gold should be used over coior or paste. 


Council Bluffs, Iowa 

Have you tried 

Equal to any 75c Gold 
on the market both in 
quality and quantity. 

50c a box 

Special jyices in 50 and 
100 box Mfc. 

Send <f§ the names of 
FIVE tochers of your 
acqudftft**nee and we will 
send you TEN mineral 
transfers free of charge. 

W. A. Maurer 

Council Bluffs 

FIRST Supplement to Catalogue D, Color Studies and Designs, might interest you' 
Mailed free on request. Keramie Studio Pub. Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

PHITV A P A TfHTFttC If you want to get more merit into your painting and pro- 
tilllll A I Alii 1 JuRJ duce work that sells, send at once for a copy of Colors and 
Coloring in China Painting. This book contains more pointers and information than 
are found in half a dozen ordinary books on china painting. It contains the essence of 
a $20 course of instruction. Price 25 cents, postpaid. Address 

KERAMIC SUPPLY CO., 658 Lemcke, Indianapolis, Ind. 




China Painting 

a new free working gold. Guaranteed to 
be chemically pure (1000 fine), no alloys 
used in its manufacture. Note prices: 
55 cents per box. $6.50 per dozen boxes 

prepaid to any address. 

We are now offering a new line of 10c china 
colors, "The Erko" brand. Send for special 
introductory price list. 

Erker Bros. Optical Co. 

608 Olive St. 904 N. Grand Ave. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

China Decorators Choose 

from our stock of some five thousand items. 

We fill orders complete on day received. Our prices, with spe- 
cial discounts to teachers and academies, are the lowest. 

^e^= We Sell = 

Hasburg's Gold for $7.20 per dozen. 

La Croix Colors, 33% discount from list, 

and all goods at prices in proportion. 

Ask especially for illustrated list of our New American Ware, 
warranted to fire. 

Vases as low as 30c. Large Tankards, $1.00 

Let us surprise you with catalog and prices. 

The A. B. Closson, Jr. Co., Cincinnati, Ohio 


FINE retail white china business for sale. Only 
store of kind in city. Controls city trade, also 
large out-of-town trade. Studio in connection. 
Good reason for selling. For particulars address 

care of Keramie Studio Pub. Co. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 


Our special importation'of Japanese Designs and Prints we offer at one- 
half original prices. When these are exhausted no future orders can be 
filled. We recommend early action. 

JAPANESE BIRDS N™ prints ^delicate colors 



and black, hand printed on rice 
paper, formerly $1.50 . 

Twelve reproductions of fine old 
designs for surface patterns, for- 
merly $1.00 


Sent postpaid on receipt of price 

The Davis Press, Worcester, Mass. 


When writing to advertisers please mention this magazine. 


Manufacturer of 



fcnamnl Color for overglaze in Powder and prepared in Tubes. Oils, Brushes, China, 
Medallions and Buttons in great variaty. 

ESStiSSiiSA* l W N. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

,/WOH*VSBFE f.^ CO, 

&TTABlJVt1RD *8J8r 


Are the titles of some of our booKlets that will be 
sent you gratis if you are interested. 

Keramic Studio Pub. Co. 


For Firing Decorated China, Glass Etc. 

ASK FOR IBSifl More easily and eco- 

COMPLETE jJKMLl nomicafly fired than 

^M||j|lfaBgL any China Kiln 

:ATALOGUE ,Ji mk. made." 





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Agents for Keramic Studio publications: "Keramic Studio 
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and every requisite for China Painting. 


Send for Catalogue. Agent for rVe-velation tlilns. 

t. COOLET, Prop.. 38 Tennyson St.. Boston. Established I860 


have been on the market for twenty years. 
We make them. Get catalogue and prices. 


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Combination Contract — 1* x 3* Card and Directory 

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For Amateur Paintere can be had of 
Dealers in over 600 different shapes. 
Catalogue sent on receipt of three cents postage. 

THE WILLETS M'FG CO., Manufacturers 



has REMOVED to 
41-43 West 25th Street 


To their large stock of china painting 
materials they have added a full line of ma- 
terials for oil and water color painting and 
charcoal drawing. These materials are 
listed in their new catalogue, which will be 
sent to those mentioning the "Keramic 
Studio." ...... 










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